There are two great plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, 





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There are two great plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals,



There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east.

There are two great plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals,

the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separatesEurope from Asia.

There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe's biggest river, the Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers — the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena — flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean.

Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world's deepest lake (1,600 metres) is Lake Bai­kal. It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.

Russia has one-sixth of the world's forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.

On the vast territory of the country there arc various types of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temper­ate and continental.

Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources.

Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the President. The legislative powers are exercised by the Duma.

The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is its largest political, scientific, cultural and in­dustrial centre. It is one of the oldest Russian cities.

At present, the political and economic situation in the country is rather complicated. There are a lot of problems in the national economy of the Russian Federation. The in­dustrial production is decreasing. The prices are constantly rising, the rate of inflation is very high. People are losing their jobs because many factories and plants are going bank­rupt.

 

But in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, there are a lot of opportunities for this country to become one of the leading countries in the world. I'm sure that we, the younger generation, can do very much to make Russia as strong and powerful as it used to be.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

 

The poisoning of the world's land, air, and water is the fastest-spreading disease of civilisation. It probably produces fewer headlines than wars, earthquakes and floods, but it is potentially one of history's greatest dangers to human life on earth. If present trends continue for the next several decades, our planet will become uninhabitable.

Overpopulation, pollution and energy consumption have creatcd such planet-wide problems as massive deforestation, ozone depletion, acid rains and the global wanning that is believed to be caused by the greenhouse effect.

The seas are in danger. They are filled wilh poison: industrial and nuclear waste, chemical fertilisers and pesticides. The Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas.

Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out foc-ever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today will have become extinct twenty years from now.

Air pollution is a very serious problem. In Cairo just breathing the air is life threaten­ing — equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same holds true for Mexico City and 600 cities of the former Soviet Union.

Industrial enterprises emit tons of harmful substances. These emissions have disas­trous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.

An even greater environmental threat are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.

People are beginning to realise that environmental problems are not somebody else's. They join and support various international organisations and green parties. If govern­ments wake up to what is happening — perhaps we'll be able to avoid the disaster that threatens the natural world and all of us with it.



 

HOLIDAYS IN GREAT BRITAIN

 

There are fewer public holidays in Great Britain than in other European countries.

They are: Christmas Day, Boxing Day, New Year's Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, May Day, Spring Bank Holiday and Summer Bank Holiday. Public holidays in Britain are called bank holidays, because the banks as well as most of the offices and shops are closed.

The most popular holiday is Christmas. Every year the people of Norway give the city of London a present. It's a big Christmas tree and it stands in Trafalgar Square. Central streets are beautifully decorated.

Before Christmas, groups of singers go from house to house. They collect money for charity and sing carols, traditional Christmas songs. Many churches hold a carol service on the Sunday before Christmas.

The fun starts the night before, on the 24th of December. Traditionally this is the day when people decorate their trees. Children hang stockings at the end of their beds, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and fill them with toys and sweets.

Christmas is a family holiday. Relatives usually meet for the big Christmas dinner of turkey and Christmas pudding. And everyone gives and receives presents. The 26th of December, Boxing Day, is an extra holiday after Christmas Day. This is the time to visit friends and relatives or perhaps sit at home and watch football.

New Year's Day is less popular in Britain than Christmas. But in Scotland, Hog­manay is the biggest festival of the year.

Besides public holidays there are some special festivals in Great Britain. One of than takes place on the 5th of November. On that day, in 1605, Guy Fawkes tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill King James I. He didn't succeed. The King's men found the bomb, took Guy Fawkes to the Tower and cut off his head.

Since that day the British celebrate the 5th of November. They bum a dummy, made of straw and old clothes, on a bonfire and lot off fireworks. This dummy is called a "guy" (like Guy Fawkes) and children can often be seen in the streets before the 5th of Novem­ber saying, "Penny for the guy." If they collect enough money they can buy some fire­works.

There are also smaller, local festivals in Britain.


 

 

HOLIDAYS IN RUSSIA

 

There are many national holidays in Russia, when people all over (he country do not work and have special celebrations.

The major holidays arc: New Year's Day, Women's Day, May Day, Victory Day, and Independence Day.

The first holiday of the year is New Year's Day. People see the new year in at mid­night on the 31st of December. They greet the new year with champagne and listen to the Kremlin chimes beating 12 o'clock.

There are lots of New Year traditions in Russia. In every home there is a New Year tree glittering with coloured lights and decorations. Children always wait for Father Frost to comc and give them a present. Many people consider New Year's Day to be a family holiday. But the young prefer to have New Year parties of their own.

Independence Day is a new holiday in our country. On the 12th of June, 1992, the first President of Russia was elected.

