ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

For repeated or regular actions in the present time period.



  • I take the train to the office.
  • The train to Berlin leaves every hour.
  • John sleeps eight hours every night during the week.

For facts.

  • The President of The USA lives in The White House.
  • A dog has four legs.
  • We come from Switzerland.

For habits.

  • I get up early every day.
  • Carol brushes her teeth twice a day.
  • They travel to their country house every weekend.

For things that are always / generally true.

  • It rains a lot in winter.
  • The Queen of England lives in Buckingham Palace.
  • They speak English at work.

 

Verb Conjugation & Spelling

We form the present tense using the base form of the infinitive (without the TO).

In general, in the third person we add 'S' in the third person.

Subject Verb The Rest of the sentence
I / you / we / they speak / learn English at home
he / she / it speaks / learns English at home

The spelling for the verb in the third person differs depending on the ending of that verb:

1. For verbs that end in -O, -CH, -SH, -SS, -X, or -Z we add -ES in the third person.

  • go – goes
  • catch – catches
  • wash – washes
  • kiss – kisses
  • fix – fixes
  • buzz – buzzes

2. For verbs that end in a consonant + Y, we remove the Y and add -IES.

  • marry – marries
  • study – studies
  • carry – carries
  • worry – worries

NOTE: For verbs that end in a vowel + Y, we just add -S.

  • play – plays
  • enjoy – enjoys
  • say – says

 

Negative Sentences in the Simple Present Tense

To make a negative sentence in English we normally use Don't or Doesn't with all verbs EXCEPT To Be and Modal verbs (can, might, should etc.).

  • Affirmative: You speak French.
    Negative: You don't speak French.

You will see that we add don't between the subject and the verb. We use Don't when the subject is I, you, we or they.

  • Affirmative: He speaks German.
    Negative: He doesn't speak German.

When the subject is he, she or it, we add doesn't between the subject and the verb to make a negative sentence. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the negative sentence. We will see the reason why below.

 

Negative Contractions

Don't = Do not
Doesn't = Does not

I don't like meat = I do not like meat.

There is no difference in meaning though we normally use contractions in spoken English.

 

Word Order of Negative Sentences

The following is the word order to construct a basic negative sentence in English in the Present Tense using Don't or Doesn't.

Subject don't/doesn't Verb* The Rest of the sentence
I / you / we / they don't have / buy eat / like etc. cereal for breakfast
he / she / it doesn't

* Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = The infinitive without TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive To have it is just the have part.

Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO. For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc.

Examples of Negative Sentences with Don't and Doesn't:

  • You don't speak Arabic.
  • John doesn't speak Italian.
  • We don't have time for a rest.
  • It doesn't move.
  • They don't want to go to the party.
  • She doesn't like fish.

Excersises.

a) Choose the correct ending (-s or -es).

1. Не go … to school by bus. 2. She like … milk. 3. My father watch … TV in the evening. 4. I play … tennis on Sundays. 5. My brother play … football quite well. 6. My sister sing … very well. 7. She wash … her face and hands in the morning and in the evening. 8. I usually drink … tea for breakfast. 9. Jane do … her English exercises after school. 10. Peter drive… a car.

b) Choose the correct verb.

1. She (swim/swims) very well. 2. Luc (live/lives) in London. 3. Jack (came/comes) from the USA. 4. Betty (dance/dances) a little. 5. He (have/has) three brothers. 6. My granny (speak/speaks) French. 7. My cat (sleep/sleeps) on a mat. 8. I often (see/sees) Jane. 9. Ted (like/likes) music. 10. Chris (cook/cooks) cakes quite well.

 

c) Put the verb in the correct form.

1) They _____ football at the institute. (to play)
2) She _____ emails. (not / to write)
3) ____ you____ English? (to speak)
4) My mother ____ fish. (not / to like)
5) ____ Ann ____ any friends? (to have)
6) His brother _____ in an office. (to work)
7) She ___ very fast. (cannot / to read)
8) ____ they ____ the flowers every 3 days? (to water)
9) His wife _____ a motorbike. (not / to ride)
10) ____ Elizabeth_____ coffee? (to drink)

d) Complete the poem.

’m, end, go, have, is, is, start, starts, starts, watch

My lessons (1) _______ at ten to eight,

But, poor me! I (2) _______ always late.

English (3) _______ at ten to nine,

That’s when my eyes begin to shine.

Russian (4) _______ at half past ten,

But I haven’t got my pen.

