Всех технических специальностей



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Всех технических специальностей



Англ № 3444

А 647

 

 

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС

 

PRE-INTERMEDIATE

Часть 1

Методические указания для студентов первого курса

Всех технических специальностей

Новосибирск

ББК 81.432.1-923

А 647

 

 

Составители:

доц. К.В. Пиоттух, ст. преп. О.А. Калинкина,

ст. преп. А.Е. Гамм, преп. Е.А. Давидсон,
ст. преп. Е.А. Зотова, ст. преп. О.И. Кондратьева,
преп. Е.Г. Калинина, ст. преп. Т.Н. Климентьева,
преп. А.Ю. Алябьева

 

 

Рецензент канд. филол. наук, доц. Л.С. Шестопалова

 

Работа выполнена на кафедре иностранных языков ТФ НГТУ

 

 

Данные методические указания предназначены для студентов первого курса всех технических специальностей, овладевших лексико-грамматическим материалом в объеме школьной программы и прошедших тестирование в НГТУ. Уровень владения иностранным языком – А2 (Pre-Intermediate). Цель пособия – закрепить сформированные в школе основные навыки коммуникативной деятельности в области говорения, чтения, письма и аудирования.

Предтекстовые задания направлены на моделирование фоновых знаний и одновременно на формирование навыков и умений вероятного прогнозирования.

Послетекстовые задания направлены на выявление основных элементов содержания текста, выработку умений структурирования высказываний, коммуникативная цель которых может выглядеть как описание, повествование, рассуждение и доказательство.

Указания могут быть использованы для аудиторной и внеаудиторной работы, в зависимости от целей, поставленных преподавателем.

Составители выражают благодарность старшему преподавателю Калинкиной О.А. за большой объем проделанной работы.

 

© Новосибирский государственный

технический университет, 2007

 
 
 

MODULE 1 EDUCATION

Introduction

Focus: Personal Profile

1.

CONGRATULATIONS ON BEING A FIRST-YEAR STUDENT AT NSTU!

We will be glad to get acquainted with you, and to know how special you are. Are you the same as your group-mates?

Write notes about yourself in English in your notebook, then complete this questionnaire.

 

QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Where are you from?______________ 2. What’s your age? ____________ 3. For how many years have you studied English?____________ 4. Do you need to brush up your English? ___________________ 5. Can anyone in your home speak English?_______________ 6. Have you any family or friends in an English speaking country?_____________ 7. Have you ever studied abroad?____________________ 8. Have ever been abroad? ______________________ 9. What’s your favourite book?_____________ 10. What’s your favourite film?_____________ 11. What’s your favourite TV programme?_____________ 12. Who is your favourite singer or musician?____________ 13. What’s your favourite character in films, books or history?_______ 14. What are two things you like doing ?______________________ 15. What are two things you hate doing?________________________ 16. What are two things you are good at?_______________________ 17. What are two things you are bad at?________________________ 18. What’s your favourite subject?__________________ 17. What do you know about NSTU?_____________________ 18. Why did you enter NSTU?______________________________ 19. What faculty do study at? 20. What will your future job be?___________________________

 

2. Write three questions more you’d like to ask your group-mates.

Phrasal Verbs

 

to get down to smth to start work on smth that needs a lot of time and energy
to get on with to make progress
to brush up on smth to study or practice to get back the skill that has been lost
to fall behind smb to fail to keep level with others
to catch up with smb to reach the same standard
to drop out to leave, withdraw from a course of instruction
to look through to read, examine quickly
to go through to examine in detail

4.Replace the underlined words with phrasal verbs.

1. She is making good progress with her studies.

2. Many students find it difficult to start doing their work.

3. I feel that I fail to keep level with others with my studies but I don’t know how to reachthe same standard as other students.

4. If you want to go to Britain, you should practice your language –you haven’t used it for seven years.

5. As I left university without any degree, I thought I was a failure.

6. John quickly examined the lines in search of familiar questions. Not having found a single one that he knew anything about, he examined the first question in detail.

5.When studying at a university, you should know people you’ll deal with or titles of teaching staff members and positions they occupy.

Match the definitions below with one of the words given in the box. Find the words in the vocabulary (Text A).

graduate rector director of studies dean undergraduate group-mate tutor professor lecturer

 

1. Someone who is still at a university studying for their first degree.

2. Someone who has successfully completed their first degree.

3. Someone in the same group as you at a university.

4. Someone who teaches at a college or university.

5. Someone responsible for teaching a small group of students.

6. Someone in charge of a university.

7. Someone in charge of a faculty.

8. Someone with the highest academic position in a university.

6.Work in pairs. Discuss these questions:

1. How long is the academic year?

2. Did you take entrance examination?

3. What grades did you get at the entrance exams?

4. What faculty do you study at?

5. Who is in charge of your faculty?

6. How many lectures do you have a week?

7. Do you think higher education should be free of charge? Why?

Who do you think should pay?

