And Follow-Up Investigation in Criminal Cases 





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And Follow-Up Investigation in Criminal Cases



A criminal investigation is the process that law enforcement officers undergo to collect evidence of, and information about, a crime to determine the crime's seriousness and apprehend the perpetrator for trial and possible sentencing. Evidence includes things physically left behind by the perpetrator, such as finger- and footprints, and eyewitness reports.

Evidence must be placed in a temporary but secure storage area during a preliminary investigation for protection, transport and comprehensive examination. If there is fragile or perishable evidence that may be compromised, it must be documented thoroughly. During a follow-up investigation, investigators may wish to conduct additional searches and canvassing of the crime scene in search of any missed evidence. Laboratory results of any evidence under examination must be also be reviewed as part of the follow-up investigation.

During a preliminary investigation, the lead investigator's main duty is to evaluate the crime scene. He must converse with the first responders on the scene and get any observations or activities that he may have missed. He must determine any safety concerns, the boundaries of the crime scene and the necessity of getting a search warrant. Above all, he must document absolutely everything in writing and photographs - or ensure that someone else does. This allows him to develop a plan for any follow-up investigations, as well as preserve the integrity of the scene itself.

The preliminary investigation is the time when the investigator and any responding officers on the scene identify and detain any suspects, surviving victims and witnesses that may be at the scene. Initial interviews may also be conducted during the preliminary investigation and suspects may be taken into custody. During the follow-up investigation, the investigator runs background checks on suspects, victims and witnesses, interrogates suspects, and conducts additional information-gathering interviews with witnesses and victims.

Both the preliminary and follow-up investigation processes require an investigator to stay in constant contact with the other colleagues working on the case, like the first responders to the scene, photographers, security and lab personnel. In fact, one of an investigator's major responsibilities during the preliminary investigation is distributing duties amongst officers and determining whether additional personnel or resources are needed for the investigation. During the follow-up investigation, an investigator may need to conduct extensive interviews with the first responders and other officers on the scene.

Investigative notes are permanent written record of the facts of a case to be used in conducting further investigation, in writing reports, and in prosecuting the case. Start to take notes as soon as possible after receiving a call to respond, and continue recording information as it is received throughout the investigation. Record all information that helps to answer the questions: Who, What, When, Where, Why and How. Do not try to figure out how the criminal did the crime: It is more effective to think how you would do it and then use that knowledge with the facts present at the scene to determine a hypothesis about what happened and how it was perpetrated.

Notes should be brief but complete, accurate, legible, abbreviated, and easily understood by others. Effective notes are also specific, factual, clear, and well organized. Use a tape recorder initially, and then transfer your voice notes to your notebook. You should file any notes taken in a secure location so that they are readily accessible to investigators. Original notes are legally admissible in court, and officers may use them to refresh the memory. Officers should take to court only those notes that pertain to the particular case.

Слова к тексту 2:

1. to undergo - зд. заниматься

2. a storage area [ˊstɔ:rɪʤ] - место хранения

3. comprehensive [ˏkɔmprɪˊhensɪv] - обстоятельный

4. fragile [ˊfræʤaɪl] - хрупкий, ломкий

5. perishable [ˊperɪʃəbl] - непрочный

6. to canvass [ˊkænvəs] - прочесывать

7. to converse [kənˊvə:s] - разговаривать

8. a search warrant - ордер на обыск

9. to detain - задерживать

10. a hypothesis [haɪˊpɔθɪsɪs] - версия, гипотеза

11. legible [ˊleʤəbl] - разборчивый, четкий

12. abbreviated [əˊbri:vɪeɪtɪd] - сокращенный

13. factual [ˊfækʧuəl] - основанный на фактах

14. a secure location - спокойная обстановка

15. to be accessible [əkˊsesəbl] - быть доступным

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