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Grammar

Prepositions of place and time.

In grammar, a preposition is a word which is used before a noun, a noun phrase or a pronoun, connecting it to another word. In the sentences:

  • "We jumped in the lake"
  • "Many shops don't open on Sundays."

"in" and "on" are prepositions

Generally speaking one can classify prepositions in three groups: prepositions of time, prepositions of place and other types of prepositions. Visit the pages below to study each type. We provide explanations along with some examples

1. Prepositions of time

The preposition AT is used in the following descriptions of time:

With clock times:

  • My last train leaves at 10:30.
  • We left at midnight.
  • The meeting starts at two thirty.

With specific times of day, or mealtimes:

  • He doesn’t like driving at night.
  • I’ll go shopping at lunchtime.
  • I like to read the children a story at bedtime.

With festivals:

  • Are you going home at Christmas/Easter?

In certain fixed expressions which refer to specific points in time:

  • Are you leaving at the weekend?**
  • She’s working at the moment.
  • He’s unavailable at present.
  • I finish the course at the end of April.
  • We arrived at the same time.

**Note that in American English, on the weekend is the correct form.

 

The preposition IN is used in the following descriptions of time:

With months, years, seasons, and longer periods of time:

  • I was born in 1965.
  • We’re going to visit them in May.
  • The pool is closed in winter.
  • He was famous in the 1980’s.
  • The play is set in the Middle Ages.
  • They’ve done work for me in the past.

With periods of time during the day:

  • He’s leaving in the morning.
  • She usually has a sleep in the afternoon(s).
  • I tried to work in the evening.

To describe the amount of time needed to do something:

  • They managed to finish the job in two weeks.
  • You can travel there and back in a day.
  • To indicate when something will happen in the future:
  • She’ll be ready in a few minutes.
  • He’s gone away but he’ll be back in a couple of days.

 

The preposition ON is used in the following descriptions of time:

With days of the week, and parts of days of the week:

  • I’ll see you on Friday.
  • She usually works on Mondays.
  • We’re going to the theatre on Wednesday evening.

Note that in spoken English, on is often omitted in this context, e.g.: I’ll see you Friday.

With dates:

  • The interview is on 29th April.
  • He was born on February 14th 1995.

With special days:

  • She was born on Valentine’s day.
  • We move house on Christmas Eve.
  • I have an exam on my birthday.

If we examine these different aspects of usage for the three prepositions, a general pattern emerges. At is generally used in reference to specific times on the clock or points of time in the day. In generally refers to longer periods of time, several hours or more. On is used with dates and named days of the week.

Exercises.

a) Complete the sentences with Prepositions of time.

1. What did you do ... your history lesson?

2. How many pupils are there ... your class?

3. Is there anybody ... the classroom?

4. Would you like to live ... another country?

5. We sometimes stay ... school late.

6. There were 20,000 people ... the football match.

7. My mother is not ... home, she is ... work.

8. Were there many familiar people … the concert?

9. I have seen a brilliant play … the theatre.

10. My friend won the first place ... the 400-metres race.

11. You can watch hockey match ... TV today.

2. Prepositions of place

The preposition AT is used in the following descriptions of place/position:

With specific places/points in space:

  • She kept the horse at a nearby farm.
  • I had a cup of coffee at Helen’s (house/flat).
  • Angie’s still at home.
  • I’ll meet you at reception.
  • There’s a man at the door.
  • I saw her standing at the bus stop.
  • Turn right at the traffic lights.
  • The index is at the back of the book.
  • Write your name at the top of each page.

With public places and shops:

  • Jane’s at the dentist/hairdresser.
  • I studied German at college/school/university.
  • Shall I meet you at the station?
  • We bought some bread at the supermarket.

With addresses:

  • They live at 70, Duncombe Place.

With events:

  • I met her at last year’s conference. She wasn’t at Simon’s party.

The preposition ON is used in the following descriptions of place/position:

With surfaces, or things that can be thought of as surfaces:

  • The letter is on my desk.
  • There was a beautiful painting on the wall.
  • The toy department is on the first floor.
  • Write the number down on a piece of paper.
  • You’ve got a dirty mark on your jumper.
  • He had a large spot on his nose.
  • She placed her hand on my shoulder.