It’s not on my desk, or under my chair.

Oh, here it (5) _______, in Silvia’s hair.

My lessons (6) _______ at five past two,

But I haven’t got my shoe.

Oh, here it (7) _______, behind the door.

I’m late again, it’s half past four.

At five o’clock I (8) _______ my tea,

At ten to six I (9) _______ TV.

I (10) _______ to bed at ten to eight.

To have a rest is always great!

Imperative sentences.

An imperative sentence issues a request, gives a command, or expresses a desire or wish. They differ from sentences that make a statement (declarative sentences), express strong feeling (exclamatory sentences), or ask a question (interrogative sentence).

Typically, imperative sentences are short and simple, but they can be long, compound or complex sentences as well. Some of the simplest sentences in the English language are actually imperative sentences consisting of a single verb. Like this…

  • Stop!
  • Go.
  • Hurry!

Depending on the strength of emotion you want to convey, either a period or exclamation mark punctuates imperative sentences.

Examples Of Imperative sentences:

  • Pour me a glass of water.
  • Leave the package at the door.
  • Take me to the library.
  • Walk through this door and turn left at the next hallway.
  • Come over here, look at this specimen, and tell me what you think.
  • Put that down now!
  • Tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.

Though it may be considered more polite to use the word “please” in imperative sentences, it’s not necessary. Without the word attached the sentence is still grammatically correct.

 

Exerrcises

a) Translate into English:

Купи хлеб, пожалуйста. Учи английский. Будь честным. Прекрати курить. Расслабься. Иди домой. Дай мне мой зонтик, пожалуйста. Прекрати болтать. Иди спать. Покажите мне ту сумку, пожалуйста.

 

b) Put the words in brackets into the gaps:

1. upstairs. (to go)

2. in this lake. (not/to swim)

3. your homework. (to do)

4. football in the yard. (not/to play)

5. your teeth. (to brush)

6. during the lesson. (not/to talk)

7. the animals in the zoo. (not/to feed)

8. the instructions. (to read)

9. late for school. (not/to be)

10. your mobiles. (to switch off)

Listening

1.

 

Employee: Hello. Can I take your order?

Customer: Yes. I'd like a large pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and green peppers.

Employee: Would you like anything else?

Customer: Well, wait. Uh, can I make that a half-and-half pizza?

Employee: Sure. What would you like on each half?

Customer: Uh, what toppings do you have?

Employee: Well, we have Italian sausage, ham, mushrooms, onions, pineapple, black olives, green peppers, bacon, tomatoes, shrimp, clams, and squid.

Customer: Shrimp, clams, and squid!? What kind of pizza is that?

Employee: Uh, the manager spent some time overseas [Oh.], and thinks his new seafood pizza will be a hit with customers, but to be honest, the "Swimmer's Special," as he calls it, is an acquired taste.

Customer: Uh, I'll pass on the "Sink or Swim" special, but I'll have pepperoni and mushrooms on one half and green peppers and Italian sausage on the other. Oh, and could I get extra cheese on that pizza?

Employee: Alright. Would you care for any bread sticks or beverage with your order? [Well . . . I don't know.] Actually, we have a Friday night special going on right now [Oh!], and if you order any large pizza and drink, we'll throw in a free order of bread sticks, plus a three dollar coupon for use with your next pizza order.

Customer: Huh, sure, why not. And what drink comes with the pizza?

Employee: Either apple or orange juice.

Customer: I'll take orange juice.

Employee: Okay. Your total comes to fifteen nineteen, which includes tax. [Okay.] And could I have your name?

Customer: Uh, yeah, Jay Han.

Employee: Huh? Did you say "Jay Hand"?

Customer: No, it's "Han." Actually, it's a Korean name, but many people have difficulty making it out. Hey, maybe I SHOULD change my name to "Hand."

Employee: Ah, names are important; don't change it. [Okay.] Oh, and your address and telephone number?

Customer: It's 1340 South 16 East, and the phone number is 340-1870 (three-four-zero-eighteen, seventy).

Employee: Okay. Let me repeat your order. A large half-and-half pizza. [Okay.] One half with pepperoni [Yeah.] and mushrooms and the other with Italian sausage and green peppers. [Yeah.] Orange juice and your free order of bread sticks. Jan "Han," not "Hand," [Yeah, that's right.] at 1340 South 16 East, 340-1817. Is that correct?

Customer: Everything except for the phone number. It's 1870, not 1817.

