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Designing Products for People
Have you ever tried on gloves and found the medium size was too big and the small size was too small? Have you ever wondered how designers decided on what a "medium" size is? Technology can make our lives more comfortable through ergonomics.Ergonomics is the study of how the human body relates to things around it. It is also called "human engineering." Places where you live, work, and play are safer, easier for you to use, and more comfortable if they are designed based on the actual human body size.
The actual measurements of your height, width, weight, reach (arms extended), and so on are recorded in books as anthropometricinformation or data. Designers and engineers use the size information to determine the dimensions of products such as clothing, furniture, sporting goods, car interiors, and even spacesuits. When designers made the chair you are sitting in, they used the anthropometric data from many people and found a size that would be comfortable for 90 percent of the people. Five percent of the people will probably be too large and another five percent will be too small for that particular chair. Because there is such a wide range in sizes of people, it is difficult to make one product that everyone would find comfortable. Is your chair really comfortable? Does it fit you? Not all products are made with ergonomics or anthropometry in mind. Simple everyday things like water faucets and door knobs can sometimes be hard to figure out because they weren't designed with people in mind. Many times they were designed just for looks. In the past, tradition rather than people's needs was also responsible for the way some things were designed. For instance, maybe the reason most automobile engines are located in the front of a car is that the engine replaced the horse. The horse, of course, was in front of the wagon.
You might think that designing products around people is just for appearance and isn't very important. That isn't so. Part of ergonomic design is to make products safe for you to use.
б) Поясніть дані поняття, про які йдеться в тексті:
ergonomics, human engineering, anthropometric data, ergonomic design.
в) Дайте відповіді на такі запитання до тексту:
1 What do we call the branch of technology which helps to make our life easier, more comfortable and safe?
2 What information is used to determine the dimensions of products and what do we call it?
3 Do you think it’s impossible to combine comfort, safety and good looks in product design?
4 Can you give some positive examples of product design?
5 Can you give some negative examples of product design?
г) Перекладіть цей текст рідною мовою.
Завдання 13 а)Якщо ви розставите слова в даних реченнях в потрібному порядку, то знайдете серію запитань щодо впливу технічного нововведення на вас та навколишнє середовище. Підмет та присудок (основне дієслово) виділені шрифтом:
1 the, require, or, technology, energy, existing, new, resources, does, less, natural, than, technology, more, an, or?
2 not, it, the, biodegradable, will, for example, damage, environment, by, being?
3 to, it, use, is, easier?
4 save, does, time, it?
5 special, to, does, require, use, training, it?
6 put, does, people, out of, it, work?
7 a, this, need, technology, for, is there, real?
8 technology, is, safe, the?
9 an, of, appropriate, is, use, this, technology?
б) Проаналізуйте яке-небудь технічне відкриття, винахід, нововведення за допомогою цих запитань.
Завдання 14Перекладіть англійською мовою:
1 Людина не може стати винахідником, якщо вона не вміє творчо мислити.
2 Можливо, нам удасться вирішити цю проблему в найближчому майбутньому.
3 Ми повинні більше уваги приділяти вирішенню проблем, які можуть привести до забруднення навколишнього середовища.
4 Компанії повинні віддавати перевагу екологічно чистій продукції.
5 Іноді нам доводиться вибирати між красою та зручністю, але цього не повинно бути. Ми повинні сполучати те й інше.
6 Нема необхідності жертвувати красою заради комфорту.
7 Не могли б ви мені пояснити, що таке „ергономіка”?
Завдання 15Зі всіх трьох текстів уроку 7 виберіть ключові слова, які відносяться до теми „Innovations: why, what, how.”
Завдання 16Складіть план доповіді за вказаною темою.
Завдання 17Зробіть доповідь за темою, використовуючи складений план та ключові слова.
Завдання 1 Уважно прочитайте подані нижче слова та їх переклад. Запам’ятайте їх:
Завдання 2 Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрунтуючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:
company, sponsor, services, business, capital, invest, partner, manager, control, planning, strategy, marketing.
