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· Focus: Higher Education in Russia ( general overview)

· Curricula and Degrees Awarded

· Grammar focus: Wh-questions; Prepositions

· Skills focus: Reading for specific information and comparing the systems of higher education in the USSR, the UK and Russia; making dialogues

TEXT C (1)


academic year – учебный год

curriculum (curricula, curriculums) – курс обучения, учебный план, программа

entrance exams – вступительные экзамены

to be entitled to award state-recognized degrees –иметь право на выдачу дипломов государственного образца

to evolve – развертывать, эволюционировать, развиваться

institution – организация, учреждение

to major in (v) – специализироваться по какому-то предмету, области

major (n) – профилирующая дисциплина

major (a) – главный, более важный

tuition (tuition fee) – обучение, плата за обучение

private individuals - частные лица

probation – испытание, стажировка; to be on probation – находиться на стажировке

1.Political and educational systems were subjected to drastic alterations in Russia.

Complete the table and list the advantages and disadvantages of these changes in higher education.

Advantages Disadvantages
The academic year can last from 4 to 6 years. The abundance of accountants and lawyers.

2. Read the text and check your answers to the questions below.


Higher education plays a very important part inthe life of any state as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists for future development and progress.

Today, higher educational institutions of Russia include over 700 universities, academies, institutes and colleges. The non-state sector with more than 330 higher educational institutions has evolved in recent years. 8 of these have received state attestation and are entitled to award state-recognized degrees.

Training is offered on a full-time and part-time basis. Tuition is free only for Russian citizens who fully meet the admission requirements and successfully pass entrance exams as the most curricula are funded from the limited Federal Government budget. Otherwise tuition is sponsored either by students themselves, their parents and other private individuals or industrial organizations on a contract basis.

The academic year usually lasts 9 months and is divided into two terms (semesters). Students take exams at the end of each semester. If the results of the examinations are good, students will get state grants. Twice a year students are one vacations – two weeks in winter and two months in summer.

The first- and second-year students at technical universities do courses in fundamental sciences such as: mathematics, physics, chemistry, drawing, computer engineering, information technologies (IT) and others. The curricula are enriched and broadened by instructions in such subjects as foreign languages, history and economics.

At the third year students get more advanced knowledge and begin to concentrate on their special interests or to take many courses in the subjects they major in. Specialized study and courses will allow students to become specialists prepared for the future job.

After four years students will get the Bachelor's degree. Then students may go on with their studies and in a year or two of further training and research they are awarded the Master of Science degree. After graduating from the university they may keep on with their studies and research and obtain the Candidate of Science degree.

A very good tradition is that the theory is accompanied by practical training. Students begin to work at the universities well-equipped laboratories and in senior years they have to complete a probation period at various plants, design offices and research institutes of the country.

Most universities have their own students' hostels and large sport centers.

1. Is higher education important in our country?Why?

2. How many new higher educational institutions can award state-recognized degrees?

3. What kinds of training do the higher educational institutions offer?

4. How is tuition at state and non-state higher educational institutions financed?

5. What is necessary for a student to get a state grant?

6. How long are students' vacations?

7. What subjects do students study for the first two years?

8. When do students begin to concentrate on their special interests?

9. What is a major subject?

10. What academic degrees may students get at the higher educational institutions of Russia?

11. What tradition exists at the higher educational institutions in Russia?

12. Where do students who come from other places stay?

3. Complete the sentences: .

1. Today, higher educational institutions of Russia include....

2. Training is offered....

3. Tuition is free only for....

4. Tuition may be sponsored ....

5. The academic year usually lasts....

6. At the end of each semester....

7. Students get state grants if....

8.The first – and second – year students at technical universities obtain....