We also celebrate Day of the Defender of Motherland on the 23d of February^ Easter, Day of Knowledge and lots of professional holidays which are not public holi­days and banks, offices and schools do not clos

 

HO LID A YS IN THE USA

American holidays are strikingly different in origin and show surprising similarities in the manner of their celebration. No matter what the holiday's origin is, they all seem to be the same tiling. A holiday has simply become, for most Americans, a day off from work, though some (for example, Thanksgiving and Christmas) retain some individuality.

The major holidays in the USA are:

New Year's Day, January, 1st:

People stay awake until after midnight on December 31st to "watch the Old Year out and the New Year in." Many parties are given on this night. Theatres, night clubs, res­taurants are crowded.

When midnight comes, they greet the New Year: people gather in the streets of big cities, they ring bells, blow whistles and automobile homs, some shoot off guns and Fire­crackers.

Valentine's Day, February, 14:

It is not a national holiday. Banks and offices do not close, but it is a happy little fes­tival in honour of St Valentine, patron of sweethearts and lovers. It is widely celebrated among people of all ages by the exchange of "valentines." A "valentine" may mean a special greeting card or a little present. The greeting cards are often coloured red, have red trimmings and pictures of hearts.

Washington's Birthday, February, 22:

In addition to commemorating the birth of the United States' first President, it's a great day for shoppers. The department stores of Washington, D.C., stated a national tradition of sales marked by unusual bargains.

 

It is a national holiday. Schools, banks and offices close for the day. On that day, Americans honour the servicemen who gave their lives in past wars. Schools, clubs and churches decorate the cemcteries. They put up the flags on the graves of the army, navy and airmen. They hold memorial services in churches, halls, parks and cemeteries.

Halloween is the day or evening before All Saints' Day. Halloween customs date back to a time when people believed in devils, witches and ghosts. They thought that these evil spirits could do all kinds of damage to property. Some people tried to ward off witches by painting magic signs on their barns. Others tried to scare them away by nailing a piece of iron, such as a horseshoe, over the door.

Now most people do not believe in evil spirits. On this day they just have a nice holi­day. Children dress up as ghosts and witches and go out into the streets to beg. They go from house to house and say: "Trick of treat!", meaning "Give me a treat or I'll play a trick on you". People give them candy, cookies and apples.

A favourite custom is to make a jack-o'-lantem. Children scrape out a pumpkin and cut the outlines of eyes, nose and mouth in its side. They light a candle inside the pump­kin to scare their friends. This custom refers to a man named Jack who still wanders around the earth lighting his way with a pumpkin lantern.

Veterans Day:

Christmas is a family holiday. Schools and colleges close between Christmas and New- Year's Day. People stay at home and spend the time with their families. Everybody tries to come home for Christmas. People bend cards or Christmas greetings to family and friends away from home. Every family tries to have a Christmas tree, which is beautifully dccorated. Santa Claus comes from the North Pole in his sleigh, dressed m red cap and jacket, entering the house from chimney. He is a merry and fat individual. He has gifts of whatever kind you may wish for — nothing is too fabulous nor too trivial for him to provide.

 

MY PLANS FOR THE FUTURE

 

When you leave school you understand that the time to choose your future profes­sion has come. It's not an easy task to make the right choice of a job. I have known for a long time that leaving school is the beginning of my independent life, the beginning of a far more serious examination of my abilities and character.

I have asked myself a lot of times: "What do I want to be when I leave school?" A few years ago it was difficult for me to give a definite answer. As the years passed I changed my mind a lot of times about which science or field of industry to specialize in. It was difficult to make up my mind and choose one of the hundreds jobs to which I might be better suited.

A couple of years ago I wanted to become a doctor. I thought it was a very noble pro­fession. I was good at biology and chemistry in the 8th and 9th forms. I wanted to help people who had problems with health. I knew that a doctor should be noble in work and life, kind and attentive to people, responsible and reasonable, honest and prudent. A doc­tor, who is selfish, dishonest can't be good at his profession. I tried to do my best to de­velop good traits in myself.

Now I have already dccided what to do. I'd like to be a teacher. I know that it's very difficult to become a good teacher. You should know perfectly the subject you teach, you must be well-educated and well-informed. An ignorant teacher teaches ignorance, a fear­ful teacher teaches fear, a bored teacher teaches boredom. But a good teacher develops in his pupils the burning desire to know and love for the truth and beauty. As John Stein­beck once said, a great teacher is a great artist and you know how few great artists there are in the world. Teaching might even be the greatest of the arts. It's a great responsibil­ity to bring up children. 1 think that's the reason why teachers are deeply respected.

More and more people realize that every educated person should know a foreign lan­guage. That's why I'm going to become an English teacher. I always remember these fa­mous words and I'm going to teach them to my pupils: "He, who doesn't know a foreign language, doesn't know his own language".