Завдання 3Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення. Дайте їх еквіваленти рідною мовою:
to provide services, to be in business, to make a profit, to get a company started, to start a company, to run a company, to manage a company, to have complete control over a company, to hold a share, a part owner of the company, a structured organization of a company, board of directors, to set company policies, to rent a building, personnel, extra training, to slow production down, to plan ahead, consumer surveys.
Завдання 4Зверніть увагу на утворення скорочених варіантів даних слів, перекладіть їх рідною мовою:
confer = compare – cf
advertisement – ad
mathematics – math(s)
technology – tech
dormitory – dorm
television - TV
refrigerator – fridge
examination – exam
for example – e. g.
that is – i. e.
Завдання 5Перекладіть дані слова, використовуючи їх синоніми:
huge = big
to involve = to include
to control = to operate
to control = to manage
annual = yearly
goals = aims
to raise money = to make money
accurate = precise
downtime = decrease
to promote = to abvertise
marketing plan = strategy
to invest = to put in
human resources = workers = employees = personnel
over and over = again and again
to eliminate = to get rid of
to ship = to send
a great deal of = many/ much
Завдання 6Використовуючи значення відомих вам слів та правил словотворення, перекладіть подані нижче групи слів. Визначте, до якої частини мови вони належать (майте на увазі, що іноді різні частини мови збігаються за формою):
property – proprietor – proprietorship
part – partner – partnership
to manage – manager – management
to serve – services – servant
to invest – investor – investment
to sponsor – sponsor – sponsorship
to advertise –advertisement – advertising
to consume – consumer – consumption
to own – owner – ownership
to share – a share - shareholders
Завдання 7Перекладіть англійською мовою подані нижче умовні речення різного типу:
1 Якщо компанія хоче бути успішною, вона повинна постійно займатися маркетинговими дослідженнями.
2 Якщо б Японія не приділяла стільки уваги розвитку науки та технічної творчості, вона б не домоглася таких успіхів в виробництві.
3 Якщо б всі підприємства використовували екологічно чисті технології, ми б зберегли навколишнє середовище для майбутніх поколінь.
4 Якщо б ви використовували інші джерела енергії, ваша продукція була б більш популярною.
5 Якщо ви дуже хочете знайти рішення проблеми, то воно приходить неначе саме по собі.
6 Якщо б ми не просто викидали промислові та побутові відходи, а переробляли їх, ми б змогли вирішити частину екологічних та соціальних проблем.
7 Якщо б ми були більш уважними та технічно грамотними, то помітили б, що світ навколо нас повен технічних нововведень.
Завдання 8Прочитайте текст 10, спробуйте якомога точніше зрозуміти і запам’ятати його зміст.
What Is a Company?
You've probably seen ads in magazines and on television sponsored by names such as Xerox, IBM, General Motors, and Exxon. These are huge companies that hire thousands of workers to produce goods or services for you, the consumer. Thousands of companies make products or provide services for you. A company is an organized group of people doing business.
Every company is in business to sell products and to make a profit. Remember that one resource needed to make things is money, or capital. In order to get a company started, someone has to invest (put in) money to start the company. Then, once the company is organized, you have to have some way to run it. There are different ways to manage (run) a company.
- Proprietorship: A proprietorship is a business owned by just one person. It is the easiest type of business to form because you as the owner have complete control over everything. Besides that, you get to keep all the profits.
- Partnership: A business owned by two or more people is a partnership. It is also easy to form. The partners share the profits. An advantage to being in a partnership is that you can share the workload and responsibilities.
- Corporation: A corporation is a company organized and owned by stockholders. A stockholder is anyone who buys a share in a company. While you own the stock, you will also receive what's called a dividend. A dividend is a payment you get as part owner of the company. Sometimes corporations start out as proprietorships or partnerships. They have a very structured organization because there are so many people involved.
The corporate structure includes the following:
- Stockholders: People who have bought shares in the company. Stockholders hold an annual meeting. At the annual meeting, they elect the board of directors for the next year.
- Board of Directors: Board members are elected. They set company policies and determine the main company goals. They report how the company is doing to the stockholders. The board also hires a company manager or president to run the company.
