ТОП 10:

Різноманіття продуктів харчування (продукти рослинного походження). Прикметник



Заняття №10

Різноманіття продуктів харчування (продукти рослинного походження). Прикметник

Vocabulary

Fruits:

· apple, apricot, pear, plum, peach –яблуко, абрикос, груша, слива, персик

· cherry, grapes, banana, orange, pineapple –вишня, виноград, банан, апельсин, ананас

· tangerine, lemon, pomegranate, kiwi –мандарин, лимон, гранат, ківі

· melon, water melon, grapefruit –диня, кавун, грейпфрут

Vegetables:

· tomato, cucumber, carrot, potato –помідор, огірок, морква, картопля

· radish, egg-plant, beet, beans, cabbage –редиска, баклажан, буряк, квасоля, капуста

· lettuce, garlic, onion, cauliflower, parsley, pumpkin –листя салату, часник, цибуля, цвітна капуста, петрушка, гарбуз

Berry:

· strawberry, raspberry –полуниця, малина

· blackberry, currant –чорниця, смородина

 

Drinks:

· hard drinks, soft drinks –алкогольні, безалкогольні напої

· tea, black coffee, white coffee –чай, чорна кава, кава з молоком

· juice, cocktail, mineral water –сік, коктейль, мінеральна воді

· on the rocks –із льодом

· wine (white, red, dry), brandy, champagne, vodka –вино (біле, червоне, сухе), коньяк, шампанське, горілка

· to prefer – надавати перевагу

· cereal, noodles, salad –крупа, локшина, салат

· to have a snack –перекусити

· the canteen – їдальня

· the first course – перша страва

· the main course – головна страва

· dish –страва, блюдо

· bread, butter, cheese, egg, sugar, salt –хліб, масло, сир, яйце, цукор. сіль

Exercise 1: Read and translate text:

I prefer to have meals at home. At the weekend I like to get up late and have a good breakfast of omelette, pancakes, or cereal or noodles or something like that. I like fruits for breakfast very much. I prefer apples, pears, grapes, banana and grapefruit, although it is very sour. I have a cup of strong tea or black coffee and a couple of sandwiches. I like sandwiches with a lot of vegetables: tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbages or even onion.

As I spend a lot of time at college (usually eight or nine hours) it's necessary to have a snack at midday. That's why I have to go to the canteen to have lunch. There are a lot of dishes in our canteen. It has become a tradition with our canteen to have mashed potatoes every day with a glass of juice and a lot of fruits.

But I enjoy my evening meal at home as I said.

To begin with, I like salads – tomato and cucumber salad or mixed salad where there are a lot of potatoes, radish, tomatoes and egg-plants. For the first course in our canteen we have soup. For the main course we have meat, or fish dishes. We also have a lot of vegetables — green peas, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers.

For dessert we have some fruit, fruit juice or just a cup of tea with a slice of cake.

On Sundays I like to go to McDonald's with my friends. I like everything there: cheeseburgers, hamburgers and Big Macs, apple pies and fruit cocktails. But unfortunately we can't go there very often, because it's not healthy to eat such food.

 

 

Exercise 2: Complete the sentences:

1. I prefer to have meals at … \ in …

2. I like to have breakfast of …

3. I like such fruits for breakfast as … very much.

4. I have a cup of strong tea …

5. I like sandwiches with …

6. There are a lot of dishes in our canteen. They are:

7. I like salads with …

8. For the first course I like …

9. For the main course I like …

10. For dessert I prefer …

11. My favourite fruit is …

12. I like such drinks as …

 

 

Exercise 3: Answer the questions:

1. What time do you get up?

2. Do you have enough time for breakfast? What do you eat for breakfast?

3. What is your favourite dish?

4. What fruits do you know?

5. What fruit do you like most of all?

6. What berries do you know?

7. What vegetables do you like?

8. What do you usually drink?

9. What is your first course?

10. What is your main course?

11. What you like to eat for dessert?

12. Do you like salads?

13. What do you prefer: cereal or noodles?

14. What is your ideal food? What is it?

 

 

Exercise 4: Read some facts about different fruits and vegetables:

ü In China, apricots grew 4000 years ago and peach over 2000 years ago.

ü It is not known for sure where the lemon originated but India, Burma and southern China are the most likely places.

ü Pears grew wild in Britain.

ü Greece is one country where olives first grew.

ü Pineapples are native to Brazil.

ü Cauliflower comes from China, where they were about the size of a cricket ball.

ü Carrots are one of the world's most popular vegetables. But did you know that until about the 1600s carrots were purple?

ü Onions were grown in the Middle East thousands of years ago and slaves, building the pyramids in ancient Egypt ate onions, garlic and radishes.