 


 

THE GREAT RUSSIAN MATHEMATICIAN

 

N. I. LOBACHEVSKY

1) Словообразование.

При помощи префиксов over-, under- образуйте слова с новым значением и переведите как те, так и другие.

over— приставка, означает: сверх, чрезмерно, соответствует русской приставке пере-;

under— приставка, означает: недостаточно, про­тивоположна по значению префиксу over-

over-:balance, grow, flow, reach, burden, come, value, weight, work, heat.

under-:water, sea, ground, pressure, estimate.

2) Переведите следующие интернациональные слова:

mathematical, technical, program, theoretical principles, automatic, conductor, elements, vacuum, positive, negative, plastic, material, primitive, container, resources, rector, as­sistant.

3) Vocabulary:

District - район, округ

To enter -входить

Когда родился Лобачевский?

2. В каком возрасте он поступил в Казанский университет?

3. В качестве кого он провел в университете следующие 40 лет своей жизни?

I switched the radio on.

Is called называется

Are known известно

Is considered считается

Are drawn начерчены

3). Упражнение на построение геометрических фигур. Задача: построить:

1.The angle ABC is an obtuse angle.

2.The straight lines EF and KL are mutually perpendicu­lar.

Algebraic – алгебраический

Sign - знак

Plus - плюс

Subtraction – вычитание

To subtract – вычитать

Minus - минус

Multiplication – умножение

To precede – предшествовать

Dot - точка

to omit - упускать, пропускать, не включать

figure - цифра

algebra - алгебра

to expect - исключать, кроме

division - деление, разделение

to divide - делить, отделять

divisor - делитель

dividend - делимое, девидент

to indicate - указывать, показывать, предписывать, означать

fraction - дробь, доля, частица

over - сверх, над, пере-, черезмерно

equality - равенство

equal - равный

to equal - равняться

To grоир - группировать

to regard [ri'ga:d] считать, относиться, касаться, смотреть, считаться, уважать

Factor -множитель

Root - корень

A number a2 is read "a square", or "a second power"; a3 is nml cube", or "a third power"; a4 is read "a fourth pow-

er", or "a exponent 4", or "a fourth"; a" is read "a nth", "a nth power", or "a exponent n".

The terms coefficient and exponent should be distinquished: 5a means a+a+a+a+a, but as means axaxaxaxa.

When the factor of a number are all equal, one of the factors is called a root of the numbers.

5 is the root of 25; a is the root of a'; 4x is the root of 64x3

3) Vocabulary:

Quotient – частное

Colon - двоеточие

Mean - среднее число

Cube - куб

Radical sign - знак корня

Radicals.

The symbol v written before the number is called the root sign, or the radical sign. The number under a radical sign is called the radicand.

slTa — the square root of 5a;

W +2 — cube root of a square +two;

V8 — indicates that third, or cube, root of 8 is sought.

~ja.x — indicates the square root of ax, and

- la -b — the square root of a-b.

a. Задать вопросы по каждой из подтем, типа:

i. What is the sign of: +,-,:, x ?

A - ,

ii. How is a3 read? (a : b); и т.д.

.'{. What is the difference between 10ft and fr[1]?

4. What do we call the extremes and the means?


7) Придумайте свои примеры на чтение алгебраичес­ких знаков и отношений и прочитайте их.

Н) Обозначение простых и десятичных дробей.

Dimension – размер

Bar - стержень

Rectangular – прямоугольный

Tank - бак, барабан

Ductile - вязкий, ковкий

Bore - отверстие

To wrap - обертывать

Strand - стренга, пучок

Volume - объём, том

Aluminium - алюминий

Copper - медь

Petroleum - нефть

Gasolene - газолин, бензин

Cable - канат; кабель

Conductor - проводник

Length - длина

Width - ширина, широта

Depth - глубина, глубь

Weight - вес

in = inch [intj] дюйм

lbs = (libres, pounds) фунты

Kg - (kilogramme) килограмм

Ft - feet футы

Urea - площадь

Sq. m. - квадратный метр

Time – раз

mm. = millimetre - миллиметр

5 mm 8 mm


3.

6)What are you doing now?

7) I am measuring the depth of the 8 mm. diameter bore.

8)How deep is it?

9)It is 0.59 in. (or 15 mm.) deep.

10) And how deep is t,he second bore with the 5 mm. diame­ter?

11) It is 0.12 in. (or 3 mm.) deep.


4.

Aluminium


0.12 in 0.6 in

12) These are two electric conductors, one of copper and the other of aluminium.

13) How thick is the copper conductor?

14) The copper conductor has a diameter of 0.6 in. (or 1.5 cm.)

15) Is the copper conductor much thicker than the alumini­um conductor?

It consists of a centre core of high strenght steel wire wrapped in a number of strands of aluminium wire. Are the steel-aluminium conductors (or cables) strong? Yes, the steel-aluminium conductors are very strong.