- Management: These people run the company. They have to be good leaders and hard workers to make the company successful. Management people have to pick the products the company will make, decide how to raise money to buy or rent buildings, where to get raw materials, and how much to pay workers.
- Administration: The people in administration carry out the decisions made by the management department. There are many other workers in a company, too. As you learn what each department does, think about what jobs you would like to do or would feel most qualified to do. These are some of the main departments in most companies.
Human Resources: In some companies, this department is called Personnel. This department makes sure that the people who have the skills needed for certain jobs are hired. If extra training is needed, the Personnel department makes sure workers get the training. The Human Resources department also makes sure you are rewarded if you are a good worker. Usually you are advanced to a position with higher pay.
Research and Development Department (R&D): The research and development department improves existing products or designs new products that people really want. Companies depend on R&D departments to find efficient ways to make products so that they can save money and make a profit.
Production Department: The production department is in charge of actually making the products for the company. The production workers must turn materials into parts for products and then assemble the products. The production department usually plans a production system to make sure each job is done as accurately, quickly, and safely as possible. A mistake in production caused by poor planning can cost a company a lot of money or slow production down. The production department has to plan ahead so there is no downtime, or stop in production.
Marketing Department: The job of the marketing department is to sell the company products. Sometimes they conduct consumer surveys to find out what people want, how much they are willing to pay for a product, and who would probably buy that product. The marketing department must also have a marketing plan for promoting and selling the product.
Завдання 9Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту тексту:
1 Companies are organized to produce products but it is not their aim to sell them.
2 Providing services has nothing to do with business.
3 Investments are necessary to start a business.
4 All companies are managed in the same way.
5 Partnerships are the most complicated of all different ways to run a company.
6 Corporations never start out as proprietorships.
7 Board of directors are hired to manage a company.
8 The departments a company includes are never the same in different businesses.
9 Marketing research is very important for successful operation of any company.
Завдання 10Дайте відповіді на запитання до тексту:
1 What is a company?
2 What are companies organized for?
3 What is the resource you need to start a company?
4 What is the difference between a proprietorship and a partnership?
5 What do we call a company which is organized and owned by stockholders?
6 What are the main components of a corporation?
7 What do we call a share?
8 Whom do we call a stockholder?
9 What is a dividend?
10 How is a board of directors formed?
11 Do they elect managers of a company?
12 What are the main departments in most companies called?
13 How can you define the main tasks of each department?
Завдання 11Перекладіть рідною мовою підкреслені в Тексті 9речення.
Завдання 12а)Прочитайте Текст 10А, намагаючись якомога точніше зрозуміти його зміст.
Текст 10 А
Before a company begins to sell a product, the marketing department makes a special plan called a marketing plan or strategy. There are all kinds of ways to market products. The plan might include a sales forecast, or prediction of how many sales the company will make. If the market research is not accurate, the company could lose a lot of money. Can you imagine making thousands of a product but selling only a few hundred?
Sometimes companies will do test marketing. To do this, they produce just a small number of products and sell them in maybe just one city. If sales are good in the test market, then the company expects the product to sell in other places, too.
Advertising tells people about your product. The main goal of advertising is to convince customers that they need your product. Many companies have a public relations division. Its job is to make the product name familiar to the public. Have you ever bought something just because an ad caught your attention? Companies count on that happening. Lots of companies try different ways of advertising such as television commercials, billboards, and ads in magazines, newspapers, and on the radio. Sometimes a company will sponsor a contest or give away a free prize to get people to try their product for the first time.
Brand names like McDonald's, Disney, Honda, and Hershey also make it easier to sell products. People already know the name, so if something new comes out from that company you are quick to notice it.
Actually selling and getting the products to the buyers are also part of the marketing strategy. If a company can't sell its products, then it will not be successful.
б) Дайте переклад підкреслених слів та словосполучень.