ü Potatoes originated in South America and were taken to England and Europe by explorer Francis Drake in the 1500s. At first people in England and Europe didn't eat the potatoes, they just grew the plant because they thought it looked pretty!

ü Tomatoes come from South America and Spanish explorers took them to Europe in the 1500s.

 

- What facts did you know?

- What is the most interesting information for you?

- Which information is unimportant for you?

 

Exercise 5: Questions to the text «Food Around The World»

1. What factors does the food depend on?

2. In what country the rice and noodle are eaten most of all?

3. In what country herrings and sardines are eaten most of all?

4. What do people from central Europe eat?

5. What about German and Poland?

6. How many courses do American and European people eat with knives and forks? What about Chine and India?

7. Is it possible nowadays to transform food very easy? Why?

8. What is the origin (походження) of banana, rice, strawberry?

9. Is the question of food a problem nowadays? Do all countries have enough food?

Grammatical Topic

THE ADJECTIVE (Прикметник)

· Прикметники в англійській мові не змінюються ні за числами, ні за родами, ні за відмінками: a round table – круглий стіл, round tables – круглі столи. Прикметники змінюються лише за ступенями порівняння: основна форма прикметника, вищий ступінь порівняння прикметника та найвищий ступінь порівняння прикметника.

· Форми вищого і найвищого ступенів порівняння прикметників можуть бути простими та складеними. Прості форми утворюються за допомогою додавання закінчення –er у вищому ступені порівняння прикметників та –est у найвищому + артикль the: cold –colderthe coldest - холодний – холодніший – найхолодніший. Складені форми ступенів порівняння прикметників утворюються додаванням до основної форми прикметника слова more – більш у вищому ступені та most – найбільш у найвищому + артикль the: dangerous – more dangerous – the most dangerous - небезпечний – небезпечнішийабо більш небезпечний – найнебезпечніший або найбільш небезпечніший.

· Прості форми ступенів прикметника мають:

а) усі односкладові прикметники:

short – shorter –the shortest

б) двоскладові прикметники, що закінчуються на –y, er, le, ow:

heavy – heavier –the heaviest

clever – cleverer – the cleverest

simple – simpler – the simplest

в) двоскладові прикметники з наголосом на другий склад:

polite – politer – the politest

Якщо прикметник закінчується на німе–е, то пере закінченням –erтаestвоно випадає: large–larger – the largest

Якщо односкладовий прикметник закінчується однією приголосною з попереднім голосним, то така кінцева приголосна перед закінченням –erтаestподвоюється: hot – hotter – the hottest, big – bigger – the biggest

Якщо прикметник закінчується буквою –y з попередньою приголосною, то перед закінченням –erтаest –yзмінюється на–i:dry – drier – the driest

· Складені форми ступенів прикметника мають усі багатоскладові прикметники (більше двох складів) та двоскладові прикметники з наголосом на першому складі, крім тих, що закінчуються на –y, er, le, ow: difficult – moredifficult – the most difficult

 

 

Exercise 1: Make the right degrees of comparison (Утворіть правильний ступінь порівняння прикметників):

1. Short, long, dirty, clean, dark, light, thin, cold, dry, silly, tall, strong, happy.

2. Beautiful, great, large, brave, cheap, pretty, careful, stupid, barrow, young.

3. Rich, interesting, expensive, quick, easy, rude, cheerful, fast, lazy.

Exercise 2: Open the brackets: (Розкрийте дужки):

1. The rooms are (clean) than they used to be.

2. It’s (cold) here than in Kyiv.

3. This is (expensive) book of them all.

4. This is (interesting) film of them all.

5. The Nile is (long) than Dnipro.

6. These people are (polite) than in my town.

7. Is Michael (intelligent) than Susan?

8. What is the name of the (high) mountain in Europe?

 

 

 

 

Заняття №11

Vocabulary

Meat

· meat, ham, bacon –м’ясо, шинка, бекон

· pork, beef, veal, poultry –свинина, яловичина, телятина, птиця

· beefsteak, sausage, chain sausage, fat –біфштекс, ковбаса, сосиски,сало

· chop, cutlet, dumplings? Stuffed cabbage –відбивна, котлета, пельмені, голубці

· fat meat, lean meat –жирне м'ясо, пісне м'ясо

· stew meat, baked meat, –тушковане, запечене м'ясо

· roast chicken, turkey –запечена курка, індичка

· fried fish, stewed fish, stuffed fish, tinned fish – смажена, тушкована, фарширована, консервована риба