9. At the third year students....

10. After four years students....

12. After graduating from the university students may....

13. A very good tradition is that....

14. Universities have their own ....


4. Choose the word to match with the translation into Russian:

1. более высокого уровня a) advanced b) excellent c) fundamental

d) highly-qualified

2. включать a) to evolve b) to include c) to obtain d) to receive

3. иначе a) as b) either c) if d) otherwise

4. снa6жaть a) to award b) to entitle c) to provide d) to recognize

5. недавний a) each b) further c) future d) recent

6. конструкторское бюро a) design office b) laboratory c) plant

d) research institute

7. признавать a) to enrich b) to meet c) to prepare d) to recognize

8. дальнейший a) further b) future c) successful d) thorough

9. предлагать a) to entitle b) to offer c) to provide d) to sponsor

10. старший a)advanced b) important c) senior d) thorough

11. расширять a) to broaden b) to include c) to obtain d) to offer

5. Match the words and phrases in A with their opposites in B:

1) to enter a university 2) future 3) theory 4) to receive 5) part-time 6) to pass an examination 7) foreign 8) to award a) native b) to fail an examination c) full-time d) to graduate from a university e) to give f)to get g)practice h) past

6. Replace the underlined words with the words used in the text:

1. Higher education plays a very important role in the life of any country.

2. In the early 1990s the private sector began to develop.

3. Some private higher educational institutions have the right to award state-recognized degrees.

4. Training may be provided free or on a contract basis.

5. Twice a year students have holidays.

6. After graduating from the university students may continue their studies and geta higher degree.

7. Match a verb and a noun to make phrases (with some words more than one combination is possible)

1) to award a) a course

2) to enter b) a grant

3) to get c) an examination

4) to meet d) a part

5) to offer e) a degree

6) to pass f) the requirements

7) to play g) training

8) to take h) a university

8.Fill in the gaps withthe prepositions where necessary:

My sister studies ... NSTU. She entered ... the university two years ago. Her major subject is economics, so she takes many courses ... this subject. She studies free ... a full-time basis. Some students from her group didn't meet the admission requirements completely, so they are sponsored ... their parents or industrial organizations on condition they work ... those enterprises after graduating ... the university.

My sister is a good student, she attends all the lectures and seminars, so she didn't fail ... her examinations and now she gets a state grant once ... a month. She hasn’t known yet what kind of diploma she will try to get.If she gets the Bachelor's degree and decides to go on ... her studies she may get the Master's degree. I believe she will become a good specialist.

9. Complete the dialogue using the words and phrases from the box (change the form of the words where necessary):


Bachelor, degree, Diploma in Engineering, free, further study and research, to go on with, grant, hostel, Master, to meet the admission requirements, to offer training, to pass entrance examinations, to provide accommodation, results of the examinations, to take exams, tuition, a contract basis.


A: Good morning. Can I help you?

B: Good morning. Could you tell me about studying at this university?

A: First of all, our university ... on a full-time and part-time basis.

B: Should students pay for their tuition?

A: Well, tuition is ... for Russian citizens who fully ... and successfully … . The most programs are funded from the limited Federal Government budget.

B: And what about students who are not allowed to study free?

A: They may be sponsored either by students themselves, their parents, private individuals or industrial organizations on … .

B: Can students get ... ?

A: Students ... at the end of each semester, you know. If the ... are good, students get state grants.

B: What ... are awarded at this university?

A: After four years of study students will get the ... degree. Then the students may ... their studies and in a year or two of... get the ... degree. They may also ... a five-year program and get a ... .

B: And the last question. Does the university ... for the students?

A: Our university has its own students' ... , so students who arrive from other cities can stay there.

B: Thank you very much for the information.

A: You are welcome.

Grammar Focus: Wh-questions

Wh-questionsstart with What…?, When…?, Where…?,Which..?, Who…?, Whose…?, Why…?, How…? Wh-questions pattern:Wh word +auxiliary +subject+ infinitive+ (direct object) for e. g.: Why don’t you pay for tuition? What curriculum does the university provide? If the Wh-word is the subject of the question we don’t use an auxiliary verb and the word order is different: Wh-word + verb + object for e.g.: Who pays for tuition? Who majors in IT? Who failed the exams?

10.Complete the following questions to the group-mates?

1. What --- --- surname?

2. ----- --- you come from?

