Organization of Road Traffic



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Organization of Road Traffic



Traffic on roads may consist of pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel. Traffic laws are the laws which govern traffic and regulate vehicles, while rules of the roadare both the laws and the informal rules that may have developed over time to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic.

Organized traffic generally has well-established priorities, lanes, right-of-way, and traffic control at intersections.

Traffic is formally organized in many jurisdictions, with marked lanes, junctions, intersections, interchanges, traffic signals, or signs. Traffic is often classified by type: heavy motor vehicle (e.g., car, truck); other vehicle (e.g., moped, bicycle); and pedestrian. Some jurisdictions may have very detailed and complex rules of the road while others rely more on drivers' common sense and willingness to cooperate.

Organization typically produces a better combination of travel safety and efficiency. Events which disrupt the flow and may cause traffic to degenerate into a disorganized mess include: road construction, collisions and debris in the roadway. On particularly busy freeways, a minor disruption may persist in a phenomenon known as traffic waves. A complete breakdown of organization may result in traffic congestion and gridlock.

Rules of the road and driving etiquette are the general practices and procedures that road users are required to follow. These rules usually apply to all road users, though they are of special importance to motorists and cyclists. These rules govern interactions between vehicles and with pedestrians. The basic traffic rules are defined by an international treaty under the authority of the United Nations, the 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic*. Not all countries are signatory to the convention and, even among signatories, local variations in practice may be found. There are also unwritten local rules of the road, which are generally understood by local drivers.

In general, drivers are expected to avoid a collision with another vehicle and pedestrians, regardless of whether or not the applicable rules of the road allow them to be where they happen to be.

In addition to the rules applicable by default, traffic signs and traffic lights must be obeyed, and instructions may be given by a police officer, either routinely (on a busy crossing instead of traffic lights) or as road traffic control around a construction zone, accident, or other road disruption.

In many countries, the rules of the road are codified, setting out the legal requirements and punishments for breaking them.

In the United Kingdom, the rules are set out in the Highway Code**, which includes obligations but also advice on how to drive sensibly and safely.

In the United States, traffic laws are regulated by the states and municipalities through their respective traffic codes. Most of these are based at least in part on the Uniform Vehicle Code***, but there are variations from state to state. In states such as Florida, traffic law and criminal law are separate, therefore, unless someone flees a scene of an accident, commits vehicular homicide or manslaughter, they are only guilty of a minor traffic offense. However, states such as South Carolina have completely criminalized their traffic law, so, for example, you are guilty of a misdemeanor simply for travelling 5 miles over the speed limit.

 

* Венская Конвенция по Безопасности Дорожного Движения

** Правила дорожного движения

*** Единые правила дорожного движения

Cлова к тексту 1:

1. ridden animal - животное, на котором едут

2. herded animals [ˊhə:dɪd] - животные, которых перегоняют стадом

3. conveyances [kənˊveɪənsɪz] - средства передвижения

4. to govern - управлять, регулировать

5. to facilitate [fəˊsɪlɪteɪt] - содействовать, способствовать

6. priority [praɪˊɔrɪtɪ] - приоритет, преимущество

7. lane - дорога с односторонним движением, полоса движения

8. right-of-way - право проезда

9. intersection - пересечение (дорог)

10. junction [ˊʤʌŋkʃən] - место скрещивания (дорог)

11. interchange - транспортная развязка

12. pedestrian - пешеход

13. common sense - здравый смысл

14. efficiency [ɪˊfɪʃənsɪ] - действенность, эффективность

15. to disrupt - нарушать

16. to degenerate [dɪˊʤenəreɪt] - ухудшаться

17. collision [kəˊlɪʒən] - столкновение

18. to persist [pəˊsɪst] - продолжать существовать, переходить

19. congestion and gridlock [kənˊʤesʧən] [ˊgrɪdlɔk] - пробка и затор

20. signatory [ˊsɪgnətərɪ] - сторона, подписавшая какой-нибудь

договор

21. applicable [ˊæplɪkəbl] - применяемый

22. by default [dɪˊfɔ:lt] - по умолчанию

23. vehicular homicide [vɪˊhɪkjulə] - убийство, совершенное при

наезде автомобиля

 

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