8. Do you think everyone should get higher education?

9. Would you like to get higher education abroad?

10. What do you know about higher education in Britain?

 

Grammar Focus:

Present simple is used with the following time expressions: usually, often, always, every day/week/month /year, sometimes, at the weekend, in the morning/ afternoon/evening, never + - ?
I, you, we, they + V Students do experiments. he, she, it + + V +S (es) He does research. don’t + V I don’t know French. doesn’t + V He doesn’t attend lectures. Do you wok? Yes, I do./ No, I don’t. Qu. word + do + subj. + infinitive? does Where does he study? Why do you carry out research?
Who attends classes?
Past simple Time expressions: Yesterday, last month/ year/week, ago, then, when, in 1977 (stated time) 1.The action is finished. 2. One action happened one after another in the past: He stood up and went out. V+ ED (worked, translated) 2nd form of the verb ( took, went) didn’t + V He didn’t pass exams last year. Did you take notes? Yes, I did./ No, I didn’t. Why did you make many mistakes? When did you finish school?
Who did research last year? Who finished school last year?

7.Put the verb in brackets into the past simple or present simple.

1. Last year my friend ________(enroll) in full time course.

2 When _______ «glass-plate» universities (appear)?

3. Anna never _______(make) mistakes.

4. Three weeks ago John seriously ______(be ill) and _____(fall behind) his group-mates.

5. What faculty _______ (do research) in applied mathematics?

6. In the1960s the government _____ (set up) «glass-plate» university and _____(meet) demand for designers and researchers.

II.TEXT A

Vocabulary

academic year – учебный год

semester/term – семестр

director of studies – руководитель научно-исследовательских работ

rector – ректор университета

dean – декан факультета

to be in charge of – ответственный за

to be released by employers – уволен работодателем

unemployed – безработный

massive expansion – сильный рост; значительное увеличение

vocationalcourses– курсы профессиональной подготовки

vocational training – профессиональное обучение;

профессионально-техническое образование

part-time courses – заочно вечернее обучение

full-timeeducationочное обучение

a university undergraduate – студент университета

undergraduatecourses – базовый университетский курс (амер.);

курс обучения на степень бакалавра

to enroll in – записываться, зачислять

to enlarge intake – увеличить набор, прием

authorize – уполномочивать, разрешать, санкционировать

to award degree to smbприсвоить (ученую) степень

medieval – средневековый

to meet demand for – удовлетворять потребность в чем-либо

plate-glass – зеркальные стекла

Open University – Открытый университет

rather than – скорее чем, лучше чем

local study center– местный образовательный центр

Bachelor of Arts (BA) – бакалавр естественных наук

Bachelor of Science (BS) degree – диплом/степень бакалавра естественных наук

Master of Arts (MA) degree – диплом/степень магистра гуманитарных наук

Master of Science (MS) degree– диплом/степень магистра естественных наук

fee – плата

poorer backgrounds – бедного происхождения/из малообеспеченных семей

prosperous social categories – состоятельные/зажиточные слои населения

ethnic minorities – этнические меньшинства

funding body – орган финансирования

to assess smth – оценивать, аттестовать

funding gap – недостаточное финансирование

maintenance grants – безвозмездная субсидия/ссуда, выделяемая на содержание

loan – ссуда, заем, кредит

scientific and technological community – научно технические кадры

to force smb to do smth – заставлять, принуждать кого-нибудь делать что-либо

1. Do you know that…..

Ox-bridge –the British universities of Oxford and Cambridge

«redbrick» universities – any of the British universities started in the late 19th century in cities outside London: Manchester and Leeds are redbricks or redbrick universities.

«plate-glass» universities – 7 universities established on the government initiative due to the growing demand for scientific and technological community in the 1960s. The universities are authorized to award degrees. The buildings are quite modern with plate-glass windows.

Higher educationis education at a college or university where subjects are studied in great detail and at an advanced level.

Further educationis below degree level for people who are older than school age.

Vocational educationis education that teaches you to do a particular job.

1.Read the text and give the heading to each part of the text.

VII. In 1999 a new funding body, the University Funding Council (UFC), was established with power to require universities to produce a certain number of qualified people in specific fields. The UFC has forced the universities to double their students’ intake, and each university department is assessed on its performance and quality. However, the greatly increased quantity of university students might lead to a loss of academic quality.

The expansion has lead to a growing funding gap. Universities have been forcedto seek sponsorship from the commercial world and wealthy patrons. The government decided to reduce maintenance grants but to offer students loans in order to finance their studies. However, the funding gap has continued to grow, more students are living at home to continue their studies: about 50 per cent at the ex-polytechnics, but only 15 per cent at older universities.

2.Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true or false.

1. a) The best way to get further education is to be unemployed.

b) Further education gives additional knowledge but no practical skills.

2. a) Massive expansion was achieved by creating new educational institutions.

b) The proportion of young people enrolled in full time higher education in 2000 was twice as large as in 2005.