(>. Length, Width and Area.

a. If the length and width of a rectangle is increased one- and-a half times, the area will increase 2 l/A (two and a quarter) times.

A large number, for example: 25673,210,040,385,861 — is read: twenty five quadrillion six hundred and sev- enty-three trillion two hundred ten billion forty million three hundred eighty-five thousand eight hundred six- ty-on.

2) Дайте свои примеры на чтение больших чисел.

3) Прочитайте и переведите:

Vocabulary:

To run - двигаться

Solution - решение

To denote - обозначать

Total - общее

Equation - уравнение

Equation 2 S

or substituting for values of t{ and t2, and v{ and v2

у - 2S

s + S V| +Vj

"l l,2

Г 35

(read: two v sub one times и sub teo ower и sub one plus v

Sub two), or

2.4/7//sec-24a»/sec ... . v= = 30m/sec (read: •<=> times)

64mI sec

or 108 km/h « (read: or about) 67 miles per hour.4) Сокращения: чтение сокращений рт~/? //l_<

Mm. (millimetre миллиметр)

1 cu. ft. = 0.0283 m3 (cubic foot is equal to nought [no:t] (или: [ли] point

[эи]) point nought "m cube" или "meter cube") S — a half

4.5 four point five (or four and a half) 0.5 — [эи] point five '/2 P-c. — half per cent '/4 — a quarter ['kwa-.ts] 2.3 p.c. — two point three per cent 1 cu.in = (cubic inch кубический дюйм) 16.387 cu.cm (cubic centimetre кубический сантиметр). 145° С (degree Centigrade) 644 km (kilometre) 25% (per cent)

lbs/cu in - фунты на кубический дюйм lbs (libres pounds) фунты; in=inch [intj] дюйм ft = feet футы

0 - нуль (ноль) читается: nought [na:t] или же: [au]

Text 2. Mikhail Lomonosov.

1) Словообразование.

При помощи префикса un- образуйте новые слова от слов, данных ниже, и переведите на русский язык как те, гак и другие.

Что он изучал в Академии Наук?

Since I was a boy.

Since yesterday.

The more — the better

The more — the less

Можно войти?

Можно мне закурить?

Можно мне закрыть окно?

Я не могу закрыть окно.

Не may know her address.

You may not find him there.

He may have left Moscow.

7. He may have lost your address and that's why he doesn't write to you.

He may not have come yet.

Evaporation - испарение

To observe - наблюдать

Pan - противень

Brine - соляной раствор

To boil - кипятить

To evaporate - испарять

Bottom - дно

To remain - оставаться

Vessel - сосуд

To prove - доказывать

Sublimation – возгонкa

Iodine - йод

Readily - легко

steel-gray - серо-стальной цвет

solid - твердое вещество

violet – фиолетовый

to vaporize - испарять

to allow to cool - дать остыть

solid stale - твердое состояние

vapor state - парообразное состояние

liquid - жидкость

saturated solution - насыщенный раствор potassium nitrate - соль азотной кислоты, нитрат; азотно-кислый калий, калиевая селитра

substance – вещество

precipitation – осаждение

crystallization - кристаллизация

Text.

Iodine, a steel-gray solid, readily vaporizes when heated. The vapor is violet in colour. If the vapor is allowed to cool, it passes directly back into the solid state. This process of passing from the solid state to the vapor state and then back to the solid state without the formation of a liquid is callet sublimation. If a saturated solution of potassium nitrate is heated and then allowed to cool, crystals of the substance form on the bottom of the vessel. These are formed by precip­itation, which takes place during the cooling process.

Вопросы:

Что такое йод?

Какой цвет его паров?

Text.

What is a crystal? A crystal is a geometrical solid made byanatural process. Many substances absorb water from solu­tions when they crystallize; that is, they unite chemically withadefinite proportion of water. The water with which any substance unites during the process of crystallization is called the water of crystallization.

Certain crystal substances, for example, washing soda, give up their water of crystallization when they are exposed to nir; they are then reduced to powder. Substances Lhat have this property are called efflorescent, and the process is called efflorescence.

Вопросы:

Что такое кристалл?

Certain other substances absorb moisture from the air when they are exposed to it; these are said to be deliquescent. The impurities often present in common table salt are typical of this class of substances. Because these impurities tend to solidify upon absorbing moisture from the air the openings of a salt shaker clog in damp weather.

A substance that absorbs moisture from the air and be­comes wet or dissolves in the moisture is called deliquescent.

Вопросы:

1. Что такое расплывание?

2. Что делают некоторые другие вещества, когда они подвергаются воздействию воздуха?

3. Что присутствует в обычной столовой соли?

4. Какую тенденцию имеет обычная поваренная соль, когда она подвергается воздействию влажного воздуха?