· to bake, to boil, to butter, to fry –пекти, варити, намазувати, смажити

· to chop, to crack, to cut, to peel – кришити (шаткувати), розбивати, різати, чистити (овочі)

· to dress, to stew, to stuff –заправляти, тушкувати, начиняти

· to mix, to melt – перемішувати, розтоплювати

·

· milk, cream, sour cream –молоко, вершки, сметана

· boiled eggs, scrambled eggs, cheese, cheese spread –варені, смажені яйця, сир, плавлений сир

· crab sticks, pepper –крабові палички, перець

· garnish, mashed potatoes, potato in jackets – гарнір, картопляне пюре, картопля в мундирі

·

· biscuit, cake, chocolate, pie, pudding, roll – сухе печиво, торт, шоколад, пиріг, пудинг, булочка

· bar of chocolate, box of chocolate – плитка шоколаду, коробка шоколадних цукерок

· ice-cream, pancakes, sweets, candies, rusks, waffle – морозиво, млинці, солодощі, льодяники, сухарі, вафля

 

 

Exercise 1: Read and translate the dialogue:

At dinner

Mother: The dinner is ready. Come along, both of you, and let us begin. It’s high time to have dinner.

Father: I’m ready too. I feel very hungry.

Alex: So am I. I could eat a horse.

Mother: Well, we haven’t got a horse for you, but what we have got is very nice. Tour favourite dishes will be here right now.

Alex: What are they? I’ve got so many.

Mother: For the first course we have chicken soup and mixed salad, for the second– mashed potato with vegetables, chain sausages and stuffed fish.

Alex: And for dessert?

Mother: I have fruits, apple pie and a cake.

Alex: Oh, it’s wonderful! It’s a pity that you don’t cook all these dishes so often! May I go and get them now?

Father: Don’t be so impatient. Wait till we finish the second course. Where is the salt, please?

Mother: Alex, pass the salt to father, please.

Alex: Here you are, Dad.

Father: Thank you, son.

Mother: Alex? Why don’t you eat salad?

Alex: You know, that I don’t like cucumbers, they are everywhere in this salad.

Mother: Here is your soup.

Alex: Thank you, mother. May I trouble you with the piece of bread?

Mother: Brown or white?

Alex: Brown, please. The soup is delicious today!

Father: Where are the napkins?

Mother: They are in the drawer. I always forget to put them out.

Father: Never mind. Alex will catch them.

Alex: Here are the napkins, Dad. Mum, now may I have fruit with a pie and a cake?

Mother: Take it from the fridge.

Alex: Oh, apricots and banana!!! It’s great!

Father: Thank you, dear for the most delicious dinner.

Mother: Now , Alex, I want you to help me to clear the table. Take all these plates, spoons and knives to the kitchen.

 

- How many family members are in the dialogue?

- Where is the family sitting? What is the event?

- Are the other members hungry or no?

- What did the mother prepare for the first course?

- What did the mother prepare for the second course?

- What did the mother prepare for the dessert?

- What is the favourite dish of her son?

- What does he dislike?

- Why is Alex so impatient?

- Where was the dessert all the time?

- What did the mother ask her son to do after the dinner?

- Who prepares dinner in your family?

- What do you have for the first \ second course \ dessert?

- What is your favourite dish?

- What do you dislike?

Exercise 2: Match appropriate words:

Verbs Food

1. Bake a) Chicken

2. Boil b) Turkey

3. Chop c) Fish

4. Cut d) Banana

5. Fry e) Onion

6. Grill f) Potato

7. Peel g) Meat

8. Roast h) Lemon

9. Slice i) Carrot

10. Squeeze j) Cake

 

Grammatical Topic

THE ADJECTIVE (Прикметник)

Особливі випадки утворення ступенів порівняння прикметників
Основна форма Вищий ступінь Найвищий ступінь
Bad good far (далекий) old   little worse better farther older elder less the worst the best the farthest the oldest the eldest the least

 

Форми elder та eldest вживаються, коли йдеться про членів сім’ї ( my elder brother – мій старший брат), але якщо при порівнянні є слово than –ніж, то вживається форма older, а не elder(he is three years older then his sister).

 

Exercise 1: Make the right degrees of comparison:

Tall, high, dry, clean, good, pretty, long, short, hot, polite, young, old, little, big, small, bad, interesting, huge, wide, far, strong, difficult, attentive, helpful, cheap.

 

Exercise 2: Translate into English:

1. Його машина дешевша, ніж моя.

2. Наша кімната найменша в квартирі.

3. Моя сестра молодша за мене.

4. Їхній будинок найгарніший.

5. Її сукня гірша, ніж моя.

6. Зима холодніша ніж літо.

7. Його будинок вищий мого.