3. a) Oxford and Cambridge grew as federation of independent colleges.

b) Ancient universities in Scotland had more links with continental Europe than with England and Wales.

4. a) In the XIX century more universities appeared because of economic problems in the country.

b) Open university provides its students with vocational training and conducts learning through the internet.

5. a)University examinations for BA or BSc involve some original research.

b) The highest degree is Doctor of Philosophy.

6. a) Foreign students are underrepresented because of high fees.

b) There are still some more prejudices about proper careers for men and women.

7. a) The UFC assesses the universities on their students’ intake.

b) The intake growth has led to financing the programme by the government.

Vocabulary

3.Form word partners.

1. maintenance a. empire

2. poorer b. research

3. original c. quality

4. university d. backgrounds

5 overseas e. departments

6. academic f. grants

4.Fill in the gaps with the word partners in the task above.

1. Some students continue to complete a three-year period of ….. …. for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

2. The greatly increased demand for educated people was a result of the international revolution and the expansion of Britain’s …… ….. .

3. Each university consists of …… ……. .

4. The government decides to reduce ……. ……. but to offer students loans in order to finance their studies.

5. Students from ……. …….. are seriously underrepresented in higher education.

6. The greatly increased quantity of students of that universities might lead to lower … … .

5. Put these under the proper heading.

B. enlarge access to o. fee

M. ancient universities

people places activities money
       

6. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions.

1. It is the more prosperous people who have benefited most …. university expansion.

2. Open university provides every person in Britain …. the opportunity to study …. a degree.

3. The massive expansion of higher education was achieved …. greatly enlarging access … undergraduate courses.

4. Part-time vocational courses give those who leave school … the age … 16 an opportunity to get a skill ….the manual, technical and clerical field.

5. The UFC assesses university departments …. their performance and quality.

6. The greatly increased demand …. educated people led … foundation of more universities.

7. Open University conducts learning ….. correspondence, radio and television, and also …. local study centers.

8. About three million students enroll each year … part-time courses … further education colleges.

9. They named « plate-glass» universities …. countries or regions rather than old universities.

10. Ethnic minorities representation is growing: 13 … cent in 1996 compared …. only 10.7 … cent in 1990.

Speaking

7.Look through the text again. Why are these numbers and dates important?

90, 47, 1988, 1992, 28%.

8.Discuss in pairs the answer to following questions:

1. What courses does further higher education provide?

2. How many categories of further and higher education universities are there in Great Britain?

3. What was the reason for massive expansion of higher education in the UK?

9.Make up 3 more questions to the text and ask your partner.

10. Make the list of actions taken by the British government to increase the number of universities.

11. Make the list of advantages and disadvantages of further higher education in the UK.

Advantages Disadvantages
The intake has sharply increased.   The fee is very high.

Vocabulary

celebrated– известный, знаменитый

power– власть, право

to grant smth. – npeдоставлять что-либо

condition состояние

intelligenceум, интеллект

require smth. – тpe6oвать

term– ceмecтp

thesis (pl. theses) – диссертация

to make a contribution – вносить вклад

postgraduate student –аспирант

conduct an examination (lesson, seminar, ...)проводить экзамен

scatter smth.paзбрасывть что-либо

govern – управлять

to be responsible for smth., doing smth.быть ответственным за

public school– (англ.) закрытое частное среднее учреждение,

(амер.) бесплатная государственная школа

applicant– претендент, кандидат, абитуриент

available имеющийся в наличие

to take smth. into consideration – принимать что-либо во внимание

attendance– посещение

compulsory – обязательный

apart from– кроме

to practice smth. (AE) (BE to practise)– 1) применять что-либо, 2) практиковать что-либо

to encourage smb., smth. to do ободрять, поощрять что-либо

opportunity возможность

to deny smth. – отрицать что-либо

thisis not the case– это не так

per centпроцент

beyond the age of 15– старше пятнадцати лет

syllabusпрограмма (курса, лекций)

fellow – член совета колледжа; стипендиат и исследователь

tutorial – университетская система обучения путем прикрепления студентов к отдельным консультантам

essay – очерк, этюд , эссе, рассказ, реферат

scholarship – стипендия

to perpetuate – увековечивать

to allocate scholarships – назначать стипендии

1.The text you’ll read is about students’ life in Britain. Before you read work in pairs and discuss these questions:

1. Would you like to study in Great Britain? Why/Why not?

2. What are the cultural differences in the life of Russian and British students?

3. Read the text and check your suppositions.

Speaking

7.1.Work in three groups. Each group reads a different text given by the teacher and concerning social students’ life. Read the texts and make notes on the key points. (p. 89 Supplementary materials to Module 1)

2 Form new groups of three people, each of whom has read a different text. Inform your partners about main points of the text you've read.

3 Work in the same groups and discuss the similarities and differences in students' life in the USA and in Russia.

4. Choose a spokesperson in the group to make a presentation to the whole class, summarizing the opinions in the group.

Writing

8.This form may be completed on line at: www. intstudy. com/f_application.htm

International Student

Further Information Form

Please take a few moments to complete this Request Form accurately in order to receive FREE comprehensive further information on any course(s) or college(s) worldwide. Relevant institutions will mail you a prospectus and application form within a few days.

