Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
КОНТРОЛЬНІ ЗАВДАННЯ ДО УРОКІВ 5 – 6
a) to expect, to break, to choose, to guess, to investigate, to prove, to process, to check, to gather, to fix, to explore, to give up, to predict, to restrict
b) definition, requirement, output, input, feedback, amount, source, circuit, accident, trap, key
c) whole, even, common, exact, particular, pure, strict, willing
Завдання 2а) Складіть якомога більше словосполучень з поданими нижче словами:
design, mistakes, statement, development, research, problem, input, cycle, engineer, system, rocket, data, model, scientist, modem, strategy, definition, information, achievements, sources, solution, output, correction, age, necessity, computer, services, science, identification, production.
б) проаналізуйте та дайте переклад поданих нижче словосполучень, які складаються з трьох іменників, діючи за такою схемою:
research strategies development,
design information sources,
information analysis stage,
problem input cycle,
design strategy definition,
research data analysis.
Завдання 3Перекладіть подані нижче речення рідною мовою:
1 Always use the guards on each machine. Keep hands and fingers away from all moving parts.
2 Technology is growing at an exponential rate. It is doubling every few years. To make it even faster, the time it takes to double is getting even shorter.
3 Three – dimensional graphs can make it easier to understand information.
4 Solar panels help to solve the problem of using fossil fuels like gasoline.
5 The energy produced by the sun can charge batteries to power electric vehicles.
6 Saving our world is a problem we all need to work on.
7 Solar – powered vehicles can help to save our environment.
8 The steps of the problem-solving strategy can be used to help you solve problems by learning from past experiences and mistakes.
9 This knowledge can then be used to change or improve technology that already exists.
10 You are not forced to “re-invent the wheel” each time you want to begin a project.
11 Only a few hundred of the thousands of human – made objects in space today are considered working spacecraft.
12 Liquid crystal battery testers change color to show if the battery is strong or weak.
13 About a century ago skyscraper construction was made possible through the use of steel framing.
14 The world’s tallest self-supporting structure of any kind, anywhere, is a TV and radio transmission tower in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
15 Asking “what-if” questions helps open your mind.
16 Now anyone can use calculators without special training, and anyone can afford to buy one.
17 Some technologies have changed to better meet our needs.
18 It is easy to see how the speed of technology has increased when you chart it on a type of graph called a timeline.
19 Being able to communicate with others is a very important skill that you work with in all your subjects.
20 You also must know how to enter the information correctly into the calculator or computer.
21 The fast food industry has used technology to help make food as efficiently as possible.
22 Every fast-food restaurant must try to keep costs down to be competitive.
23 It is important to exercise both your muscles and your brain.
24 The study area should include a place to write, a light, and a place for a computer.
25 One of the most important abilities for you to develop is being adaptable.
26 Being adaptable means you can change your work skills without difficulty.
27 You learn the main skills needed to do a specific job as you are doing the job.
28 The special chocolate bars are supposed to hold their shape at temperatures of up to 140 F.
29 Tying all the subjects that are learned in school together makes learning fun for students.
30 Part of your job as a member of society is to evaluate technology’s effects on you and on your environment.
31 Geographic Information System can be used to predict and to visualize millions of pieces of information that would otherwise be impossible to understand.
32 Silicon, the best ingredient for making computer chips today, also turns out to be a great material for making mechanical parts.
33 Researchers can build micromachines using the technology developed to make computer chips.
34 Micromachines are being used today to monitor automobile brakes.
Завдання 4Прочитайте поданий нижче текст з метою якомога точніше зрозуміти його зміст.
You live in an information age. You've already learned how fast the knowledge base is growing. You also know it is impossible for any one person to know everything. An educated person isn't necessarily someone who knows everything. An educated person knows where to find the information he or she needs!
