Grammar Focus: Future with will or to be going to



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Grammar Focus: Future with will or to be going to



To talk about the future we use will for: predictions –e.g. The new airport will be finished by2009. future intentions– e.g. I’ll start tomorrow. promises –e.g. I’ll pay you back on Thursday. spontaneous decisions –e.g. Do you want another cup of coffee? I’ll make it for you. We use to be going to for future plans –e.g. Next year we are going to India. predictions fromwhat you can see e.g. Look at the sky – it’s going to rain.

9.Choose either willor going to in these sentences.

1. If we don’t start protecting the environment now, the planet will/is going to die.

2. What will you/are you going to do to protect the environment?

3. I will/am going to take plastic bottles to the recycling point today. Do you want me to take yours?

4. That’s a good idea, I will/am going to go with you.

5. I think that by the year 2000, everybody will/is going to have more efficient cars.

6. I will/am going to change my car next year – this one doesn’t take unleaded petrol.

7. This river has got so much rubbish in it. It looks like it will/ is going to die.

10.Complete these dialogues with willor to be going to and the verbs in the box.

do build put have a rest launch be finished do harm die contaminate

1. A:There is nothing we can do about the environment: eventually the earth will die.

B:Don’t be so pessimistic I----- ------ all my old newspapers in the paper bank- that’s a start.

2. A:What ----- you ------- tomorrow ?

B: I ------- ----------in the forest not far from our town.

A:I’m afraid you can’t, there’s a construction site now.

B:What ------ they ------ here?

A:A plant producing fertilizers. It ---------- --------- by 2010.

B:Bad news. Pollutants ----- ----- the soil and water and ----- ----- to the wildlife and habitat.

A:We------- ----------- the campaign against building the plant in our neighbourhood.

10.Translate from Russian into English.

Планета Земля на грани уничтожения. Деревья засыхают, редкие виды животных и растений исчезают, воздух загрязнен вредными химическими веществами, а реки и моря отходами, урожаи гибнут, и люди страдают от тяжелых заболеваний. Следовательно, загрязнение окружающей среды - одна из важнейших проблем. Люди должны срочно принять меры по спасению человечества. Так как такие природные нарушения приводят к значительным климатическим изменениям на планете.

11.Skim through the text to define: a) pollutants, b) causes of pollution, c) harmful effect of pollution. Complete the diagrams given below:

TEXT B

Vocabulary

decade – десятилетие; десятидневка

device– электронный прибор

gadget – механическое приспособление/устройство

appliances – электроприборы

casing – корпус

component – компонент, часть электронного устройства

insulation – изоляция

out of date – устаревший, несовременный

turnover – товарооборот

to cover disposal cost – покрывать затраты на устранение/ вывоз мусора

at the time of purchase – с момента покупки

scrap heap – мусорная свалка/куча

uphill struggle – трудная, напряженная борьба

fault – неисправность/дефект/ошибка

faulty equipment – неисправное/поврежденное/бракованное оборудование

to confine to – ограничивать

vast majority – основное большинство

legal – легальный, законный

to charge – 1.обвинять 2. брать плату

to lease – сдавать в наем/ в аренду/ сдавать во временное пользование

leased – выданный напрокат/ во временное пользование

to hire – брать напрокат

to monitor – управлять, контролировать

to govern – управлять, руководить

municipal authorities – городские власти

bromine – бром

to incinerate – сжигать

extremely toxic dioxide – сверх-токсичная двуокись

toxic flame retardant – ингибитор; огнезащитное, вещество препятствующее воспламенению; плохо воспламеняющееся вещество

eco-visionaries – эксперты по решению и предсказанию экологических проблем

opposed to – в противопоставление

to come into force – войти в силу, в действие

1. You are going to read a newspaper article about pollution.

a) Work in groups of three and answer the following questions:

What do you think high tech pollution is?

What are major causes of pollution in general?

b) Suggest six words you would expect to find in the article.

