Упражнение 2. Преобразуйте следующие предложения в сложноподчиненные с придаточными определительными, введенными без помощи союза.

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Упражнение 2. Преобразуйте следующие предложения в сложноподчиненные с придаточными определительными, введенными без помощи союза.

ОБРАЗЕЦ: Russia is the country in which I live.

- Russia is the country I live in.

1. The college at which I am studying is a Law Institute.

2. The laws that only apply locally, in the areas in which we live, are called by-laws (подзаконный акт).

3. The information that they are collecting will be very useful in their future work.

4. The person with whom you talked was not the manager of the company.

5. Is this the letter that you were looking for?

6. Are all the documents that I may need in this file?

7. Defendants are usually advised of the rights that they have, initially by the police through Miranda Warnings.

8. You are to be concerned about the image you project in the community you serve.

9. He was charged with a crime that he actually never committed.

10. The confession that he made was admitted as evidence.


Упражнение 3. Отредактируйте компьютерный перевод предложений с английского на русский язык, обращая внимание на грамматические и стилистические особенности русского языка.

1. The defendant knew he was doing wrong, but the status of his mind prevented him from controlling his conduct.

Ответчик знал, он делает неправильно, но состояние его ума помешало ему контролировать свое поведение.

2. It can be said in Russia the Convention of Child’s Rights concerning mass media is not working.

Можно сказать, в России Конвенция ребенка прав, касающихся средств массовой информации не работает.

3. Identification Parade involves the suspect standing in a line of people of similar height and appearance as himself. The witness or victim picks out the person he considers responsible for the crime.

Опознание предполагает подозреваемого стоя в линии людей подобные высоту и внешний вид как самого себя. Свидетель или потерпевший выбирает человека, которого он считает ответственным за это преступление.

4. Investigators must collect information the way they do in other potential crimes, but they often need specialized knowledge to do so.

Следователи должны собирать информацию, как они делают в других потенциальных преступлений, но они часто нуждаются в специальных знаний для этого.

5. The entries into the tool marks database come from tools the police have picked up at crime scenes.

Записи в базу данных марок инструмент родом инструменты полиции взял на месте преступления.

6. A serial killer who didn’t know much about computers made a mistake that gave the police all they needed to find him and make a solid case against him.

Серийный убийца, который не знал много о компьютерах сделал ошибку, что дал полиции все они необходимы, чтобы найти его и сделать сплошной дело против него.

7. Bloggers can create whole communities around their blogs from people they have never met, or restrict it to friends and family.

Блоггеры могут создавать целые общины вокруг их блоги от людей, они никогда не встречались, или ограничить его для друзей и семьи.

8. The sample from the Weiss murder indicated that the person they were looking for was a black male, which affirmed witness reports.

Образец из Вайс убийство указал, что человек, которого они искали черный кобель, который подтвердил свидетель доклады.



Текст 1 “Criminal Law” Текст 2 “Criminal Procedure” Текст 3 “States of Mind That Affect Criminal Responsibility”




Вопросы для обсуждения:


1. How can criminal conduct that is heinous and ghastly affect entire societies and regions?

2. Criminal codes are generally organized according to one of two patterns. One is an alphabetical listing of offenses. And another ...?

Текст 1

Переведите следующий текст, пользуясь словарем, и научитесь его бегло читать:

Criminal law

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime. It regulates social conduct and proscribes threatening, harming, or otherwise endangering the health, safety, and moral welfare of people. It includes the punishment of people who violate these laws. Criminal law differs from civil law, whose emphasis is more on dispute resolution and victim compensation than on punishment.

Many laws are enforced by threat of criminal punishment, and the range of the punishment varies with the jurisdiction. The scope of criminal law is too vast to catalog intelligently. Nevertheless, the following are some of the more known aspects of the criminal law.

The criminal law generally prohibits undesirable acts. Thus, proof of a crime requires proof of some act. Scholars label this the requirement of an actus reus. Actus reus is Latin for "guilty act" and is the physical element of committing a crime. It may be accomplished by an action, by threat of action, or exceptionally, by an omission to act, which is a legal duty to act. A duty can arise through contract, a voluntary undertaking, a blood relation with whom one lives, and occasionally through one's official position. Duty also can arise from one's own creation of a dangerous situation. Some crimes - particularly modern regulatory offenses - require no more, and they are known as strict liability offenses.

Strict liability can be described as criminal or civil liability notwithstanding the lack mens rea or intent by the defendant. Not all crimes require specific intent, and the threshold of culpability required may be reduced. For example, it might be sufficient to show that a defendant acted negligently, rather than intentionally or recklessly.

Nevertheless, because of the potentially severe consequences of criminal conviction, judges at common law also sought proof of an intent to do some bad thing, the mens rea. Mens rea is another Latin phrase, meaning "guilty mind". This is the mental element of the crime. A guilty mind means an intention to commit some wrongful act. Intention under criminal law is separate from a person's motive. Wrongfulness of intent also may vary the seriousness of an offense and possibly reduce the punishment but this is not always the case. A killing committed with specific intent to kill or with conscious recognition that death or serious bodily harm will result, would be murder, whereas a killing effected by reckless acts lacking such a consciousness could be manslaughter.

As to crimes of which both actus reus and mens rea are requirements, judges have concluded that the elements must be present at precisely the same moment and it is not enough that they occurred sequentially at different times.

Слова к тексту 1:

1. to proscribe [prəusˊkraɪb] - объявлять вне закона, запретить

2. to threaten [ˊθretn] - угрожать

3. to endanger [ɪnˊdeɪnʤə] - подвергать опасности

4. welfare [ˊwelfɛə] - благоденствие, благосостояние

5. resolution - решение, разрешение (проблемы)

6. to catalog [ˊkætəlɔg] - каталогизировать, вносить в каталог

7. to prohibit [prəˊhɪbɪt] - запрещать

8. actus reus - лат. виновное действие

9. to accomplish - завершать, выполнять

10. an omission [əˊmɪʃən] - упущение

11. an undertaking - предприятие, соглашение

12. regulatory offense - правонарушение, находящееся в юрисдикции регулятивных органов

13. strict liability offense [ˏlaɪəˊbɪlɪtɪ] - правонарушение объективной ответственности

14. mens rea - лат. виновная воля, вина

15. threshold of culpability [ˊθreʃhəuld əv ˏkʌlpəˊbɪlɪtɪ] - порог виновности

16. negligently [ˊneglɪʤəntlɪ] - небрежно, халатно

17. recognition [ˏrekəgˊnɪʃən] - узнавание, признание

18. a reckless act - безрассудное, отчаянное действие


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