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Підрядне реченя Головне речення
(відноситься до теперішнього чи майбутнього)
(відноситься до минулого)
б) перекладіть подані нижче речення рідною мовою:
1 If he is here, he will help me.
2 If he were here, he would help me.
3 If he had been here, he would have helped me.
4 If you get tickets, I shall go to the cinema with you.
5 If you got tickets, I would go to the cinema with you.
6 If you had got tickets, I would have gone to the cinema.
7 He would come to see us if he had time.
8 If it were his own book, he would give it to you.
9 If he had seen this film, he would have told us about it.
10 If they were here, he would speak to them.
11 I would have prepared the report in case I had got all the necessary materials.
12 They would not stay in town unless the weather were bad.
13 If you intensify the process by heating the materials, you will save a great deal of time.
14 The accident might have not occurred, if you had been more attentive.
15 Had he come in time, nothing would have occurred.
16 Would you bring the dictionary, we could translate the text.
17 Had you been more attentive, nothing would have occurred.
18 If all of you prepared well, the discussion would be interesting.
Завдання 6Прочитайте текст, спробуйте якомога точніше зрозуміти і запам’ятати його зміст.
What Is Innovation?
Innovation is the creation of new ideas or devices or different approaches to doing something. Innovation happens in many ways. Most innovations are a result of creative thinking. Sometimes valuable innovations happen by accident. Some examples of innovations include Teflon (a nonstick surface), safety glass for car windshields, and even the process for making breakfast cereals like corn flakes! In those cases, inventors were looking for something else and accidentally came up with a different idea or product. At other times innovation happens because people or companies work toward a goal using a combination of skill, creativity, and knowledge. Because innovation makes you think about "new" things, it is usually tied closely to change.
Change is happening all around us all the time. People who are innovators are excited about making changes. In business, change might be a different way to make the same product, or it could be an entirely new product. Trends, or current needs that people have, also determine what changes companies will make in their products. Many companies have R&D (research and development) departments whose job is to find out what people want now and what they will want in the future. By studying trends, R&D departments can provide the products you want to make your life better. Why do engineers need to continually make changes?
One reason is that what worked for us yesterday might not work for us today. That's where innovation and creativity are important. Sometimes we simply want different things such as new car styles, different exercise equipment, or new foods. At other times we need change for a specific reason. For example, today we don't know what to do with our nuclear waste products. Up to now, we haven't found a way to store the materials safely for long periods of time. If someonelike you could think of an innovative way to use or recycle the materials, it would really benefit our society.
It's easy to see how some innovations have made our lives easier. You've probably seen old movies where people had to crank the engine to get a car started. Thanks to innovation, all you have to do today is turn the key. Maybe some day all you'll do is talk to the car's computer!
Many innovative ideas go unnoticed by most people. For example, today many parts of cars are made of plastics to reduce weight and to prevent rusting. Many of your clothes are made of new kinds of plastics that don't feel or look any different from the materials that were used before. In the aerospace industry, adhesives (glues) are used instead of rivets to hold airplane wings together.
Other innovative ideas, such as the development of laser, had to wait until people found a practical way to make and use them. Innovation needs some knowledge combined with creativity. There are lots of people out there with knowledge, but they don't know how to use it creatively. Being innovative means you can do something new with your knowledge and experience. It also means you can recognize when something happens accidentally, even if you're not exactly sure what it is!
Завдання 7Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту тексту:
1 Most innovations happen accidentally, like Teflon or corn flakes.
2 Most innovations make our life harder.
3 To become an inventor you must be excited about making changes.
4 Being innovative means you can do something new with your knowledge and experience.
5 If you could think of an innovative way to use nuclear waste products, there might be less environmental problems.
6 Not a single innovation goes unnoticed.
7 Innovations need a combination of knowledge and creativity.
8 Innovations are important when we want some new things or processes for a specific reason.
9 Engineers need to continually make changes.
10 Companies must know what people want now and what they will want in future.
Завдання 8Дайте відповіді на запитання до тексту:
1 What do we call an innovation?
2 How do innovations appear?
3 What are the main reasons for innovations?
4 Can every person come up with a new idea or design, or do you need special characteristics to produce innovations?
5 Can you give some examples of innovations?
Завдання 9Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 9речення.
Завдання 10Знайдіть в Тексті 9 речення з модальними дієсловами та перекладіть їх, звертаючи увагу на значення модальних дієслів.
Завдання 11Дайте письмовий переклад Тексту 9А .
Getting a Patient
A patent is a special government license that protects your idea or invention. When you patent your invention, anyone who wants to use your idea must get your permission or pay you. Anyone can patent an invention, but getting a patent takes time and money. You must first prove your invention is new or the first of its kind. This means going back through the thousands of patents filed at the Patent Office to be sure no one else has an existing patent for the same invention. Then you have to provide written plans and sketches that show how your invention works. Often you have to make a prototype, or model. The government keeps these plans on file while your patent is current.
There are five types of patents that you can apply for:
1 Design patent: A drawing and protection of the general appearance and how an invention looks to the eye. An example of a design patent might be the outside package for an invention.
2 Structure patent: A mechanical patent that shows how
3 Process/method/system patent: Protects the way a group of materials or parts work together. These usually have specific drawings and flowcharts.
4 Combination of materials patent: Descriptions of materials and how they are mixed and used.
5 Living cell patent: Covers new developments in biotechnology and biochemistry.
Every patented product will have a patent number on it. If you see the words "patent applied for" or "patent pending" on a product, it means the inventor has applied for a patent. Sometimes companies will start making a product before they have their patent. Because there are so many inventions all the time, it is important to protect inventions with a patent. You can imagine how disappointed you would be if you spent a great deal of time and money on an invention idea only to find out someone else already had a patent on a similar project. Getting a patent is an important protection step for anyone with an invention.
Завдання 12а)Прочитайте поданий нижче текст.
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