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КОНТРОЛЬНІ ЗАВДАННЯ ДО УРОКІВ 8 – 10
Завдання 1Складіть якомога більше дво- чи трислівних словосполучень з даних слів:
muscle, government, quality, strategy, power, energy, manufacturing, goal, survey, automation, company, market, department, test, product, resources, technology, agency, process.
Завдання 2Перекладіть такі дієслова, для нестандартних дайте три форми:
to save, to reduce, to design, to fit, to fix, to use, to waste, to increase, to require, to happen, to include, to create, to protect, to spend, to sell, to maintain, to deliver, to involve, to prove, to determine, to store, to measure.
Завдання 3Утворіть якомога більше нових слів, використовуючи відомі вам словотворчі моделі:
4 to renew
7 to interact
8 to place
9 to use
Завдання 4Перекладітьрідною мовою:
1 Companies get started so that people can make money.
2 A product or a service is made available for sale to consumers.
3 If the product is successful, the company may expand production.
4 Companies often sell stock to raise money to buy equipment or build factories.
5 When proper planning and automation technology are used, the cost of production can be kept down, and the rate of production can be kept high.
6 As you know, computers play an important part in any efficient production process.
7 There are different kinds of jobs in a company.
8 In a successful company, everyone works to meet the company goal.
9 Companies may have the right people and equipment to manufacture a product but it takes even more than that to succeed.
10 You also need to have a good production plan to produce a good product at the lowest cost.
11 That means people must know what they are doing, and the right technology and machines must be used at the right time.
12 You will have to fill out an application for any job you have in a business.
13 Applications give the employer information about your experience and background.
14 The quality of a product is very important for the consumer and the company.
15 Some companies do some interesting advertising to get their product recognized.
16 Partners can form a type of company called a partnership.
17 There are different ways to start a company or a corporation.
18 A company is an organized group of people in business to make a profit.
19 We often forget about the factories and companies behind the product we use every day.
20 People buy stock in a company in the hope that its value will go up.
21 The stockholders can then sell the stock and make a profit.
22 Research and development departments try to perfect existing products and design new products.
23 Technology can be applied to help solve problems related to energy use, medicine, and many other fields.
24 The production department actually makes the product.
25 Downtime for companies can be very costly, and when it happens, many people must work quickly to get the production line back on line.
26 Marketing departments promote the product and conduct consumer surveys.
27 The results of surveys provide feedback for the company so that managers can make decisions about the future of the product.
28 Every day millions of people go to work to manufacture the products we depend on.
29 Businesses are started to make a profit.
30 Large companies need managers to make decisions that keep the company going.
31 Employers are hired to do a specific job in manufacturing.
32 No matter what product is being manufactured, the quality of the finished product is in the hands of the employees.
33 If you wanted to start a corporation along with some people, you would first have to make out an application that must be approved by a government agency.
34 If people don’t know about the product, they will not buy it.
35 You would make your report more interesting if you used these materials.
36 The student would have answered better had he studied hard during the year.
37 I should be very glad if the device worked well.
38 Had you studied English hard at school, you would have been able to read any book without using a dictionary.
Завдання 5Прочитайте та перекладіть рідною мовою такі тексти, звертаючи увагу на переклад виділених слів, словосполучень та частин речень.
Early people relied on muscle power to survive and to make everything. As technology grew and changed, people were able to extend their muscle resources by using machines. The energy of moving water, steam, oil, and the atom have been added to the list of resources that people can use to make things.
Whether you choose a resource often depends on its availability. For example, if you were going to start a company that needed a great deal of electricity, you would try to find an area in the country where electricity is available and inexpensive.
As you design your product you should pick material resources that best fit your product. Paper clips made of pure silver sound great, but they would be too heavy and too expensive.
You also want to use resources wisely and not waste them. The cost of energy used to make and transport products is increasing. If energy can be conserved (saved) in the manufacturing process, we can save energy and reduce the cost of products.
Some nonrenewable resources such as aluminum can be used appropriately through recycling. Aluminum requires a great deal of electricity to produce the first time, by recycling, you can save not only the mineral resource but energy as well.
Ecology of a Product
Ecology is the study of how things interact with the environment. Part of designing a product is planning ahead for what will happen to it after it is used. Products might include anything from a newspaper to a jet airplane. Do you ever stop to think what happens to the things you throw away? Most of us don't very often. In fact, we live in a "throwaway" world. When we're finished with a product, we throw it away instead of fixing it or recycling it. Did you know some of these facts?
- On the average, every man, woman, and child in the United States creates 5 pounds of garbage a day. That's 230 million tons of garbage every year!
- Some products that we throw away could easily be replaced with different products that would last longer or that could be reused. For example, every year we throw away the following disposable items:
- 2,000,000,000 razors
- 16,000,000,000 plastic diapers
- 1,600,000,000 ballpoint pens
- The cost of throwing away our trash is going up fast because of new regulations to protect the environment and because of lack of space. It can cost $50 per ton to throw away trash. If you multiply the 230,000,000 tons of garbage we throw away each year by $50, we spend $11,500,000,000 just on garbage!
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