A computer can be used to access (find) information on many topics. You can access information in several ways. Personal computers can be interfaced, or attached to, a CD-ROM (compact disk-read only memory) drive. An entire electronic encyclopedia, for example, can be accessed through a compact disk (CD). A compact disk can hold 1,300 times as much information as a floppy disk. Besides that, it accesses information in a matter of seconds. If you needed information on crash testing of cars, by the time you pulled the encyclopedia from the shelf, the computer would have that information for you. In addition, the computer lists cross-references that allow you to tie the information with other subjects. Sometimes not all the information is available on CDs but many electronic encylopedias also include a bibliography (list of resources) so you can explore further.
Another way to access information from the outside world is by hooking the computer to a modem and a telephone line. A modem is an electronic device that lets computers share information. Attaching a modem to your computer lets you communicate with any other computer that has a modem. Modem is another acronym. It stands for modulator- demodulator.
Two computers can communicate with each other only if one computer can decode (understand) the information received from the other computer. When you receive a file over a modem it is called downloading. When you send a file over the modem to another computer it is called uploading. Communications software on each computer sets up a protocol (special settings) to allow information transfer. One important protocol is how fast information is sent on the telephone line. This is called the baud rate. Most common modems operate from 1,200 to 9,600 baud. The faster the baud rate, the less time you have to spend using the telephone line. The baud rate is important because if you're communicating long-distance the cost can increase quickly!
Using your computer and modem, you can access information stored in huge mainframe computers. Information services are companies that sell information to you. Did you ever think about paying for information like you would for another product such as a hamburger? A rapidly growing use of computers is for accessing information. Whenever a topic needs to be researched, an information service can save valuable time. It gives you bibliographies and abstracts (brief summaries) of articles in magazines as well as books. Abstracts let you see whether that resource will be useful to you.
Завдання 5 Перекладіть подані нижче слова та словосполучення з Тексту 7А:
a) knowledge base, information age, compact disc drive, crash testing, telephone line, communications software, information transfer, mainframe computers, information services, cross references;
b) to access information, to interface a computer, to tie the information with other subjects, to hook the computer to a modem, to share information, to decode information, to receive information, to communicate long-distance, to store information, to save time;
c) ROM (read only memory), CD (compact disc), bibliography, modem, downloading, uploading, baud rate, abstract.
Завдання 6Дайте відповіді на запитання до Тексту 7А:
1 Should an educated person know everything? What is important for an educated person?
2 In what way can a personal computer be used to access information?
3 Why is bibliography important?
4 What do we call “an abstract”?
5 What do we use a modem for?
6 How can you explain the terms “downloading”, “uploading”, “baud rate”?
7 What is the baud rate of modern modems?
Завдання 7 Прочитайте вголос Текст 7А та перекладіть його рідною мовою.
Завдання 8 Прочитайте та письмово перекладіть рідною мовою поданий нижче текст.
Einstein believed that "The whole of science is nothing more than an improvement of everyday thinking". The way this improvement has been achieved has been through the discovery and perfection of the experimental method – possibly the greatest contribution science has made to human progress. Indeed, several writers considered that science is no more than this method – the scientific method as it is sometimes called. Karl Pearson, the founder of the twentieth century science of statistics, thought that "the unity of all science consists alone in its method, not in its material". This method is good for all the sciences and the technologies also, and is of course widely applied in other disciplines.
The first step a scientist (or technologist) takes towards solving a problem is to collect all the information that may relate to the question: this is the observation stage. He then formulates a theory as to how such facts are to be interpreted: this is the hypothesis stage. He then designs and makes a series of controlled tests to try to confirm his working hypothesis: this is the experimental stage. If results of the experiments prove his theory correct he formulates his answer to the problem: this is the conclusion stage. Of course, it often happens that the working hypothesis does not stand up under experiment; T.H. Huxley called this "the great tragedy of science”. When this occurs the scientist must go back as often as necessary until he achieves a hypothesis that not only explains all the observed facts but can be confirmed by controlled experiment. This is the classic inductive theory of scientific method "still taught to every generation of students".
Завдання 9 Складіть 7 запитань до Тексту 7б.
Завдання 10 Дайте свій варіант назви до Тексту 7б.