Please note: We undertake that this information will be used solely for the purposes of helping you find the right combination of Country, Course and College. We guarantee that this form will only be forwarded to those colleges that meet your unique criteria.

Please supply your details

Full Name _____________________________________________

E-mail address__________________________________________

Nationality _______________ Date of Birth (MM-DD-YY) ___________

Gender * Male * Female

Are you married No Yes

Where do you reside?

Address _________________________________________________

Town/City_______________________________________

State/Country _________Zip/Post Code _________ Country________

Telephone ____________________________

What do you want to study?

What level of study are you interested in:(Must be selected)

*BA/BSc* MA/MSc/PHD* MBA* Community College * Pre-university Course* Diploma

Which country(s) you are interested in studying in: (select all that apply)

*United States of America * United Kingdom * Europe

* Australia * Canada * New Zealand

Financial Status

Fully Funded* Partially Funded* Scholarship Required

Intended Enrolment Time (select term and year)

Term:Spring Summer Autumn Winter Year:2007 2008 2009 2010

 

School/College background

Institution Name _________ Address_____________________________

Current Education Level______________________________

High School Certificate * A-levels

Baccalaureate * Bachelors * Masters *Doctorate

 

Are you aged 11-16 years? No Yes

Vocabulary

academic year – учебный год

curriculum (curricula, curriculums) – курс обучения, учебный план, программа

entrance exams – вступительные экзамены

to be entitled to award state-recognized degrees –иметь право на выдачу дипломов государственного образца

to evolve – развертывать, эволюционировать, развиваться

institution – организация, учреждение

to major in (v) – специализироваться по какому-то предмету, области

major (n) – профилирующая дисциплина

major (a) – главный, более важный

tuition (tuition fee) – обучение, плата за обучение

private individuals - частные лица

probation – испытание, стажировка; to be on probation – находиться на стажировке

1.Political and educational systems were subjected to drastic alterations in Russia.

Complete the table and list the advantages and disadvantages of these changes in higher education.

Advantages Disadvantages
The academic year can last from 4 to 6 years. The abundance of accountants and lawyers.

2. Read the text and check your answers to the questions below.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN RUSSIA

Higher education plays a very important part inthe life of any state as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists for future development and progress.

Today, higher educational institutions of Russia include over 700 universities, academies, institutes and colleges. The non-state sector with more than 330 higher educational institutions has evolved in recent years. 8 of these have received state attestation and are entitled to award state-recognized degrees.

Training is offered on a full-time and part-time basis. Tuition is free only for Russian citizens who fully meet the admission requirements and successfully pass entrance exams as the most curricula are funded from the limited Federal Government budget. Otherwise tuition is sponsored either by students themselves, their parents and other private individuals or industrial organizations on a contract basis.

The academic year usually lasts 9 months and is divided into two terms (semesters). Students take exams at the end of each semester. If the results of the examinations are good, students will get state grants. Twice a year students are one vacations – two weeks in winter and two months in summer.

The first- and second-year students at technical universities do courses in fundamental sciences such as: mathematics, physics, chemistry, drawing, computer engineering, information technologies (IT) and others. The curricula are enriched and broadened by instructions in such subjects as foreign languages, history and economics.

At the third year students get more advanced knowledge and begin to concentrate on their special interests or to take many courses in the subjects they major in. Specialized study and courses will allow students to become specialists prepared for the future job.

After four years students will get the Bachelor's degree. Then students may go on with their studies and in a year or two of further training and research they are awarded the Master of Science degree. After graduating from the university they may keep on with their studies and research and obtain the Candidate of Science degree.

A very good tradition is that the theory is accompanied by practical training. Students begin to work at the universities well-equipped laboratories and in senior years they have to complete a probation period at various plants, design offices and research institutes of the country.

Most universities have their own students' hostels and large sport centers.

1. Is higher education important in our country?Why?

2. How many new higher educational institutions can award state-recognized degrees?

3. What kinds of training do the higher educational institutions offer?

4. How is tuition at state and non-state higher educational institutions financed?

5. What is necessary for a student to get a state grant?

6. How long are students' vacations?

7. What subjects do students study for the first two years?

8. When do students begin to concentrate on their special interests?

9. What is a major subject?

10. What academic degrees may students get at the higher educational institutions of Russia?

11. What tradition exists at the higher educational institutions in Russia?

12. Where do students who come from other places stay?

3. Complete the sentences: .

1. Today, higher educational institutions of Russia include....

2. Training is offered....

3. Tuition is free only for....

4. Tuition may be sponsored ....

5. The academic year usually lasts....

6. At the end of each semester....

7. Students get state grants if....

8.The first – and second – year students at technical universities obtain....