With roads/streets, or other things that can be thought of as a line, e.g.: rivers:

  • The bank is on the corner of King’s Street.
  • Koblenz is on the Rhine.
  • Bournemouth is on the south coast.
  • It’s the second turning on the left.

 

The preposition IN is used in the following descriptions of place/position:

With geographical regions:

  • Driving in France is very straightforward.
  • Orgiva is a very small village in the mountains.

With cities, towns and larger areas:

  • Do you like living in Nottingham?
  • They were having a picnic in the park.
  • She works somewhere in the toy department.

With buildings/rooms and places that can be thought of as surrounding a person or object on all sides:

  • Can you take a seat in the waiting room please?
  • I’ve left my bag in the office.
  • There’s a wedding in the church this afternoon.
  • Lots of people were swimming in the lake

With containers:

  • There’s fresh milk in the fridge.
  • I think I’ve got a tissue in my pocket.
  • The money is in the top drawer of my desk.

With liquids and other substances, to show what they contain:

  • Do you take milk in your coffee?
  • I can taste garlic in this sauce.
  • There’s a lot of fat in cheese and butter.

Exercises

a) Complete the sentence with preposition of place:

There's nobody waiting____the bus stop.

1. Meet me____the bus station.

2. I often have a coffee____the Calypso Cafe.

3. I'm a student____Brighton College.

4. Molly is____work at the moment.

5. He saw a nest ... the tree.

6. How many misprints are there ... this book?

7. Don’t sit ... the window.

8. Is the post-office close ... your house?

9. What subjects do you study ... school?

b)TranslateintoEnglish.

рядом с его домом, среди нас, между двумя большими домами, вокруг стола, у окна, у двери, далеко от школы, перед нашим офисом, под кроватью, по ту сторону реки, напротив ее дома, позади меня, над ее головой, над столом, под землей, в школе, в доме, вне дома. на столе, на стене

Impersonal sentences.

In many kinds of English sentences, you will find the word “it” or the word “there” in the subject position. These are usually “impersonal” sentences — sentences where there is no natural subject. This introduction will help you to understand when to use “it” and when to use “there”.

1. Impersonal “it”

When to use it Examples
Talking about weather   It’s raining. It’s cold. It was sunny yesterday.
Identifying something “Who is it?” “It’s me.” “What is it?” “It’s a cat.”
Talking about time “What time is it?” “It’s five o’clock.” “What day is it?” “It’s Thursday.”
Talking about distance “How far is it to Toronto?” “It’s 4000 kilometers.”

2. Impersonal “there”

Impersonal “there” is used to say that something exists in a particular place:

Singular There is a book on the table.
Plural There are three men in the car.

Exercises

a)Translate into Russian.

It’s impossible. It’s a pity. It’s surprising. It’s very strange. It’s natural. It’s suspicious.

b) Continue the sentence.

Example: It’s not tIt is useless to : - It is useless to learn rules without examples - бесполезно учить правила без примеров

1. It’s difficult for him to…

2. It’s not interesting to…

3. It’s important to…

4. It’s wonderful to…

5. It’s not serious to…

6. It’s impossible to…

7. It’s exciting to…

8. It’s not easy for me to…

c) Write the questions to the following impersonal sentences:

1. It’s time to work again

2. It’s a good time for swimming in this region

3. It’s really pleasant morning today

4. It’s expensive to buy vegetables at this market

5. It’s a walking distance to Pushkin street

6. It’s getting dark at 5

7. It’s necessary to that right now

8. It’s really some good news

d) Rewrite the following impersonal sentences in negative form.