Завдання 11 Перекладіть англійською мовою, використовуючи знайому вам лексику та граматичні структури:
1 Комп’ютери – важливий інструмент для вирішення технічних проблем.
2 Комп’ютери часто використовуються для пошуку та організації інформації, проведення розрахунків, письма, малювання та вирішення інших задач.
3 Перші комп’ютери були більш громіздкими й дорогими, ніж теперішні.
4 Закодована інформація, керуюча комп’ютером, має назву програмне забезпечення.
5 Іноді комп’ютери використовуються як могутні електронні друкарські машинки.
6 Спеціальні комп’ютерні програми використовуються, щоб проектувати нові технічні пристрої.
7 Використовуючи комп’ютерну графіку, ми можемо створювати сучасну рекламну продукцію.
8 Майбутні комп’ютери будуть більш швидкодіючими та менш дорогими.
9 Для того, щоб працювати з текстовою інформацією, ми використовуємо спеціально розроблений текстовий процесор.
10 Використання автоматичного проектування – одне з найнеобхідніших умов розвитку виробництва сьогодні.
Завдання 12Як ви розумієте вислів „Science is built of facts, the way a house is built of bricks; but an accumulation of facts is no more a science than a pile of bricks is a house.” (J. H. Poincare)
Завдання 13Підготуйте невеличке письмове оповідання (200 – 250 слів), яке б розкривало зміст висловлення: „Science would not be science without communication.”
Завдання 1 Уважно прочитайте подані нижче слова та їх переклад, запам’ятайте їх:
Завдання 2 Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрунтуючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:
resources, production, material, contact, natural, training, intelligence, mineral, vegetation, oil, gas, energy, transport, factor, cycle.
Завдання 3Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення. Дайте їх еквіваленти рідною мовою:
resource list, to meet the needs, raw materials, people skilled in a particular field, proper training and education, complex machines, remains of dead vegetation and animals, natural gas, the world’s supply of oil, to last forever, solar energy, interest on the loan, food container, packaging materials.
Завдання 4Використовуючи значення відомих вам слів та правил словотворення, перекладіть подані нижче групи слів. Визначте, до якої частини мови кожне з них належить (майте на увазі, що іноді різні частини мови, дві чи три, збігаються за формою):
product - produce - producer – production
train – retrain – training
intellect – intellectual – intelligent – intelligence – intelligencia
transport – transport – transportation
hot – heat(1,2) – heating
light (1,2,3) – lightening
place (1,2) – replace – placement
nucleus – nuclear
lend – lender
ever – forever
thermal – geothermal
safe (1,2) – safely
pollute – pollution – polluted - pollutant
round – around - surround
Завдання 5a)Уважно вивчіть таблицю вживання модальних дієслів:
б) Перекладіть подані нижче речення та прокоментуйте значення модальних дієслів:
1 Practice can do a lot of good.
2 You cannot see atoms even with a powerful microscope.
3 You could not see him yesterday.
4 He cannot make such a serious mistake.
5 You can become an expert in the field only if you work seriously and creatively, and try to advance a little bit every day.
6 May I come in?
7 You may use my dictionary.
8 We may discuss the problem at the meeting.
9 May I have a smoke in this room?
10 You must have all the necessary books at the lesson.
11 One and all, we must devotedly work for the good of our country.
12 We badly needed the dictionary.
13 He does not need your book any longer.
14 Every student should read this article.
15 He should help his friend.
16 You should not do such things in future.
17 You should know this material perfectly well.
18 I do not need your book any longer.
19 He will need your advice.
20 The students must work better to pass their examinations well.
1 You are to read this paper before the conference.
2 He is to make a report at the conference.
3 She is to come here at five o'clock.
4 As I was to be at the Academy at 9 sharp I had to take a taxi.
5 Will you have to get up early tomorrow?
6 No, I did not have to come to the Academy early.
7 Devices in the rocket have to operate under very difficult conditions.
8 At the speed of seven miles per second the rocket will have to travel over a million years to reach Sirius, one of the nearest stars.