Employee: Alright. Thanks for your order. It should arrive at your doorstep in 30 minutes or less, or you'll receive a free small pizza with your next order.

Customer: Great. Thanks.

 

 

  • pepperoni (noun): a pork and beef sausage, sliced thinly for pizza
    - My students ordered a pepperoni pizza for lunch.
  • be a hit (verb): be popular
    - Ordering pizza for the party was a hit.
  • care for (verb): have a preference or liking for something
    - Would you care for anything else today?
  • acquired taste (expression): a taste that takes time to get used to
    - Some people say that learning to like sushi is an acquired taste.
  • beverage (noun): drink
    - What kinds of beverages do you want to serve at the party?
  • throw in (verb): add
    - That pizza shop always throws in a free drink with every order.
  • coupon (noun): a certificate used to receive money off on purchases
    - Let's use the pizza coupon that came in the mail.
  • make something out (idiom): understand or figure out
    - I couldn't make out what the customer ordered because of the poor telephone connection.

Post Listening exercises

a) Are there any toppings or pizza styles unique to your country (e.g., seafood pizza with clams and squid which you can find in Japan)? Is there a charge for pizza delivery and is giving a tip customary in your country? Have you ever made your own pizza? If so, what do you put on your pizza?

b)

1. Which topping is NOT mentioned as one available from this pizza shop?
A. bacon
B. mushrooms
C. Italian chicken

2. What pizza does the man finally order?
A. pepperoni and green peppers on one half and Italian sausage and black olives on the other
B. pepperoni and Italian sausage on one half and green peppers and bacon on the other
C. pepperoni and mushrooms on one half and green peppers and Italian sausage on the other

3. What else does the man order with his pizza?
A. a salad and orange juice
B. bread sticks and a beverage
C. a drink and chicken sticks

4. What was the total of his order?
A. $15.19
B. $15.90
C. $15.99

5. What is the man's telephone number and address?
A. 3040 South 60 East at 340-1870
B. 1314 South 16 East at 340-1870
C. 1340 South 16 East at 340-1870

 

Exercises

 

a) Choose the correct variant.

 

1.The family consists of…

two members

four members

eight members

 

2.It would be bad for her brother…

to eat before jogging

to watch video films

to do nothing

 

3.The boy needs a cup of … to wake him up.

tea

coffee

coca-cola

 

4.His breakfast consists of…

a plate of vegetable soup

fried potatoes and meat

a bowl of cereal with milk and sugar

 

5.Father eats…

a plate of vegetable salad

a piece of cake and a cup of coffee

the same as his son does

 

6.Mother’s breakfast consists of…

a bar of chocolate

a plate of mashed potatoes and fish

yoghurt and a grapefruit

 

7.The author of the story appreciates…

vegetables

some sandwiches

a cup of tea

 

8.The members of the family have their lunch…

at home

at the café

some of them have it at work and some of them have it at home

 

Their evening meal includes…

just dairy products

meat and vegetable salad

porridge

 

The family eats their supper…

at a restaurant

at a milk bar

together at home

 

Writing

Look at the picture.

2. Write a list of healthy products.

2. Write a composition:“My healthy diet”. “My everyday meals”.


Reading

Coffee

 

Pre-reading task:give the definition to the words: milk, latte, coffee.

If you are like a lot of other North Americans, you like to start your day with a cup of coffee. Coffee contains a substance called caffeine. In humans caffeine is a stimulant. It makes you feel more awake and alert. Many people start their day with a cup of coffee because of the stimulant effects. In fact, about 90% of North Americans drink coffee.

Coffee is the third most popular drink in the world. Only tea and water are more popular than coffee. Coffee beans are actually the seeds of coffee cherries that grow on coffee plants. The beans are green when they are picked. Most of the coffee that is sold in coffee shops and grocery stores is brown. It is brown because the beans have been roasted at high temperatures. The roasting gives the beans their different flavours. Some coffees are darker and stronger tasting than other coffees. You can buy green coffee beans from some stores if you want to roast your own beans.

In North America, a latte is coffee that has steamed milk added to it. A cafe mocha is coffee with steamed milk and some chocolate added to it. Sometimes whipped cream is put on the top of cafe mocha. Coffees with different flavors added to them are very popular.

Comprehension Check:

Did you understand the story? Are these sentences true?