в) Дайте відповіді на такі запитання стосовно інформації Тексту 10А:
1 What are the duties of the marketing department?
2 What do we call a marketing plan?
3 What do they mean by ‘test marketing’?
4 What is the main goal of advertising?
5 How do they advertise products?
6 What do we mean by “brand names”?
7 What “brand names” do you know?
8 What for do they organize Public relations division?
Завдання 13а)Уважно прочитайте поданий нижче Tекст 10Б, намагаючись якомога точніше зрозуміти його зміст.
Mass production enables companies to produce large quantities of parts and products within a short time. To do this, each worker on a factory assembly line is assigned only one job. Each person does the same job over and over. Mass production works only if all the same parts of components are standardized, i.e. the same size and shape. The parts must be interchangeable. Any one of several hundred pieces of one part must fit with any of several hundred pieces of a joining part. Today’s automobiles are made mostly with standardized, or interchangeable, parts.
Through mass production and the assembly line, a greater number of products can be made in a given amount of time. Mass production also makes products less expensive to produce and therefore less expensive to buy.
Where do companies put materials and purchased parts until they are needed on the production line? Many companies have to order large amounts of materials ahead of time. They then must pay for storage space in a warehouse. The company must also hire people (or buy robots) to move the materials to the production line. Once the finished product is made, it often spends time in a warehouse, waiting to be shipped. One way to cut down on inventory (things in storage) and costs is to use a computer to schedule deliveries just in time.
Just-in-time manufacturing (JIT) is a method that many companies are turning to because it eliminates the need for storage space and extra people to manage the inventory. All the materials and ordered parts get to the factory just in time to be used in production. When the product is finished it is immediately shipped to the customer. Just–in–time manufacturing enables companies to cut back inventory as much as possible.
You can see that good management and teamwork are important to just-in-time manufacturing, or synchronized production. If one part is not there on time, then the rest of the product must wait. To be successful, production workers, managers, suppliers, and workers who transport materials must work closely together. Computers play a large part in linking all those people together so that they all know what they are supposed to do and when they are supposed to do it.
б) Дайте переклад таких слів та словосполучень:
mass production, within a short time, assembly line, standardized parts, interchangeable, in a given amount of time, production line, storage space, warehouse, finished product, to ship, inventory, to schedule deliveries, just-in-time manufacturing, to eliminate, synchronized production.
в) Дайте відповіді на поставлені запитання, використовуючи інформацію, яка є в Тексті 8Б:
1 When do we call machine parts standardized and interchangeable?
2 What is the aim of mass production and assembly lines?
3 What is meant by inventory?
4 What are the advantages of just-in-time manufacturing?
5 Can you explain what ‘synchronized production’ means?
Завдання 14а) Прочитайте Текст 10В та дайте його письмовий переклад рідною мовою, користуючись словником та звертаючи увагу на підкреслені терміни.
There are three main ways to sell your product.
Direct Sales: A manufacturer sells its product directly to the customer. Usually a company will have salespeople who make a commission (certain percentage) on the amount they sell. The more the salespeople sell, the more money they make. The commission is an incentive (encouragement) for them to sell more products. If an area is large and the company does not have enough salespeople, they might hire a sales representative to sell their product.
Wholesale Sales: Wholesalers are people or companies that buy large quantities of products from manufacturers. Then they sell the products to other businesses in large quantities.
Retail Sales: Retailers buy products either from wholesalers or directly from the manufacturer. Then they sell them to you. If you've been to a shopping mall, you've seen many retail stores from discount stores to large department stores.
In addition to selling their products, companies must have ways to get their goods to the buyers. This is called distribution. Sometimes the distribution path for a product can be short, as in direct sales. Sometimes products must be temporarily stored in warehouses until the right time for distribution.
At some point, transportation is involved in distributing the products. Depending on the product or the need, different kinds of transporation such as air freight, trucks, trains, or ships might be used. Most of the "18-wheelers" you see on the highways are carrying products to wholesalers or retail stores. Getting the product distributed on time is very important to the success of your company!
б) Дайте письмовий переклад підкреслених термінів.
Завдання 15Дайте свої міркування з приводу висловлювання відомого англійського письменника, якщо віднести його до сфери бізнесу: „Success is just failure postponed.”
- Graham Greene.
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