5. Какие вещества называются разжижающимися (легко впитывающими)?

Text 5 (a, b, c, d). Suspensions.

Text 5a.

Vocabulary:

suspension - суспензия

watery - водный

molecule - молекула

to state - утверждать, констатировать

with the naked eye - невооруженным глазом

to distiguish - различать

to divide - делить, разделять, разделяться

rapid - быстрый

to travel - проходить, двигаться, путешествовать

Text.

In explaining the watery solution of sugar, it has been stated that the water of such solutions divides the sugar into particles, called molecules, so small that they cannot be seen with the naked eye. These molecules are distinguished by the great speed at which they travel. Molecules, which are found in all substances, travel fastest in gases, less rapidly in liq­uids, and very slowly in solids.

Вопросы:

Text 5b

Vocabulary:

recently – недавно

to believe - верить, считать

to behave - вести себя

solid - твердое вещество

to combine - соединяться

to dissolve - растворять

solvent - растворитель

solute - растворенное вещество

to mix - смешиваться)

true solution - идеальный раствор

Text.

Scientists have recently come to belive that molecules in solutions and liquid mixtures behave very much as they be­have in gases, liquids, and solids. For instance, when two substances, such as sugar and water, are combined by dis­solving, the particles of the solvent divide the particles of the solute, and the two kinds of particles then mix freely. This is a true solution.

Вопросы:

1. На что ученые обратили внимание?

2. Как молекулы ведут себя в растворах и жидких смесях?

3. Что частицы растворителя делают с частицами растворенного вещества?

4. Что такое идеальный раствор?

Text 5c.

Vocabulary:

sand - песок

to stir - перемешивать

violently - сильно

to effect - получать, осуществлять

to move - двигаться

finally - в конце концов

to settle - осаждаться

agitation - перемешивание

to cease - прекращать

Text.

It is noted that a suspension, which is another kind of liquid mixture, greatly differs from a solution. A suspension may be demonstrated by placing some sand in a glass of wa­ter and then stirring the mixture violently for a moment. If this is done, the two substances mix but no solution is effect­ed. The particles of sand, being larger than any of particles of the true solution, mix for a while, but since they move about less freely, they finally settle on the bottom when agi­tation of the mixture ceases.

Вопросы:

1. Что замечено учеными?

2. Как можно продемонстрировать суспезию?

3. Суспезия отличается от раствора?

4. Раствор получится, если поместить немного песка в стакан с водой?

5. Почему частицы песка в конце концов осядут на дне?


Text 5d Vocabulary

nature – природа

cell – клетка

sap - сок растений)

rubber tree – каучуконос

proteins – протеины

tremendous - огромный

artifical – искусственный

tanning - дубление кожи

dyeing - красильное дело

Text.

 


Law - закон

Dependence – зависимость

Property – свойство

To suggest - предлагать

Order - порядок

Main - главный

Periodic - периодический

Repetition -- повторение

Atomic - атомный

To predict - предсказывать

existence - существование

unknown - неизвестный

ekaboron — scandium - скандий ekaaluminuin – gallium – галлий

ekasilikon - germainium – германий

gap - брешь, пробел (место)

disposal - расположение, распоряжение

to expect - ожидать

to refer to - ссылаться на что-либо, кого-либо

to solve – решать

research - научное исследование

importance - важность, значительность bulwark - оплот, бастион

Text 1.

D.I. Mendeleyev, the great Russian scientist, one of the great bulwarks of the atomic theory, was born in Tobolsk in 1834. He was the first to discover the law of dependence of the properties of the elements upon their atomic weights. Mende­leyev suggested a system of classification in which the ele­ments are arranged in the order of increasing atomic weights. He published his famous "periodic classification" in 1869.

The main idea of the Periodic System is that of the period­ic repetition of properties with the increase of the atomic weights. He predicted the existence of unknown elements which he called ekaboron, ekaaluininum and ekasilikon and for which he left gaps in his table. He even described the properties of these elements. The discovery of gallium in 1875 was followed by the discovery of scandium (ekaboron) in 1879 and the discovery of germanium (ekesilicon) in 1886. No gaps are left now for undiscovered elements.

With the Periodic Table at his disposal a chemist needn't learn all the properties of all the elements when he knows the properties of one or two elements in each group. The Table will give him a very good idea of what to except of the other elements. The Table is, was and will be refered to and used in solving research problems of industrial importance.

4) Слова для активизации:

to classify, to depend on (upon ), to exist, to expect, to pre diet, to refer (to), to solve, gap, importance, law, order, prop erty, research, to suggest, at (one's) disposal.

5) Прочтите слова, сходные по написанию, но относя­щиеся к различным частям речи. Средством их различе­ния является перенос ударения. Переведите их.