3. What school ----------- from?

4. How many ---------- speak?

5. Which university --- --- at?

6. What faculty ----------- at?

7. What year -------?

8. ------------entrance examination?

9. -------------- your major?

10. ------------- course start?

11. What-------- after the course?

11. The academic year has already started and you are first-year students. Work in groups of three. Write six Wh-questions asking for information concerning your major and the university you’ll study at.

12. Translate from Russian into English and reproduce:

A: Привет! Как дела?

B: Fine. How are you? I haven't seen you for ages. What are you doing now?

A: Видишь ли, я поступил в университет , и теперь у меня не так уж много свободного времени.

B: Is it difficult to study at a university?

A: Математика и физика были моими любимыми предметами в школе. Так что здесь у меня нет никаких проблем. Информатика очень интересный предмет. А вот черчение… ..

B: Everything will be OK. I'm sure. Do you study only mathematics, physics and drawing?

A: конечно нет. В учебный план входят иностранный язык и история.

B: Will you study the same subjects all five years?

A: Нет первые два года я буду изучать базовые предметы. На третьем курсе я буду изучать профилирующие предметы.

B: What about physical training? You were a good athlete at school.

A: В университете есть большой спорткомплекс. Я играю в баскетбол два раза в неделю. Сегодня вечером наша команда играет против команды педагогического университета. Приходи посмотреть игру.

B: I’m sorry, but I can’t . I am going to the library. I must make a report tomorrow.

A: В таком случае желаю тебе удачи.

B: Good luck. Buy.

A: Увидимся.

TEXT C (2)

Before reading the text translate the following words and word combinations:

1. to earn a degree -

2. fieldof specialization --

3. related area of study -

4. to select–

5. to undertake a program of study–

6. theoretical and applied research –

7. to submit a thesis -

8. high proficiency -

9.independent and creative thought -

10. assessment –

11. the Board of Examiners -

12. elective courses –

I. Read the text. Make sentences of your own with the words in bold type.


The first four years of study are spenton earning the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree. Study towards the B.Sc. is referredto as being at the undergraduatelevel. Theprogram required for the B.Sc. degree includes general educationin engineering disciplines and a field of specialization usually called a majoror a core subject. Along with the major there may be a number of related areas of study referred to as minor subjects. Those areas in which students are allowed to select subjects or interests are referred to as elective courses.

Research-oriented students holding the B.Sc. degree may undertake a two-year program with emphasis ontheoretical and applied research leading to the Master of Science (M.Sc.) degree. Thedegree is awarded to candidates who successfullycomplete the program and pass examinations followed by the submission of a project report or thesisacceptable to the Board of Examiners.

Graduates holdingthe Masterof Science degree or the Diploma in Engineering and intending to pursue scholarly researchmay prefer to undertake a three-year Candidate of Sciences /Doctoral/ Postgraduate program of study.Thecandidate is required to attainhigh proficiency in a strongly research-orientedcourse and to write a dissertation that is a significant contribution to the subject under study. The student has to pass examination in order to reveal satisfactorypreparation in related courses. The final assessment is the defense of the dissertation.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. What levels correspond to studying for the degrees of a Bachelor,a Master, a Doctor?

2. What is the difference between major, minor and elective subjects/courses?

3. How long does the course of study towards the Master's degree last?

4. What are graduate students usually interested in?

5. What is necessary to provide for being awarded a Doctor's /Candidate of Science degree?

6. What qualities should a person possess to become a Doctor of Science?

III.Work in groups of four. Student A is a school-leaver intending to go to a university. Student B is an undergraduate. Student C is a graduate. Student D is a postgraduate student. Speak about the opportunities of getting higher education at different levels using the information from the Text A and Text B.

IV. Memory game. The rules are the following:

– one of the students begins with the words «When I finished school I decided to go to university»;

– the next student repeats this sentence and adds what he/she did then:

– the game continues until someone says: «And now 1 am a Doctor of
Science» The student who says these words loses;

– those who forget words or sentences said by the previous players are out of the game.

V. Tell about the system of higher education in Russia.

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