9. At the third year students....

10. After four years students....

12. After graduating from the university students may....

13. A very good tradition is that....

14. Universities have their own ....

 

4. Choose the word to match with the translation into Russian:

1. более высокого уровня a) advanced b) excellent c) fundamental

d) highly-qualified

2. включать a) to evolve b) to include c) to obtain d) to receive

3. иначе a) as b) either c) if d) otherwise

4. снa6жaть a) to award b) to entitle c) to provide d) to recognize

5. недавний a) each b) further c) future d) recent

6. конструкторское бюро a) design office b) laboratory c) plant

d) research institute

7. признавать a) to enrich b) to meet c) to prepare d) to recognize

8. дальнейший a) further b) future c) successful d) thorough

9. предлагать a) to entitle b) to offer c) to provide d) to sponsor

10. старший a)advanced b) important c) senior d) thorough

11. расширять a) to broaden b) to include c) to obtain d) to offer

5. Match the words and phrases in A with their opposites in B:

A B
1) to enter a university 2) future 3) theory 4) to receive 5) part-time 6) to pass an examination 7) foreign 8) to award a) native b) to fail an examination c) full-time d) to graduate from a university e) to give f)to get g)practice h) past

6. Replace the underlined words with the words used in the text:

1. Higher education plays a very important role in the life of any country.

2. In the early 1990s the private sector began to develop.

3. Some private higher educational institutions have the right to award state-recognized degrees.

4. Training may be provided free or on a contract basis.

5. Twice a year students have holidays.

6. After graduating from the university students may continue their studies and geta higher degree.

7. Match a verb and a noun to make phrases (with some words more than one combination is possible)

1) to award a) a course

2) to enter b) a grant

3) to get c) an examination

4) to meet d) a part

5) to offer e) a degree

6) to pass f) the requirements

7) to play g) training

8) to take h) a university

8.Fill in the gaps withthe prepositions where necessary:

My sister studies ... NSTU. She entered ... the university two years ago. Her major subject is economics, so she takes many courses ... this subject. She studies free ... a full-time basis. Some students from her group didn't meet the admission requirements completely, so they are sponsored ... their parents or industrial organizations on condition they work ... those enterprises after graduating ... the university.

My sister is a good student, she attends all the lectures and seminars, so she didn't fail ... her examinations and now she gets a state grant once ... a month. She hasn’t known yet what kind of diploma she will try to get.If she gets the Bachelor's degree and decides to go on ... her studies she may get the Master's degree. I believe she will become a good specialist.

9. Complete the dialogue using the words and phrases from the box (change the form of the words where necessary):

 

Bachelor, degree, Diploma in Engineering, free, further study and research, to go on with, grant, hostel, Master, to meet the admission requirements, to offer training, to pass entrance examinations, to provide accommodation, results of the examinations, to take exams, tuition, a contract basis.

 

A: Good morning. Can I help you?

B: Good morning. Could you tell me about studying at this university?

A: First of all, our university ... on a full-time and part-time basis.

B: Should students pay for their tuition?

A: Well, tuition is ... for Russian citizens who fully ... and successfully … . The most programs are funded from the limited Federal Government budget.

B: And what about students who are not allowed to study free?

A: They may be sponsored either by students themselves, their parents, private individuals or industrial organizations on … .

B: Can students get ... ?

A: Students ... at the end of each semester, you know. If the ... are good, students get state grants.

B: What ... are awarded at this university?

A: After four years of study students will get the ... degree. Then the students may ... their studies and in a year or two of... get the ... degree. They may also ... a five-year program and get a ... .

B: And the last question. Does the university ... for the students?

A: Our university has its own students' ... , so students who arrive from other cities can stay there.

B: Thank you very much for the information.

A: You are welcome.

Grammar Focus: Wh-questions

Wh-questionsstart with What…?, When…?, Where…?,Which..?, Who…?, Whose…?, Why…?, How…? Wh-questions pattern:Wh word +auxiliary +subject+ infinitive+ (direct object) for e. g.: Why don’t you pay for tuition? What curriculum does the university provide? If the Wh-word is the subject of the question we don’t use an auxiliary verb and the word order is different: Wh-word + verb + object for e.g.: Who pays for tuition? Who majors in IT? Who failed the exams?

10.Complete the following questions to the group-mates?

1. What --- --- surname?

2. ----- --- you come from?

3. What school ----------- from?

4. How many ---------- speak?

5. Which university --- --- at?

6. What faculty ----------- at?

7. What year -------?

8. ------------entrance examination?

9. -------------- your major?

10. ------------- course start?

11. What-------- after the course?

11. The academic year has already started and you are first-year students. Work in groups of three. Write six Wh-questions asking for information concerning your major and the university you’ll study at.

12. Translate from Russian into English and reproduce:

A: Привет! Как дела?

B: Fine. How are you? I haven't seen you for ages. What are you doing now?

A: Видишь ли, я поступил в университет , и теперь у меня не так уж много свободного времени.

B: Is it difficult to study at a university?