8. Це питання складніше ніж минуле.

9. Найкраща пора року – літо.

10. Візьми це крісло. Воно легше.

 

 

(ст.. 28 Барановська)

 

 

 

 

 

Заняття №12

Прийоми їжі. Прикметник

Vocabulary

· a snack –закуска

· to have a snack –перекусити

· breakfast, dinner, lunch, tea, supper –сніданок, обід, другий сніданок (ланч), чай як прийом їжі, вечеря

· substantial meal –суттєва їжа

· to have breakfast, dinner, supper –поснідати, пообідати, повечеряти

· raw, sour, spicy, sweet –сирий, кислий, гострий, солодкий

· tasty, tasteless –смачний, несмачний

· strong tea, weak tea –міцний чай, слабкий чай

· to consist of – складатись з

Exercise 1: Read and translate text:

There are four meals a day in English: breakfast, lunch, tea, and dinner.

Breakfast is the first meal of the day. It is at about 8 o'clock in the morning, and consists of porridge with milk and salt or sugar, eggs – boiled or fried, bread and butter with marmalade or jam. You can eat also a cornflakes and toasts. Some people like to drink tea, but others prefer coffee. Instead of porridge they may have fruit juice, or they may prefer biscuits. For a change you may have a fish.

The usual time for lunch is 1 o'clock. A businessman in London usually finds it impossible to come home for lunch, and so he gets to a café or restaurant. This meal starts with soup or fruit juice. Then follows some meat or poultry with potatoes – boiled or fried, carrots and beans. Then a pudding comes. Instead of the pudding they may prefer cheese and biscuits. Last of all coffee – black or white. Englishmen often drink something at lunch. Water is usually on the table. Some prefer juice or lemonade. Sometimes we can have steak and chips with a glass of light beer with lunch.

Tea is the third meal of the day. They call them «afternoon tea». It is between 4 or 5 o'clock, the so-called 5 o'clock tea. Afternoon tea you can hardly call a meal, but it is a sociable sort of thing, as friends often come for a chat while they have their cup of tea, cake or biscuit. On the table there is tea, milk or cream, sugar, bread and butter, cakes and jam.

Dinner is the fourth meal of the day. In some houses dinner is the biggest meal of the day. The usual time is about 7 o'clock, and all the members of the family sit down together. Dinner usually consists of soup, fish or meat with vegetables – potatoes, green beans, carrot and cabbage, sweet pudding, fruit salad, ice-cream or cheese and biscuits. Then after a talk they have black or white coffee.

But the greater part of the people in the towns, and nearly all country-people, have dinner in the middle of the day instead of lunch. They have tea a little later – between 5 and 6 o'clock, and then in the evening, before going to bed, they have supper.

So the four meals of the day are either breakfast, dinner, tea, supper; or breakfast, lunch, tea, dinner.

 

Exercise 2: Complete the sentences:

1. There are … meals a day in English: …

2. Breakfast is the first meal of the day. It is at about …

3. You can eat for breakfast: …

4. How can you understand: For a change …

5. The usual time for lunch is …

6. For lunch people eat …

7. For lunch people drink …

8. … is the third meal of the day.

9. Afternoon tea is …

10. We can eat during tea time …

11. … is the biggest meal of the day.

12. Dinner usually consists of …

 

Exercise 3: Answer the questions:

1. How many meals a day do the English have? What are they?

2. What is breakfast (time, products)? What can we eat \ drink for breakfast?

3. What meals is lunch?

4. Why is so hard for businessmen to go home for lunch?

5. What can people eat \ drink for lunch?

6. What is afternoon tea? What other names can it have? Why?

7. What do people have during tea time?

8. Why is tea time a pleasant moment during a day?

9. What is the biggest meal of the day?

10. What can people eat \ drink for dinner?

11. What meals are there in Ukraine?

12. What do you eat for breakfast \ dinner \ lunch \ supper?

 

 

Exercise 4: Make the right degrees of comparison:

Old, little, careful, happy, beautiful, pretty, bad, good, far, big, short, difficult, wide, long, comfortable, cosy, strong, weak.

 

Exercise 5: Translate into English:

старший друг найдовший шлях сильніший спортсмен

гарніше плаття складніший приклад найзручніша кімната

найгарніша дівчина цікавіша книжка кращий день

найменша проблема найнебезпечніша дорога гірший фільм

 

Він хороший учень

Студенти виконати складнішу вправу.

Я купив гарну книжку. Я купив кращу книжку. Я купив найкращу книжку.

Моя кімната найбільша в квартирі.

Наша кухня найзручніша в світі.