1. It was a good holiday

2. It was a very cold day yesterday

3. It is necessary to send it urgently

4. It is a convenient train

5. It was difficult to recognize him at once

6. It was interesting to read this article

7. It is exciting to climb in the mountains

8. It was an important experiment

Numerals in English is a part of speech that defines the number or the order of items. There are simple numerals (1-12), derivative numerals (13-19) and composite numerals (for example: 21, 67, 147). There are cardinal and ordinalnumerals in the English language. 1) Cardinal numerals show the number of certain items. They correspond to the interrogative word “How many?” 2) Ordinal numerals are used to show the order of items. They correspond to the question starting with the word “Which?” Example: Such words as “a hundred”, “a thousand” and “a million” are nouns, not numerals. If these words are used in a singular form, they always go with the indefinite article “a” or the numeral “one”.   Listening 1.
Ashley: Hey, Jake. Are you ready for your trip? Jake: Well, not really. I still have to buy some clothes. Ashley: Well, what's the weather like where you're going? Jake: Well, uh, it's really hot in the summer, so I'm going to buy some shorts, sandals, and a few t-shirts. Ashley: What about the rest of the year? Jake: People say that the fall can still be warm until November, so I'm going to buy some jeans and a few casual shirts. Ashley: Will you need any warm clothes for the winter? Jake: Well, the weather doesn't get too cold, but it often snows in the mountains, so I'm going to buy a couple of warm sweaters, a jacket, and a hat. I don't have room in my suitcase to pack a coat, so I'm going to wait until I get there and buy it when I really need it. Ashley: Are you going to take anything else? Jake: They say it rains cats and dogs in the spring, but again, I'll probably just wait and pick up a raincoat or an umbrella later on. But, I'm going to take a good pair of shoes because I plan on walking to and from school everyday. Ashley: Do you need any clothing for formal occasions? Jake: Well, you never know when you might need something on the spur of the moment for a wedding or maybe someone's graduation, or a nice date, so I'll probably take some nice slacks, a dress shirt, and a couple (of) crazy ties or two. Ashley: Um, that makes sense. Jake: And I'll just rent a suit or tuxedo if I need anything more formal. Hey, maybe I'll get married. Ashley: You? Married? Hah! Jake: Wait. What are you trying to say? Ashley: I just can't imagine you decked out in a tuxedo for any formal occasion. [What?!] I mean, for high school graduation, you wore an old pair of jeans and tennis shoes. Jake: Hey, there was a reason for that, so let me explain. [Yeah, ha, ha.] No, really. You see, it goes like this . . .  

 

Начало формы

Конец формы

  • rest (noun): what is left over after everything else has be used, eaten, etc.
    - Wow. Your suitcase is already full of shirts and shoes. What are you going to do with the rest of your clothing?
  • room (noun): space
    - Do you have any room in your backpack for a couple more books?
  • pack (verb): fill a suitcase, box, or another container
    - You'd better start packing your bags tonight so we don't have to rush out the door tomorrow.
  • rain cats and dogs (idiom): rain very hard
    - Last night, I was walking home from work when it began raining cats and dogs. Unfortunately, I didn't have my umbrella with me.
  • pick up (phrasal verb): buy something
    - Could you pick up some white socks from the store on your way home from work?
  • formal occasion (noun): an important event where people wear special clothing and behave politely
    - I sometimes rent a tuxedo for formal occasions. I don't want to buy one that I will only wear once every few years.
  • on the spur of the moment (idiom): without planning or preparation
    - She always makes decisions on the spur of the moment, so you never know what she's planning.
  • slacks (noun): good-quality pants
    - You don't have to wear a suit to the event, but you might want to wear a pair of nice slacks and a conservative tie.
  • make sense (idiom): have a clear meaning or a sensible explanation
    - It makes sense to ask teachers to wear a nice shirt and tie to work.
  • be decked out (idiom): dressed in formal clothes for special occasions
    - Everyone was shocked when my brother came to the barbecue decked out in a white tuxedo. Then, we realized he came to propose to his girlfriend.

Post-listening exercises

What does the man plan to wear during the summer months?
A. a cool hat
B. casual shoes
C. light pants

2. What is one thing the man is NOT going to pack for the winter season?
A. a coat
B. some sweaters
C. a jacket

3. What is the weather like in the spring?
A. It's windy.
B. It's rainy.
C. It's cool.

4. What is an example of an occasion where the man might need formal clothes?
A. a party
B. a business meeting
C. a wedding

5. What did the man wear to his high school graduation?
A. jeans and tennis shoes
B. a casual shirt and tie
C. a suit and dress shoes

Writing

Describe a picture; use the following words and clichés: There is…\there are…, I think…, in my opinion…, as well as… also. Customer, shop assistant, expensive, cheap, to buy, to sell, to bargain.

2. Write about your personal style; what do you prefer wearing? Why?

Reading

Pre-reading task:give the definition to the words: Shop, gift, credit card.

Shopping is a necessary part of life which very few people can avoid. It is a daily routine for some people. Some people shop for pleasure while other people go shopping just to buy the necessary items in order to survive. The weekend is usually a good time to go shopping because people have free time from work. At this time the shops are usually very busy because people try to get the best items for the lowest price before the item runs out of stock.