A: Математика и физика были моими любимыми предметами в школе. Так что здесь у меня нет никаких проблем. Информатика очень интересный предмет. А вот черчение… ..

B: Everything will be OK. I'm sure. Do you study only mathematics, physics and drawing?

A: конечно нет. В учебный план входят иностранный язык и история.

B: Will you study the same subjects all five years?

A: Нет первые два года я буду изучать базовые предметы. На третьем курсе я буду изучать профилирующие предметы.

B: What about physical training? You were a good athlete at school.

A: В университете есть большой спорткомплекс. Я играю в баскетбол два раза в неделю. Сегодня вечером наша команда играет против команды педагогического университета. Приходи посмотреть игру.

B: I’m sorry, but I can’t . I am going to the library. I must make a report tomorrow.

A: В таком случае желаю тебе удачи.

B: Good luck. Buy.

A: Увидимся.

TEXT C (2)

Before reading the text translate the following words and word combinations:

1. to earn a degree -

2. fieldof specialization --

3. related area of study -

4. to select–

5. to undertake a program of study–

6. theoretical and applied research –

7. to submit a thesis -

8. high proficiency -

9.independent and creative thought -

10. assessment –

11. the Board of Examiners -

12. elective courses –

I. Read the text. Make sentences of your own with the words in bold type.

 

The first four years of study are spenton earning the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree. Study towards the B.Sc. is referredto as being at the undergraduatelevel. Theprogram required for the B.Sc. degree includes general educationin engineering disciplines and a field of specialization usually called a majoror a core subject. Along with the major there may be a number of related areas of study referred to as minor subjects. Those areas in which students are allowed to select subjects or interests are referred to as elective courses.

Research-oriented students holding the B.Sc. degree may undertake a two-year program with emphasis ontheoretical and applied research leading to the Master of Science (M.Sc.) degree. Thedegree is awarded to candidates who successfullycomplete the program and pass examinations followed by the submission of a project report or thesisacceptable to the Board of Examiners.

Graduates holdingthe Masterof Science degree or the Diploma in Engineering and intending to pursue scholarly researchmay prefer to undertake a three-year Candidate of Sciences /Doctoral/ Postgraduate program of study.Thecandidate is required to attainhigh proficiency in a strongly research-orientedcourse and to write a dissertation that is a significant contribution to the subject under study. The student has to pass examination in order to reveal satisfactorypreparation in related courses. The final assessment is the defense of the dissertation.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. What levels correspond to studying for the degrees of a Bachelor,a Master, a Doctor?

2. What is the difference between major, minor and elective subjects/courses?

3. How long does the course of study towards the Master's degree last?

4. What are graduate students usually interested in?

5. What is necessary to provide for being awarded a Doctor's /Candidate of Science degree?

6. What qualities should a person possess to become a Doctor of Science?

III.Work in groups of four. Student A is a school-leaver intending to go to a university. Student B is an undergraduate. Student C is a graduate. Student D is a postgraduate student. Speak about the opportunities of getting higher education at different levels using the information from the Text A and Text B.

IV. Memory game. The rules are the following:

– one of the students begins with the words «When I finished school I decided to go to university»;

– the next student repeats this sentence and adds what he/she did then:

– the game continues until someone says: «And now 1 am a Doctor of
Science» The student who says these words loses;

– those who forget words or sentences said by the previous players are out of the game.

V. Tell about the system of higher education in Russia.

TEXT D

I. Vocabulary

automation and computer engineering автоматика и вычислительная техника
radio engineering радиотехника, радиотехнический
physical engineering физико-технический
applied mathematics and informatics / information science / computer science прикладная математика и информатика
electro-mechanics электромеханика
aircraft летательный аппарат
power engineering энергетика
humanities гуманитарные науки
Engineer's degree степень дипломированного специалиста-инженера, присваиваемая после пяти / пяти с половиной лет обучения в университете
Candidate of Science (Cand.Sc.) кандидат наук
Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) доктор наук
teaching block, building учебный корпус
campus студенческий городок
ski lodge лыжная база
recreation center центр культуры и спорт центр
lecture theatre лекционная аудитория амфитеатром
lounge холл, комната для отдыха
automatic control автоматическое управление
teaching manual методическое пособие
to meet standards/ demands соответствовать стандартам/ удовлетворять требованиям
large-scale power systems - крупногабаритные энергосистемы

1.Before reading the text work in pairs and add to the following chart.

What I know about NSTU What I would like to know about NSTU
NSTU has 12 faculties When was NSTU founded ?

2.Read the text to see if the questions written by you in Exercise 1 are answered.

MISSION STATEMENTS

· To become a University of general academic excellence, meeting worldwide standards of training for engineers, managers and scientists. To develop academic programs leading to the award of bachelor, master and doctoral degrees in engineering, science and business administration.

· To develop the University by expanding into other areas of study and research.

· To contribute to the accelerated development of the country by offering quality services which meet the demand for the transfer and adaptation of suitable rational technologies in all areas of the national economy.

