II. Раскройте скобки, используя Participle I или Participle II.Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

II. Раскройте скобки, используя Participle I или Participle II.Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.



Example: (Heat) magnet loses some of its magnetism. – Heated magnet loses some of its magnetism

1. (Distribute) computing will eventually make the traditional, signal mainframe computer obsolete.

2. Conductors are the materials (have) high conductivity.

3. Larger networks of computers (link) together in local, national and international systems become now available.

4. The (penetrate) power and other characteristics of X-rays make them extremely useful in medicine.

 

III. Перепишите данные предложения, подчеркните в них независимый причастный оборот. Переведите предложения письменно.

Example: The day being hot, they decided to go to the river.

1. The temperature increased, the resistivity of the semiconductor decreases.

2. The research work fulfilled, we decided to publish the results.

3. The first communications satellite launched, the satellite wireless industry exploded.

4. The experiment having been finished, the results of it were discussed and analysed.

 

IV. Прочитайте и перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, к какому типу условного предложения относится каждое из них. Переведите письменно предложение.

Example: Ice will turn into water if you heat it. – Условные предложение I типа. – Лед превратится в воду, если его нагревать.

 

1. If an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is developed in our country, the subscribers will have the complete spectrum of telecommunications services.

2. The machine wouldn’t have been broken if all the safety measures had been taken.

3. Perhaps, the reaction would proceed if we added some water.

4. Could the observations have been proved theoretically , they would have advanced our knowledge in the field of space research.

 

V. Прочитайте текст. Постарайтесь понять его содержание. Выполните задания после текста.

Analogue and Digital Electronics

1. The first electronic devices invented and mass produced were analogue. However, as time progressed digital circuits have become predominant in electronics. It is important to note that analogue and digital devices are the same, the only difference is the way they represent and process information. The same basic components can be used for analogue or digital circuits.

The main differences between analogue and digital electronics are listed below:

2. Noise: Because the way information is encoded in analogue circuits, they are much more susceptible to noise than digital circuits, since a small change in the signal can represent a significant change in the information present in the signal and can cause the information present to be lost, corrupted or otherwise made useless. In digital electronics, because the information is quantized, as long as the signal stays inside a range of values, it represents the same information. This is one of the main reasons that digital electronic circuits are predominant. In fact, digital circuits use this principle to regenerate the signal at each logic gate, lessening or removing noise.

3. Precision: A number of factors affect how precise a signal is, mainly the noise present in the original signal and the noise added by processing. See Signal to Noise Ratio. In digital electronics it is much easier to have high precision signals than in analogue electronics, because of the way information is represented and how noise affects digital and analogue signals.

Speed: This is where analogue electronics really outshines digital electronics. Analogue circuits are several times faster than their digital counterparts. Depending on the operation, analogue circuits can be several hundreds or hundreds of thousands of times faster than digital circuits. This is because information in digital circuits is represented by bits, while in analogue electronics it is represented by a property of the signal itself.

4. Bandwidth: Simply put, bandwidth is the amount of information a given circuit can cope with. Again, analogue circuits have much more bandwidth than digital, and can process/transmit more information in the same time.

Design Difficulty: Digital systems are much easier and smaller to design than comparable analogue circuits. This is one of the main reasons why digital systems are more common than analogue. An analogue circuit must be designed by hand, and the process is much less automated than for digital systems. Also, because the smaller the integrated circuit (chip) the cheaper it is, and digital systems are much smaller than analogue, digital is cheaper to manufacture.

Notes:

predominant главенствующий
incode шифровать, кодировать
quantize квантовать, разбивать на подгруппы
logic gate логический элемент, схема
precise точный
outshine затмить, превзойти
bandwidth ширина полосы частот

 

II. Укажите какие из данных утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста.

1. The first electronic devices invented were digital.

2. The difference between analogue and digital electronics lies in the way they represent and process information.

3. Digital circuits are more susceptible to noise.

4. Analogue circuits are several times faster thaт their digital counterparts.

5. Digital systems are much easier but bigger to design.

 

III. Выберите правильные ответы на вопросы.

1. What electronic devices were invented first?

a) digital;

b) analogue;

c) ICs.

2. What are the main differences between analogue and digital electronics?

a) They concern noise

b) They concern noise and bandwidth

c) They concern noise, bandwidth, precision, speed and design.

3. What are the perspectives of analogue circuits applications?

a) They will continue to reduce.

b) They will increase.

c) They will be replaced by digital ones.

 

IV. Прочитайте предложения. Выберите правильный вариант перевода.

1. Because of the way information is encoded in analogue circuits, they are much more susceptible to noise than digital circuits.

a) Из-за способа шифрования информации в аналоговых схемах, они более чувствительны к шуму, чем цифровые схемы.

b) Потому что информация шифруется в аналоговых схемах, они более чувствительны к шуму, чем цифровые.

c) Аналоговые схемы более чувствительны к шуму, чем цифровые из-за способа шифрования информации.

2. Analogue circuits are several times faster than their digital counterparts.

a) Аналоговые схемы во много раз быстрее, чем их цифровые копии.

b) Аналоговые схемы во много раз быстрее, чем их цифровые аналоги.

c) Аналоговые схемы во много раз быстрее, чем их цифровые дубликаты.

3. Digital systems are much easier and smaller to design than comparable analogue circuits.

a) Цифровые системы намного легче и меньше проектировать, чем соответсвующие аналоговые схемы.

b) Цифровые системы намного легче и меньше, чтобы их проектировать, чем соответствующие аналоговые схемы.

c) Цифровые системы намного легче и меньше , чем сравнимые аналоговые схемы.

V. Переведите на русский язык абзацы 3-4.

 

Вариант 5

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, является ли подчеркнутая форма инфинитивом, причастием или герундием. Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.

Example: The falling water has kinetic energy. Falling – Причастие I. Падающая вода обладает кинетической энергией.

1. Testing the new model, the group used the most modern methods of control.

2. Fax machines work by converting text and graphics into a series of electronic pulses.

3. It has been recently reported that the results satisfying the experimentator were obtained.

4. Both X-rays and light travel in straight lines in the form of related electric and magnetic energy.

5. A channel is a division in a transmission medium so that it can be used to send multiple independent streams of data.

6. The discovery of the electron is sure to have led to a revolution in physical science.

 





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