Some people go shopping more regularly than other people to browse products in shops even when they do not have much money. This is known as window shopping and allows people to plan ahead and save for the things they want to buy in the future or wait for the items to drop in price. Some people spend a lot of time looking for bargains while others do not think of the price and are happy to spend a lot. Some people believe that the more expensive the item, the better the quality, but this is not always true. It is sensible to buy items which are affordable, but some people use a credit card or borrow money from the bank so that they can buy the items they really want rather than wait for it.

Sometimes shopping can be stressful when choosing a gift to buy other people for a special occasion. It is common to buy a gift voucher so that a friend or loved one can go shopping themselves at their own convenience. Shopping online is often popular with people who have a busy lifestyle. People are able to order their necessary and luxury items from the comfort of their own home, or even on the move. Delivery is usually free and items are often cheaper than in shops on the high street. The only real problem is that the item description and quality may be different than what they hoped for. This could mean the customer may become disappointed with the item they receive and will need to return it at their own cost. People who go to shops to do their shopping often use self-service payment machines. This usually saves time as the shopper does not need to join a long queue. However, it can be frustrating when the machine has a problem and the sales assistant is not always available to help.

 

Начало формы

1) Why is the weekend a good time to go shopping?

A) It is very busy on the weekend.
B) People are free from work.
C) Things are usually cheaper.
D) The shops are closed.

2) What are people doing when they go shopping just to have a look and not to buy?

A) Bargain hunting
B) Window shopping
C) They do not have much money
D) Looking for the best quality

3) What do some people usually think about items of better quality?

A) They are cheaper
B) They are harder to find
C) They are more expensive
D) They are on sale

4) When can shopping be stressful?

A) When shops are about to close
B) When it is very busy
C) When buying a gift for someone
D) On the weekend

5) Is there sometimes a problem with online shopping?

A) No the shops are open 24 hours a day
B) Yes with the quality and description of the item
C) Yes there are too many queues
D) No there are no problems

Конец формы

 

Tasks for self-study

a) Divide the following impersonal sentences into three groups: “Nature and weather”, “Time and distance, “Attitude to the fact”.

1. It always rains in autumn.

2. It was impossible to reach her by phone.

3. It snowed heavily last December.

4. It was six o’clock already.

5. It is much cheaper to get here by train.

6. It was getting cold.

7. It is early morning.

8. It's 10 degrees above zero.

9. It’s quite expensive to buy a brand new car.

10. It’s quite far from the post-office.

11. It will be 5 kilometres to the village.

12. It was quiet and mysterious up in the mountains.

13. It wasn’t cloudy this afternoon.

14. It’s noon.

15. It won’t be easy to find an experienced baby-sitter.

 

b) Write a short essay on one of the following topics.

1. Why I Like/Do Not Like Shopping.

2. My Memorable Purchase/Gift.

3. My Method of Shopping.

4. Men's and Women's Shopping Styles.

5. Shopping Styles of the Young and the Elderly.

6. The Presents We Give and Are Given.

7. Why I Never Buy Things in the Market/Boutiques.

 

TEXT

 

FASHION HURTS

Wearing fashionable clothes can be bad for you! This may surprise you, but it is said that some clothes can cause a Aof problems. Do you find this difficult to believe? Well, researchers have discovered that following the latest fashion Вcan be unhealthy. For example, if you tie a scarf or tie too tightly it increases your blood pressure. Tight jeans and trousers, short skirts and even sensible flat shoes may all cause С .Experts say that things we wear can also Dto stomach problems, rashes, backache and painful feet. Yet how can we explain this? Very tight clothes can prevent people moving naturally, and this is not good for you. If you wear trousers or skirts that are too tight around the waist, then yourstomach does not have Eto expand after you have eaten, and this can cause stomachache. Rashes can be caused by an allergic Fto synthetic material. And last, but not least -wearing shoes with high heels can lead to foot and back problems. Even practical shoes can cause backache if they don't G you properly.

A 1) variety 2) group 3) bundle 4) collection

В 1) directions 2) trends 3)changes 4) cultures

С 1) complaints 2) conditions 3) illnesses 4) sickness

D 1) move 2) lead 3) go 4) grow

E 1) extend 2) area 3) place 4) room

F 1) reply 2) response 3) reaction 4) return

G 1)shape 2) match 3) suit 4) fit



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