глаголы: in`crease, de`crease, im`port, trans`port, ob`ject

Кто был Д. И. Менделеев?

Когда и где он родился?

Что он открыл?

4. Что он предложил?

Theory - теория

To propose – предполагать

Are composed of -состоят из

Minute – мельчайший

To differ - различаться

To combine – соединиться

To retain - сохранять

To determine – определять

Relative - относительный

Состава

Text.

John Dalton, ail English chemist, proposed the following theory of atoms:

1. All elements are composed of minute particle called at­oms.

2. Atoms of the same element are of equal weight, al­though they may differ in weight from atoms of other ele­ments.

3. Atoms always combine and unite as wholes. The smalles paticle of a substance that is capable of existence while still retaining its chemical properties is called a molecule. The weights of molecules are determined by the weights of the ntoms that compose the molecules. Oxygen, whose weight is given as 16, is taken as the standard for determining the relative weights of the atoms of elements. Knowledge of the Atomic Theory enables us to understand the Law of Definite Proportions, the Law of Multiple Proportions, and the LawofConservation of Matter.

Deep — depth — deepen; wide — width — widen; broad — breadth — broaden; long length — lengthen; strong — strength — strengthen; high — height — heighten; short — shortness — shorten; weak — weakness — weaken; dark — darkness — darken.

3) Vocabulary:

to divide - делить, разделять(ся)

ferrous metals - черные металлы

non-ferrous metals - цветные металлы

alloys - сплавы (металлов)

iron - железо

to include - включать

steel - сталь

intricate - запутанный

network - сеть

freight - груз, фрахт

machine tools and machinery - станки и машины

cutlery and razor blades - ножевые изделия и лезвия для бритв

to turn out - выпускать, производить (изделия)

copper - медь

aluminium - алюминий

to refer to - относиться (к чему-либо, к кому-либо)

properties - свойства, качества

by their specific metallic lustre - по характерному метал­лическому блеску

can be forged - поддаются ковке

can be pulled - поддаются протяжке

except - кроме

mercury - ртуть

hard substances - твердые вещества

being fusible - будучи плавкими

metals can be melted - металлы способны плавиться

conductor - проводник

corrosion - коррозия

resistance - сопротивление

easiness to fabrication - легкость изготовления (производства)

Text 2.

All metals are divided into ferrous and non-ferrous met­als. Ferrous metals are metals and alloys the main component of which is iron. The classification of ferrous metals includes iron, steel and its alloys. Metals in general, and especially ferrous metals are of great importance in various construc­tions. Thousands of miles of railway track form an intricate network of steel over the world, helping to carry daily bil­lions of freight for different industries. Machine tools and machinery, steamships and locomotives, automobiles and aer­oplanes, rails and bridges, cutlerly and razor blades are but a few of the many products turned out by the steel industry.

Non-ferrous are metals and alloys the main component of which is not iron but some other element such as copper (Cu), aluminium (Al) and others. Copper, aluminium and some other metals are referred to as non-ferrous metals.

The Properties of Metals.

Metals can be forged.

Metals can be pulled.

Its colour is yellow when hot and white when cold. Zink oxide is used in paints because it is non-poisonous and is not discoloured by hydrogen sulphide. It has a soothing effect upon the skin and is used in ointments and lotions. It is added to rubber for making racing motor tyres.

Zink is used in the making of dry batteries and in the process of galvanizing. In this, iron is dipped into molten zink, which forms a protective layer on its surface, and so prevents rusting. Galvanized iron is used in sheets for roof­ing and also for buckets and dustbins.

Vocabulary:

Sheetiron - листовое железо

To coat - окутывать

Acid - кислый

food-stuffs - продукты питания

to attack - атаковать, наступать

tough - прочный, стойкий, жесткий

Shock - удар

Subject - подверженный

Hinges - петли; шарнир

Preference - предпочтение

Lead - свинец

Zink - цинк

Sulphur - сера

Roof - крыша

Piping - трубы, трубопровод

Waste pipes - сточная труба

sink traps –

дренажная труба;

trap - сифон, лопушка, западня, капкан; sink - слив, сток, желоб, раковина (для стока воды), грязеприёмник

Tank - бак, резервуар

Solder – припой

Screen - щит, экран, ширма

Bismuth – висмут

monoxide - моноокись, одноокись

Chlorine – хлор

Flame – пламя

Paint - краска

Non-poisonous - не ядовитый

Hydrogen – водород

Ointment - мазь

Lotion - примочка, лосьон

Rubber - резина, каучук

Tyre – шина

To dip погружать

Layer - слой, пласт

To rust - ржаветь

bucket - ведро, бадья; ковш (экскаватора); лопатка

Dustbin - мусорный ящик

Вопросы:

 

a)

1. Please give the names of all non-ferrous metals known to you.

2. What are their main characteristics?

3. What are these metals by origin?

4. What is the oldest light metal?

5. What is its colour?

b)

1. Give a short charasteristics of aluminium.

2. Is aluminium used as an addition of small quantities of other metals?

3.Why are the alloys of aluminium very common to be used in industry?