2.Read the text, check your suggestions and choose the most suitable heading from the list A-I for each part of the article. There is one extra heading which you don’t need to use.

A.A slow and expensive process.

B.A very short life time.

C.Longer-lasting technology.

D.All TV parts are recycled.

E.Trying to determine what they’re made of.

F.An idea packed with problem.

G.Hurrying to purchase new technology.

H.Who is responsible?

I.Discarding toxic parts and breaking the rules.

HIGH TECH POLLUTION

The recycling of high-tech garbage is becoming a pressing problem. In the last few decadeswe‘ve been like children in the toy shop trying to get the latest electronic gadgets. Manufactures bring new toys faster than we can buy. And the more we buy the more we throw them away.

I

The speed of turnover is very high. Anyone who has ever bought a computer will be sure that a PC is out of dateas soon as you buy it. If a computer has a faultit is more economical to throw it away and buy another than mend it.

II

This trend isn’t confined to computers either. Germany, Europe’s richest nation, discards 1.5 million tons of electrical appliances every year. Only about 100.000 tons of units are recycled. The vast majority are burnt or thrown on the scrap-heap. And this causes serious problems. One of the country’s major recycling firm has been chargedwith dumping toxic waste containing the substance PCB once widely used in TVs and computer as insulation. Since 1985 its production has been illegal and disposal is governed by strict rules. But these rules aren’t being followed.

I III

Klaus Brodersen of Erlangen University is trying to produce a definite classification what chemicals should and should not be used in production of high-tech equipment. But it is an uphill struggle. It costs up to $ 7.000 to analyze a single component, and so far Brodersen has examined only 200 of the 100.000 most common.

I IV

Siemens Nixdorf, which runs a very expensive recycling programme for its old equipment, says there are more than 100 different plastics in its computer casings. No one knows precisely what went into each model. The only certainty is that all the casings contain bromine a kind of toxic flame retardant. It is also impossible to recycle and to incinerate it. If you are able to burn the casing, you’ll produce extremely toxic dioxins.

V

So what is to be done about electronic waste? Eco-visionaries propose a future in which appliances not bought but leased.This would be a tricky practice. Who would be responsible for faulty and toxic equipment? Who would take back the equipment – the dealer, manufacturer or importer? Who is going to monitor manufactures? And, of course, in the long run it is more expensive to hirea TV or a computer than it is to buy one.

I VI

The Swiss have solved the problem by making charge to cover all disposal costs at the time of purchase. There is chaos in Germany where this system has yet to come into force. Some firms make you pay, some collect without charge, some take all goods, others refuse to have anything to do with it. Municipal authorities are disorganized.

VII

The answer to all problems lies in intelligentconstruction which are aimed at economy, ease of disposaland increasing life expectancy of products. The manufacturer Loewe has developed a green TV which contains only 39 grams of plastic as opposed to the standard 6.7 kilos and 50 grams of toxic materials against 5 kilos. It is expected to last up to 30 years, twice as long as other TVs. Companies like this show the way forward.

2.Families disposing garbage can divide it into two categories:

 

1. The waste that can be recycled and burnt 2.The waste that can’t be recycled or incinerated
   

a) Which of these categories would these items be placed in? Complete the table.

…old newspapers … aluminum beer cans … acids and chemicals … broken plates, cups … glass bottles … electric appliances: irons, kettles, hair dryers, blenders …an old color TV … a faulty computer …electronic components … outdated cassette-recorders and telephones …torn woolen sweater …metal tin opener …plastic casings …PCB containing insulators

b) Which from the above mentioned discarded items could be referred to high-tech garbage or electronic waste ?

c) What is the average life span or expectancy for: a mobile phone, a washing machine, color TV set?

4.Match the words in bold from the text with the corresponding definitions.

1. turnover a. to dump

2. discard b. to repair

3. incinerate c. period ending in ten years



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