Founded in 1953, NSTU gained its status of a technical university in 1992. It is one of the top ten technical universities in Russia and a large scientific and educational centre of Siberia and the Far East.

NSTU trains specialists and offers additional training in 35 areas at 10 faculties: Automation and Computer Engineering, Radio Engineering, Electronics and Physics, Physical Engineering, Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Electro-mechanics, Mechanics and Technology, Aircraft, Business, Power Engineering and Humanities.

The period of study is 4 - 6 years, depending on the qualification as follows: Bachelor of Science 4 years, Engineer 5 years, Master of Science
6 years. M.Sc. students are awarded M.Sc. degree in Engineering after defending their Master's theses in the corresponding fields of study. Postgraduate students are offered a 3-year programme of study and research leading to the Candidate of Science degree in Engineering.

The number of students at NSTU is more than 16000 (including foreign students), 140 post­graduates and doctoral candidates. The number of academic staff is 1080, of which 697 hold Cand.Sc. or D.Sc. qualifications. They work and study in 61 departments.

The direction of scientific research corresponds to the individual areas of specialization of the faculties. The university has its own schools of thought. The most famous of these deal with fundamental research in the following directions: automatic control; creating a new class of measuring facilities; software and data for expert systems; increase in stability; economy and quality of large-scale power systems; new types of electronic and radio engineering devices; hybrid methods and program complexes aimed at the strength of the design and reliability of the calculations and so on.

The students actively participate in all types of scientific research. The university publishes a journal «NSTU Bulletin», scientific works, textbooks, monographs, and teaching manuals. Candidates and Doctors of Science are conferred by 11 specialist councils.

A French center has recently been opened at the university. Students studying French here receive a certificate and an opportunity to continue their studies in French universities.

A branch of the Goethe Institute has also been opened at NSTU. Students studying German are awarded a certificate and gain an opportunity to study in German universities.

The university participates in the following international programs: TACIS, TEMPUS, INTAS, etc. It has established relations with 12 universities in Europe, Asia, and America. Authorized training centres of leading firms from the USA and Germany, e.g. Sun, DEC, Autodesk, Motorola, and AEG have been opened.

The university has 8 teachings blocks. Its research laboratories are equipped with modern facilities. The campus includes 7 student hostels (dormitories), policlinics a sport centre with gyms, a swimming pool and a ski lodge and a recreation centre. The university has sports camps in the picturesque Altai Mountains and in the suburbs of Novosibirsk.

3. What do these numbers from the text refer to?

1992, 1953, 1080, 4, 6, 5, 11, 8,

4. Match the words from the text with their corresponding definitions.

1. facilities a. physical parts of the computer, machinery

Magazine b. programs

Stories and photographs

II. PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES

1.Split the classinto the groups of four. Discuss the following:

1. What is a «presentation»?

2. For what purposes are presentations made?

3. What makes a presentation effective?

2.Study effective presentation tips. Tickthe tips you consider to be of primary importance:

1 .When preparing a presentation, try to find out what your audience already knows.

2 Visit the room in which you are presenting before you actually make the presentation.

3 The first stage of your presentation is when you should get the full attention of your audience.

4 If you memorize the introduction, you will be more confident when making a presentation.

5 The whole text of your presentation should be written on postcards.

6 If you use an overhead projector, you should remember to turn it off when you don't need it.

7 Remember that the content of the presentation is much more important than your presenting style.

3.Comment on the following statements. In your opinion are they: a) essential b)helpful c) unhelpful for a successful presentation?

1.Tell a joke at the beginning.

2. Speak more slowly than you normally do.

3. Smile a lot.

4. Involve the audience.

5. Invite questions during the presentation.

6. Always keep to your plan.

7. Move around during your presentation.

8. Use a lot of gestures to emphasize important points.

9. Read out your presentation from a script.

10. Stand up when giving your presentation.

4. Study the useful language of the effective presentation used to start, to sequence, to make the main body and conclude the presentation.

Table 1

Introduction
Introducing yourself Greeting, name, position
Introducing your talk: Title/ subject: I'm going to talk about... I'd like to talk about ... My topic/ my subject is ... The subject of this talk/my talk is ... I'd like to talk to you about... I'm going to present the recent... / explain our position on ... /inform you about... / describe ... The focus of my presentation/ paper (academic)/ topic / speech (usually to public audience)
Purpose/ objective We are here today to / decide / agree, learn about... The purpose of this talk is to show / take a look at / report on / outline /give an overview / discuss / review This talk is designed to act as a springboard for discussion /start the ball rolling
Length I shall take (...) minutes of your time I plan to be brief This should last (...) minutes
Outline/ main parts I've divided my presentation into (four) parts/ sections. They are ... The subject can be looked at under the following headings... We can break this area down into the following fields: Firstly/ first of all/ Secondly / then/ next... Thirdly/ and then we come to ... Finally / lastly/ last of all...
Questions I'd be glad to answer any questions at the end of my talk. If you have any questions, please feel free to interrupt. Please interrupt me if there's something, which needs clarifying. Otherwise, there'll be time for discussion at the end.