9 The rocket is able to travel in a vacuum even better than it can through the air.
10 She is able to do this.
11 In some years we shall be able to solve this problem.
1 He must have translated that article yesterday.
2 They must have forgotten all about it.
3 The discussion must have been very interesting. It's a pity I could not stay.
4 The students may have translated these articles last month.
5 They may have returned home already.
6 My friend may have left two days ago.
7 They could have taken their exam in English yesterday.
8 She could have arrived some days ago.
9 He might have left his book in some other place.
10 She might have come if you had asked her.
11 I should have done it before.
12 You should have translated those articles long ago.
13 You could have informed me in time.
14 The moving parts of the machine must have been lubricated not to damage the machine at work.
15 A specially designed computer should have been used in the equipment of the meteo probe.
16 You might have known that to stop the flow of electricity you have to use a switch.
17 The article should have been translated long ago, where is the translation?
1 We can't always predict accurately how a change will affect us or our world. We can only be sure that everything changes eventually.
2 Advances in technology can have a great impact on the world if they are made available to all people.
3 If medical equipment and people could be put in an airplane, people all over the world might be helped.
4 If you wanted to design a bycicle, for example, you would not have to invent the wheel. But you might just want to change the shape of the wheel.
5 New knowledge can then be used to change or improve technology that already exists.
6 The saying "you don't have to reinvent the wheel" means that you do not have to start from the beginning to solve a problem.
7 You will see that even though you don't have to reinvent the wheel, that doesn't mean you shouldn't try.
8 Researchers might try many ideas until the problem is solved.
9 The energy produced by the sun can charge batteries to power electric vehicles.
10 Computers can be used to make 3 – D graphics colourful and interesting.
11 Life science and technology can be combined to produce food in a fish farm.
12 Being able to communicate with others is a very important skill that you work with in all your subjects.
13 In all your courses you need to be able to let your teachers and others know what your ideas are.
14 Using calculators you have to know what math operations (addition, substraction, multiplication, and division) to use in solving a problem. You must also know how to enter the information correctly into the calculator or computer.
15 Every fast – food restaurant must try to keep costs down to be competitive.
16 As business manager you will have to solve a lot of problems.
Завдання 6Прочитайте текст, спробуйте якомога точніше зрозуміти і запам’ятати його зміст.
Where Do We Get Resources?
Before you can make anything you will need resources. Resources can be anything that is used in the production of a product. What are some of the resources you can use, and where do you find them? Your resource list might include:
- People: Technology has been created by people. People have used their ideas and knowledge to invent and build products that meet their needs. Some companies hire people for their ideas and skills just as other companies buy raw materials for their products. You might need to contact people skilled in a particular field who can help you with your ideas and designs. With the proper training and education, you can be a resource person for others, too.
- Machines: Since the invention of the wheel and other simple machines, people have used their intelligence to create the many complex machines we rely on today. We rely on machines as a resource to help us do work, and through technology those machines often run automatically; we don't even have to think about them.
- Information: You know already that the amount of information in the world is growing rapidly. Because there is so much information there are companies that gather, organize, and sell the information. People use this information to design, produce, and sell products.
- Raw Materials: You probably know that natural resources include water, land, minerals, fossil fuels (remains of dead vegetation and animals such as oil, coal, natural gas), and timber. But did you know that some of these resources are nonrenewable? Nonrenewable means that once the resource has been used up, it is gone forever! For example, the world's supply of oil will not last forever.
- Energy: Energy is used to make things and to transport products. It is also used to heat, cool, and light the buildings that we live and work in. Like raw materials, some sources of energy are limited. Renewable energy sources include solar energy, geothermal energy, and nuclear energy.
- Money: Even if you had all the other resources available to you, it still takes money to start a business. Money to start a new business is often borrowed from banks. Loans must be paid back as well as any interest on the loan. The lender charges you additional money for letting you use its money. This charge is called interest. Even after a company is making a profit (money left over after all bills are paid), it continues to pay for the other resources it uses.