What is its colour?

Where is cupro-nickel used?

d)

What is tin?

What's its colour?

Is tin corroded by air?

Where is it used?

What is bronze?

What is brass?

What's its colour?

What metal is lead?

What's its colour?

Where is lead used now?

What is zink?

What's its colour?

Where is zink used?

While some types of plastics are very tough, e.g., nylon, and others may be relatively brittle, as, say, polystyrene, they are, with few exceptions, not as strong as iron or steel or concrete when it comes to supporting great weights.

Plastics do not rust and therefore require no protective layer, such as paint, which can subsequently peel off. They can, of course, be coloured and such colour is part of the material. It cannot come away or be chipped off. Plastics do not like heat. Some types will withstand higher temperatures than others and the ceiling temperature is constantly being raised as new varieties appear.

Plastics have found wide application both in everyday life and in industry. We can hardly name a branch of industry where plastics are not applied. The insulation and dielectric properties of plastics led to their early use in the electrical engineering industry, which was followed by special applica- tion in mechanical engineering. The use of plastics as materi­als of construction in the form of sheets, rods or tubes are substituting the conventional metals. Automibile, aircraft and shipbuilding industries have also made use of advantages of­fered by plastics, (также используют преимущества пласти ческих материалов). Today all plastic gears for ma­chinery are made from fabric-base laminates (текстолит, слоистый пластик на основе ткани ). Gears made from lam­inated phenolic materials are much more resilient than similar Steel gears; indeed the degree of resiliency is claimed to be as much as forty times that of steel (не менее, чем в сорок раз выше по сравнению со сталью). Bearings manufactured from laminated-base phenolic plastic materials have successfully re­placed the wood or bronze rolling-mill bearings.. In a rolling- mill, where it was usual practice to change the bronze roll- neck bearings every 6 to 8 weeks, it was found that a set of plastic bearings which were fitted for observation did not have to be renewed for a period 20 months after operating under the same conditions. It was also estimated that there was a drop in power consumption of between 25 and 30 per cent.

Vocabulary:

plastics - пластмассы

we are pretty well acquainted - мы достаточно хорошо знакомы

advantages – преимущества

snags - недостатки

transparent - прозрачные

Varnish - лак

Volume - объем

Polythene - полизин

Celluloid - целлулоид

Tough - крепкий, прочный

Nylon - нейлон

Relatively - относительно

Brittle - хрупкий, ломкий

Polystyrene - полистирол

Concrete - бетон

when it comes to supporting great weights -когда дело касается способ­ности нести большие нагрузки

Application - применение

Insulation - изоляция

Properties - свойства

Rod - прут, стержень

Tube - труба, трубка, тюбик

To offer - предлагать

Automobile - автомобиль

To renew – возобновлять

To estimate - оценивать

Radium – радий

To exist – существовать

To prove – доказывать

To believe - верить

To treat – обрабатывать

Pitch - смола, вар, деготь

Decigram – дециграмм

Какой цвет имел радий?

8. Что дало им открытие радия?

 

6) Слова для активизации:

They had to go there.

He will have to do it.

Кто открыл радий?

В каком году это было?

Каков был цвет радия?

Открытие радия в чистом виде помогло ученым в их дальнейших исследованиях (research work)?

 

13)Переведите следующие предложения. Определите, какой частью речи являются слова с омонимичными фор­мами -ing.

1.The stars are caused by meteorites burning as they enter the Earth's atmosphere.

2.After putting a piloted rocket-plane into space, the pilot will switch off the engines and glide around the Earth once or twice before slowing and landing like in an ordi­nary aeroplane.

3.Travelling to Mars will be clone by travelling along the proper orbit around the Sun.

4.After checking and fuelling, the huge missile is ready for firing.

5.Molecules are continuously leaving and returning to the surface of liquid and solid.

6.The nine major plants are the largest bodies revolving around the sun.

ISAAK NEWTON

1) Словообразование:

а) переведите новые слова, образованные с помощью префикса anti- от данных слов;

Counter- соответствует в русском языке приставкам контр-, противо-. Слова с префиксом counter- часто пишутся через чёрточку, to act — to counteract action — counteraction attack — couner-attack offer — counter-offer claim — counter-claim

в) Переведите новые слова, образованные с помощью префикса со- от данных слов.

Префикс со- означает общность действия, сотрудниче­ство. Слова с префиксом со- часто пишутся через чёр­точку, author — co-author education — co-education existence — co-existence operation — co-operation

г) Образуйте полые слова от данных с помощью суф­фикса -doin. Переведите как данные, так и новые слова.

free; wise; king.