1. Coffee beans are green before they are roasted. Yes or no?

2. Many North Americans have coffee in the morning. Yes or no?

3. Not very many North Americans drink coffee. Yes or no?

4. In North America, a latte has chocolate in it. Yes or no?

 

Fill in the Blanks:

5. Coffee beans turn _______________ when they are roasted.

6. Roasting coffee beans needs high _______________________.

7. A cafe mocha is coffee with ___________________ milk and _______________________ added to it.

8. Both tea and _______________ are more popular drinks than coffee.

9. The caffeine in coffee is a ______________________. It makes you feel more awake.

Speaking.

Say what foods (продукты) you can see and you like it or not. Explain why.

Example.

· I don’t like lemons because they taste sour. — Я не люблю лимоны, потому что они кислые на вкус.

I love strawberry because it smells fragrant. — Я люблю клубнику, потому что она ароматная

Finish the sentences:

In the morning I usually have…

I usually have lunch at …

For dinner….

For supper …

My mom makes tasty …

I love …

I don’t eat …

We buy …

My favourite fruits are …

I also love all kinds of dairy products like milk, yoghurt, kefir, cottage cheese and cheese…..

While eating I usually drink juice or tea….

I think fast food (like McDonalds) is …

Ready-made food like pelmeni, hamburgers and so on is…

 

Task for self-study.

a) Directions for Writing a Recipe and Making a Presentation

1. Choose a dish that is typical from your own country—something that would not be too expensive or complicated to make or take too long to prepare.

 

2. Write out a list of ingredients. Use American measurements. Be sure not to leave anything out.

 

3. Write the directions. Directions, for the most part, should be written as imperative sentences. Example: Mix ingredients well. Chop the onion. Add the wet ingredients to the dry ingredients. Etc. Be sure to give detailed directions. Don’t leave any step out.

 

4. After writing the first draft of the ingredients and directions, check the draft for errors in grammar, spelling, omissions, etc.

 

5. Finally, when you are sure your recipe is complete and correct, type it on the computer in the same format that I have typed my recipe. If you are writing the recipe, use the same format and be sure to print so that we can all read your handwriting.

 

6. If you want to draw/add any illustrations to your recipe, you may do so.

 

Cooking Verbs

Discuss definitions with your partner.

bake mix blend beat

fold in stir set aside separate

chop slice mince crush

refrigerate chill until set fry sauté

cream boil crush coat

pour combine simmer reduce heat

strain add puree whip

peel grate shred remove seeds

toast cover steam drain

broil

When writing a recipe in English, list the ingredients first. Then write the directions. The first word of each step of the directions, if possible, should be a verb.

 

Example: Peel the apples and remove core.

Separate egg yolks from the whites.

Cream sugar and eggs together until smooth and well-blended.

Refrigerate the mixture for two hours.

Drain cooked pasta and rinse with cold tap water.

Etc., etc., etc. .

  b) Choose the correct variant to make a question.

 

ExampleWe go to the cinema every weekend. (How often/ What) How often doyou goto the cinema?   He works in our office. (Where/ Who) Where doeshe work? He works in our office. (Where/ Who) Who worksin our office?

 

1. He has got a lot of trouble with his stomach ulcer. (Who/ Whose/ What)……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………..

  1. She reads magazines every day. (How often/ What) - ………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………….

3. The doctor usually sees patents in Room 12. (What/Whom) - ………………………………………………………………………………

4. They meet their friends in the laboratory every Monday. (Who/ Why/ How often) - ………………………………………………………………….

5. Ann and Peter visit their parents at the weekend. (Who/ When/ Whom) - ………………………………………………………………………………

6. She knows Anatomy very well. (How/ How well/ Who) -…………………

…………………………………………………………………………………..

7. We always do such exercises at home. (Who/ Where/ What) - …………. ……………………………………………………………………………

8. You seldom do your morning exercises. (Who/ What/ How often) - ……. ………………………………………………………………………………

9. They go to the library every month. (Where/ Who/ When) - ……. ………………………………………………………………………….

10. He wants to go to a dentist as he has a bad toothache. (Who/ When/ Why) - ………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

EATING WELL

People today are probably more Aabout food than ever before. We worry about

eating foods that contain too much fat or carbohydrates and so we cut Вon things like meat, bread, potatoes and dairy products. The problem with making dramatic changes to our eating С like these is that we may also be cutting out good Dof iron or other vitamins and minerals. Suddenly we start feeling tired and irritable. The secret of a Ediet is to reduce foods that are high in cholesterol while, at the same time, eating those are Fin calcium and iron like soy protein, sesame seeds, spinach

and broccoli. Eating well does not mean that you should cut out all your favorite foods; it just means eating sensibly and trying to avoid too much Gfood!