- Time: Many people consider time a resource because it takes time to make a product. In many instances, however, time is a factor that determines which other resources you might use and how you might use them. If you have to produce a product in a short time, you might choose only materials that are readily available and people who are already trained for that job.
Завдання 7Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту тексту:
1 Resources are important.
2 Money to start a new business is often borrowed from banks.
3 Natural resources include energy, machines, money, people, time and information.
4 Proper training and education are important to invent new products.
5 People created technology and raw materials.
6 You don't need to contact other people for professional assistance, you must use only your own ideas.
7 If we want to produce high-quality machines, we should choose intelligent people, skilled in the field.
8 People have used their knowledge to create a lot of clever machines.
9 There is a lot of information in the world, and it is growing rapidly.
10 Money and time do not influence the final product.
Завдання 8Перекладіть рідною мовою підкреслені в Тексті 8речення.
Завдання 9Дайте відповіді на подані нижче запитання:
1 What do we call resources?
2 How many items does the resource list include? Name them.
3 What qualities are important to consider a specialist “a resource person”?
4 Why do people need information?
5 What is the most important thing you should know about natural resources?
6 What kind of energy sources do you know?
7 Where can you get money to start a business?
8 In what way does time factor influence your business project?
Завдання 10Дайте визначення таких понять:
2 renewable resources
3 nonrenewable resources
4 geothermal energy
5 fossil fuels
6 a resource person
7 interest on loans
Завдання 11Виберіть з тексту всі слова, якими ми можемо охарактеризувати якості матеріалів.
Завдання 12Прочитайте поданий нижче Текст 8A з метою найти відповіді на такі запитання:
1 Чому ми називаємо Землю „закритою системою”?
2 Яке значення мають терміни „disposable”, „biodegradable” та „recycling”?
3 Яким чином використання ресурсів може впливати на навколишнє середовище?
Are we wasting our resources? Are companies producing products without thinking about the appropriate use of resources? These are hard questions for you to answer, but you need to ask them. We often forget the fact that we live in a world that has limits. Do you ever think about the fact that the air you breathe and the water you drink are recycled? The Earth is a closed system. There are no other sources of air or water, for example, than what has always been on earth. It might be unpleasant to think that the air you are breathing now or the water you drank for lunch may have been used by someone else before you. If air and water are polluted, they cannot be used safely again by anyone.
You are surrounded by products that companies claim are "disposable." Think about all the paper and plastic cups, food containers, and packaging materials that your family throws in the garbage each week. What do you think happens to them?
Many of the products and materials you throw away end up in landfills (garbage dumps) where they are buried or burned, or sometimes the used materials are dumped directly into the oceans. Disposing of materials in these ways can eventually cause air or water pollution. The best thing for you to do is to use, whenever possible, materials that are biodegradable. Biodegradable materials break down or decompose naturally like paper and go back into the earth. Other materials that take a long time to decompose, such as aluminum, plastic, and glass, should be recycled.
Today, you must use resources carefully and be aware of how they will affect the environment after they are no longer in use. You can do things that will really make a difference.
Завдання 13а) Розставте речення в потрібному порядку, щоб одержати зв'язний текст:
1 The materials you choose for a product can make it either useful and long-lasting or dangerous and short-lived.
2 Basically, materials can be divided into two major groups, synthetic and natural.
3 For example, a television has a picture tube made of glass, a cabinet made of plastic or wood, and wires made of copper.
4 When you are completing design briefs, you should consider using more than one kind of material in your solution.
5 Not only it is important to design products with people in mind, but it is also important to choose the right material for your product.
6 People have been researching new materials and new uses for old materials since the Stone Age.
7 Synthetic means that people made the materials, and they cannot be found in nature.
8 You know already that materials were so important that entire periods of history, such as the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, were named after them.
9 A bicycle has rubber tires, steel frames, and a plastic seat.
10 The many kinds of plastics are examples of synthetics.
11 Natural materials, such as copper and wood, can be found in nature.
12 Products often are combinations of many kinds of materials.
б) Прoчитайте та усно перекладіть отриманий текст.