Text.

Gravity - сила тяжести

Path - путь, дорожка

To account for - объяснять

Ceaseless - непрерывный

To deduce - делать вывод

Link - звено (цепи)

insight - понимание, проницательность gravitation - тяготение, притяжение

4)Слова для активизации:

degree, to appoint, to deliver, conclusion, gravity, gravita­tion, to account for, to deduce, uniformity, link, insight

5)Вопросы по тексту:

Где он учился?

Какие законы он обнаружил?

6)Переведите с английского на русекий язык.

Although a genius of science, Newton owed much to his predecessors ['pri:discsoz] (предшественники). The year of his birth was the year of the death of Galileo. Galileo had founded the science of mechanics, and his application of the astronomical telescope (then recently invented) had been of the greatest help in the study of the heavens. Copernicus, Brahe and Kepler had overthrown the old conception of the earth as the centre of the universe.

Newton himself modestly said: "If I have seen farther than most men, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants".

While studying light, Newton invited the reflecting tele­scope. It was only an inch in diameter, and six inches long, but it magnified forty times and gave a good view of the Jupiter's moons. He made a larger one. You can see it in the librai-y of the Royal Society in London, and there you can read: "The first reflecting telescope, invented by Sir Isaak Newton, and made with his own hands".

7)Переведите с русского языка на английский:

1.Исаак Ньютон родился в семье фермера, но стал вели­ким учёным.

2.Он очень интересовался различными явлениями при­роды.

3.Он занимался математикой, физикой, читал лекции по оптике, возглавлял кафедру.

4.Он изучал различные световые явления.

5.Он изучал влияние силы тяжести и проблемы движе­ния планет.

6.Ньютон открыл закон взаимного тяготения и законы движения.

8)Переведите следующие группы слов:

Test.

Образец: The man (he) worked.

— I saw (watched) the man (him) work.

1. The man (he) laughed.

- I heard the man (him) ....

2. The door opened, a man went out onto the porch.

—The neighbours heard ... and saw ...

3. The doctor went down he steps, stick in hand.

- Those hiding round the corner saw ...

4. The neighbours spoke in a whisper.

- The doctor heard ...

I had my shoes mended

Переведите на русский язык.

Не had the letter typed.

Text

"Mankind will not remain on earth forever". These words, an axiom of the new science of astronauts, were spoken at the beginning of the century by K.E. Tsiolkovsky.

Tsiolkovsky was a self-taught man. On having reached a point where reading books at home could teach him no more, the sixteen year old boy went to Moscow where he continued his studies in libraries and lecture rooms. For three years he studied physics, astronomy, mechanics and geometry with the problems of flights and interplanetary travel in his mind. After having completed courses, he obtained the post of math­ematics master at school where he taught for nearly 40 years.

The main problem Tsiolkovsky had been working at for many years was creating a theory of interplanetary travel. He laid the foundation of all subsequent rocket theories, proved the rocket to be the very ship upon which the man will be able to leave the earth for boundless spaces and out­lined his design of the first jet-driven flying machine. It was Tsiolkovsky who suggested the idea of a multi-stage rocket and of a man-made satellite which could serve as a laboratory for studying the universe.

Tsiolkovsky succeeded in producing a workable design for a liquid-cooled rocket combustion chamber and the first man- made satellite was taken into skies by a type of a rocket disigned by Tsiolkovsky. More than that, the orbit along which the satellite sped had been also calculated by him.


5) Vocabulary:

Mankind – человечество

to remain – оставаться

forever - навсегда, навечно

axiom - аксиома

astronautics - астронавтика, космонавтика

self-taught - самоучка -—

to reach - достигать, доходить

physics - физика

astronomy - астрономия

mechanics - механика

geometry - геометрия

flight - полет

interplanetary – межпланетный

mind - память, мысль, ум, разум

to complete- заканчивать, завершать

course- курс

to obtain- получать, приобретать, добиваться

master- учитель, магистр

to teach,taught, taught- учить, обучать, преподавать

to create- создавать, творить

to lay,laid, laid- класть, положить

foundation- основание, фундамент

subsequent - последующий

rocket- ракета

to prove- доказывать

boundless- безграничный

to outline- обрисовать в общих чертах

design- проект, чертеж, конструкция;to design

jet- реактивный

to drive,drove,driven- управлять, ехать, править, бы­стро двигаться

to fly,flew,flown– летать

to suggest– предполагать

multi-stage– многоступенчатый

man-made -сделанный человеком

satellite- сателлит, спутник

to serve- служить, обслуживать

universe- вселенная, мир

to succeed- преуспевать, достигать цели

to produce– производить

liquid- жидкость, жидкий

cool- прохладный;to cool -охлаждатьcombustion– сгорание<





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