 

А 1) interested 2) concerned 3) keen 4)fed up

В l)out 2) off 3) down 4)up

С1) customs 2) rules 3) norms 4)habits

D 1) bases 2) origins 3) sources 4)causes

Е 1) balanced 2) neutral 3) steady 4)solid

F 1) strong 2) rich 3) full 4)wealthy

G 1) rubbish 2)junk V

3) trash 4)garbage

Read the text. Find English equivalents for the following word combinations:

Кондитерская; бакалейно-гастрономический магазин; мясной магазин; крупы; мука; домашняя птица; огурцы; свекла; капуста; большой выбор мяса; магазин с самообслуживанием; прилавок; продавец; покупатель. Confectionery; grocery-deli; Butcher shop; cereals; flour; Domestic bird; cucumbers; beets; cabbage; a large selection of meat; store self-service; counter; dealer; buyer

When we want to buy something, we go to a shop. There are many kinds of shops in every town or city, but most of them have a food supermarket, a department store, men's and women's clothing stores, grocery, a bakery and a butchery.
In a food supermarket we can also buy many different things at once: sausages, fish, sugar, macaroni, flour, cereals, tea. At the butcher's there is a wide choice of meat and poultry. At the bakery you buy brown and white bread, rolls, biscuits.
Another shop we frequently go to is the greengrocery which is stocked by cabbage, potatoes, onions, cucumbers, carrots, beetroots, green peas and what not. Everything is sold here ready-weighed and packed. If you call round at a dairy you can buy milk, cream, cheese, butter and many other products.
The methods of shopping may vary. It may be a self-service shop where the customer goes from counter to counter selecting and putting into a basket what he wishes to buy. Then he takes the basket to the check-out counter, where the prices of the purchases are added up. If it is not a self-service shop, and most small shops are not, the shop-assistant helps the customer in finding what he wants. You pay money to the cashier and he gives you back the change.

 

Active vocabulary

food– (uncountable) Any substance that is or can be consumed by living organisms, especially by eating, in order to sustain life. The innkeeper brought them food and drink.

meal– Food served or eaten as a repast.

Types of meals

breakfast–The first meal of the day, usually eaten in the morning.

lunch–A light meal usually eaten around midday, notably when not as main meal of the day.

brunch = breakfast + lunch– поздний завтрак

dinner – обед

(afternoon) tea – полдник

five o’clock tea – файф-о-клок (чай между обедом и ужином)

high tea –ранний плотный ужин с чаем

supper – ужин

l ight breakfastлегкий завтрак

heartybreakfast

square breakfastплотныйзавтрак

substantialbreakfast

appetizer (starter) – легкая еда для возбуждения аппетита; аперитив (о выпивке)

a three-course dinner – обед из трех блюд

for a first course – на первое

for a main course– на второе

for dessert[di'zэ:t]– на десерт, на сладкое

Names of some dishes

appetizer (starter) – закуска

salad – салат

vegetable/ mixed salad– винегрет

Russian salad – салат-оливье

fruit salad – фруктовый салат

first course – первые блюда

soup[su:p] – суп

clear soup or broth – бульон

cabbage soup – щи

pea soup – гороховый суп

noodle soup – суп-лапша

main (second) course – вторые блюда

macaroni = pasta – макаронные изделия, макароны

spaghetti– спагетти

noodles– лапша

porridge– каша

mashed potatoes – картофельное пюре

fried potatoes– жареный картофель

potatoes-in-jackets– картофель в мундирах

fish and chips – рыба с картофелем, жаренным соломкой

bacon and eggs – бекон с яичницей

hard-boiled egg – крутое яйцо

soft-boiled egg – яйцо всмятку

fried eggs – яичница-глазунья

scrambled eggs –яичница-болтунья

omelette – омлет

third course (dessert) – третье,. десерт

stewed fruit – компот

juice– сок

sweets– конфеты, сладости

ice-cream – мороженое

fruit – фрукты

Having meals

feed(fed, fed) – кормить

eat (ate, eaten)– есть, кушать

eat well – есть с аппетитом

heartyeater – человек, любящий поесть

bite(bit,bit) – кусать, откусывать

chew– жевать

swallow – глотать

 

Module1 Unit 5.





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