Завдання 14Дайте письмовий переклад тексту рідною мовою:
Most materials can be further divided into groups. The grouping of materials is based on their properties or their origin. Here is the way to classify some materials.
Woods: There are two types of wood, hardwood and softwood. Sounds simple, but the words hard and soft have nothing to do with the hardness of the wood. The difference is in the tree that the wood came from. Hardwoods come from trees that have broad leaves, for example, walnut and maple. Softwoods come from trees that have needles, such as pine and fir.
Metals: There are two types of metals also, ferrous and nonferrous. Ferrous is a Latin word for iron. The difference between ferrous and nonferrous is that ferrous metals contain iron and nonferrous metals do not. Ferrous metals include iron and the many types of steel. Nonferrous metals include copper, tin, lead, aluminum, gold, and silver.
Plastics: There are also two types of plastics: thermoplastic and thermoset. The difference is very simple. Thermoplastics can be melted and remelted many times using heat. Thermosetting plastics change chemically when they set (твердіти). They cannot be remelted. Acrylic plastic is an example of thermoplastic. It can be reheated many times to change its shape. Bakelite is a common plastic used for electrical plugs and cooking-pot handles.
Composite materials: By combining different materials, new and often better properties can be obtained. Composite materials such as fiberglass and carbon graphite or graphite-epoxy are very lightweight and strong. They are used to make high-performance aircraft wings and lightweight sporting goods such as tennis racquets.
Materials are chosen by their characteristics. The characteristics of a material are called its properties. Each material has special properties that make it useful for certain products.
Завдання 15Зробіть доповідь на тему „Classifying materials”, використовуючи надану схему:
Завдання 16Перекладіть англійською мовою подані нижче речення:
1 Люди використовують інформацію для того, щоб виробляти, створювати та продавати продукцію.
2 Натуральні копалини, такі як залізо та мідь, видобуваються з надр землі.
3 Джерела енергії включають сонячну, геотермальну та ядерну енергію.
4 Існують компанії, які збирають, обробляють та продають інформацію.
5 Ми завжди забуваємо, що ми живемо в світі, який не можна вважати невичерпним.
6 Існує два типи пластику: термопластичні та термореактивні матеріали.
7 Важливо не тільки те, чи буде ваша продукція такою, як ви її собі уявляєте, але й те, з якого матеріалу вона буде вироблена.
8 Матеріали поділяються на групи, базуючись на їх властивостях та походженні.
9 Тверду деревину виробляють з дерев, які мають широке листя, наприклад, горіх чи клен.
10 Різниця між кольоровими та некольоровими металами полягає в тому, що кольорові метали містять залізо, а некольорові ні.
11 Матеріали вибираються завдяки їхнім характеристикам.
Завдання 1 Уважно прочитайте подані нижче слова та їх переклад. Запам’ятайте їх:
Завдання 2 Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрунтуючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:
adhesive, patent, innovation, license, to protect, file, sketch, prototype, model, project, tradition.
Завдання 3Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення. Дайте їх еквіваленти рідною мовою:
creative thinking, by accident=by chance, a nonstick surface, safety glass, a car windshield, corn flakes, something else, to work toward a goal, exercise equipment, waste products, nuclear waste products, to crank the engine, patent office, water faucet, door knobs, current needs.
Завдання 4Використовуючи значення відомих вам слів та правил словотворення, перекладіть подані нижче групи слів. Визначте, до якої частини мови належить кожне слово (зверніть увагу на те, що іноді різні частини мови збігаються за формою):
accident – accidentally
approach – to approach
safe – a safe – safely – safety
valuable – value – to value – evaluation – to evaluate
combination – to combine
new – innovation - innovator
benefit – to benefit (from)
to notice – unnoticed – a notice- noticeable
rust – to rust – rusting
permission – to permit
patent – to patent
high – height
wide – width
long – length
to weigh - weight
Завдання 5а) Уважно вивчіть таблицю різних типів умовних речень, їх утворення та значення.
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