Table 2

Main part
Sequencing Ordering points Transition / Changing topic First / next /then / after that Let's turn to ... The / my next point is ... The next thing is ... After all, ... Last of all ... Finally, ... Now let's look at / move on / turn to ...
Referring to an earlier point / departing from your plan / digressing Going back to ... By the way, ...
Giving examples/ Introducing and commenting on visuals (graphs, charts, diagrams, tables, pictures, handouts) For example / for instance / such as / One example of this is / Let's look at Take a look at ... /Have a look at ... Let's take/ have a look at I'd like you to look at ... If you take a closer look at ..., you'll notice ... I'd like to focus your attention on ... I'd like to draw you attention to ... I'd like you to look at... in more details / In the picture we can see /As you can see from the picture The graph/ chart shows /presents
Conclusions
summary Let me just run over the key points again. I'll briefly summarize the main issues. To sum up. ... Briefly ... In brief... In short ...
Conclusion or   recommendations (if appropriate) So, / In conclusion ... / We've seen that As you can see, there are some very good reasons... I'd like to leave you with the following thought / idea ...   So, I would suggest that we ... / I'd like to propose (more formal) /In my opinion, the only way forward is ...
a signal to end That brings me to the end of my presentation. That completes my presentation. Before I stop/ finish, let me just say ... That covers all I wanted to say today.

 

Table 3

Questions
an invitation for questions/ to make comments, or start a discussion I'd be glad to try and answer any questions. So, I'd now be glad to answer any questions. So, let's throw it open to questions. / Any questions? / I'd like to suggest we start the discussion now.
Check you have understood the question   Rephrase or clarify
Classify the question and reply   «easy», «difficult», «irrelevant», «hostile»
Checking the questioner is satisfied.   Does that answer your question? Is that clear? May we go on?
close
  Thank you for your attention. Thank you for listening I hope you will have gained an insight into

UNIT 5 POLLUTION

· Focus: Pollution no easy answers (Its types, causes and effect on the environment and people)

· High-tech pollution

· Grammar focus: Future with will or to be going to

· Skills focus: Reading for specific information; learn to analyze the problem of pollution and look for the ways of its solution

TEXT A

Vocabulary

an unsightly billboard –неприглядный, уродливый рекламный щит

to toss – бросать

to do harm – причинять вред

stuff – вещество, материя

manure – навоз, компост

scattered settlement – расположенные на расстоянии поселения

to take its toll – сыграть свою роль, иметь негативные последствия

integrity of earth's life-support systems – целостность системы жизненного обеспечения на земле

lead – свинец

garbage – мусор

dump – свалка

fertilizer –удобрение

new toxic pollutants –новые отравляющие вещества

pin down – точно определить, установить

to overlap –совпадать, перекрываться

issue –спорный вопрос, проблема; публикация, статья

to contaminate –загрязнять

habitat – среда обитания

to deface buildings – портить, разрушать здания

technological advance –технологический прогресс

internal combustion engine – двигатель внутреннего сгорания

pressing problems – проблемы требующие срочного. безотлагательного решения

the lack of economic incentives – отсутствие экономических стимулов

consequences of pollution – последствия загрязнения

exhaust – выхлопные газы

poverty – нищета

people on limited incomes – люди с ограниченными доходами

risk assessment – оценка степени риска

value system – система ценностей

to quantify the risks – определить величину степени риска

to prevent – предотвращать

to threaten – угрожать

1. Pollution is a pressing problem which must be immediately solved.

Work in pairs. Try to give your own definition of this term. Make the list of pollution causes.

2.Read the text and compare your answer with the pollution definition in the text.

POLLUTION - NO EASY ANSWERS

It's not hard to find examples of pollution in our society. But it is hard to define exactly what pollution is. For example, is a can tossed on the ground pollution? How about an unsightly billboard? The noise from a nearby airport?

According to experts, all of these examples can be types of pollution. Broadly defined, pollution is any human-caused change in the environment that creates an undesirable effect on living and nonliving things. Most types of pollution cause some type of physical harm. But some don't. Noise, for example, often creates more psychological damage than physical damage, but it's still considered a type of pollution. In short, pollution is bad stuff—for the environment and for people and other living things.

From Manure to Monoxide: As long as people lived in scattered settlements and the world's human population was relatively small, pollution wasn't much of a problem. But once people began to live in cities and to invent machines and synthetic chemicals, pollution started taking its toll. Pollution has been linked to the fall of Rome (lead in the pipes); the cholera epidemic in 19th-century London (garbage in the streets); and many other significant events throughout history.

Though pollution has been around for thousands of years, the sources of our pollution problems have changed, and the amount of pollution has increased dramatically. A century ago, people were dealing with pollution from animal waste, coal ash, and open dumps. Today, pesticides, fertilizers, radiation, carbon monoxide, acid rain, and a lot of other «new» and toxic pollutants a



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