Це найсмачніша страва.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Заняття №13

Vocabulary

· recipe for a dish – рецепт страви

· to bake –пекти to boil –варити

· to fry – смажити to butter –намазувати

· to grill –смажити на грилі to roast – засмажувати

· to crack –розбивати to chop– кришити (шаткувати)

· to peel –чистити (овочі) to cut –різати,

· to dress –заправляти to stuff –начиняти

· to stew –тушкувати to mix– перемішувати

· to melt –розтоплювати to sprinkle– збризнути, посипати

· to beat –збивати (вершки, яйця) to whip– збивати (вершки, яйця)

· to grate –терти на терці to break an egg – розбити яйце

· salty, sweet, bitter, fresh, fattening, healthy –солоний, солодкий, гіркий, свіжий, калорійний, здоровий

· oil, pepper, vinegar, onion, garlic – олія, перець, оцет, цибуля, часник

· white egg, yolk of an egg – білок, жовток

· to sieve the flour – просіяти муку

· to add yeast – додавати дріжджі

· to knead the dough – місити тісто

Exercise 1: Read and translate text:

The pizza

Main Ingredients: Red pepper: 1 large, sliced

Chicken: 2 boneless cooked chicken,

Onion: 1 large

Vegetable oil: 1 tbsp

Mushroom: 1 cup, sliced

Sauce: 1/2 cup

Cheddar cheese: 150 grams

Mozzarella cheese: 150 grams

Tomato Sauce: 1 cup to cover the pizza dough

Salt and pepper

Directions:

1.Preheat oven to 400 degrees.

2. Slice the yellow onion. Oil the oven board.

2. Sieve the floor and add to it the yeast with sugar and knead the dough. After 20 minutes roll out dough on a lightly floured surface. Transfer it to the oven and bake until puffed and beginning to color 5-10 minutes.

3. Mix cooked chicken cubes with sauce until evenly coated.

3. Spread the pizza sauce over the pizza dough and top with mushrooms, peppers, onions and chicken. You may add also sausages, ham, cucumber, tomato or olives .

4. Sprinkle mozzarella cheese, cheddar cheese, salt and pepper and bake for 15-20 minutes or until crust is golden and cheese has melted.

 

New York cheesecake

250g plain sweet biscuits

125g unsalted butter, melted

750g cheese, at room temperature

215g (1 cup) sugar

1/2 tsp vanilla extract

2 tsp lemon

2 cup plain flour

4 eggs

300ml sour cream

120g fresh or frozen raspberries

 

Step 1 Preheat oven to 160°C.

Step 2 Place the biscuits in the bowl of a food processor and process until finely crushed. Add the butter until well combined. Transfer to the lined pan. Use a straight-sided glass to spread and press the biscuit mixture over the pan, leaving 1cm at the top of the pan. Cover with plastic and place in the fridge for 30 minutes to chill.

Step 3 Meanwhile, use an electric beater to beat the cream cheese, sugar, vanilla and lemon in a large bowl until just combined. Beat the flour. Add the eggs, 1 at a time, beating well. Stir in the sour cream until just combined.

Step 4 Pour the cream cheese mixture into the base. Place the pan on a baking tray and bake for 1/2 hours or until just set in the centre. Turn oven off. Leave the cheesecake in oven for 2 hours or until cooled completely (this will prevent cheesecake from cracking). Place in the fridge for 4 hours to chill.

Step 5 Top the cheesecake with the raspberries.

 

Exercise 2: Complete the sentences:

1) To fry an egg I need …

2) To fry potatoes I need …

3) To prepare soup I need …

4) To make coffee I need …

5) To eat my food I need …

6) To make my dinner in just two minutes I need …

7) My favourite dish is …

8) To make my favourite dish I need …

9) What can we do with meat?

10) What can we do with vegetables?

11) What can we do with fruit?

12) What can we do with fish?

 

Exercise 3: Match the methods of cooking with the definitions:

1. baking a) cooking in steam; used for puddings, fish, etc.;

2. boiling b) the term in meat cookery by which the meat is first browned, then has a small quantity of water added;

3. braising c) cooking meat or fruit in a small amount of water and its own juice;

4. frying d) cooking foods in enough water to cover them, at a temperature lower than 100 C;

5. roasting e) cooking in fat; used for chips, doughnuts, etc.;

6. simmering f) the food is placed in the oven; used for preparing cakes,breads;

7. steaming g) is done by placing the food in the oven or over coals and cooking until it is tender; used for cooking meats;

8. stewing h) cooking foods in enough water to cover them, at 100 C.

Grammatical Topic

THE ADVERB (Прислівник)

· За значенням прислівники в англійській мові поділяються на 5 основних груп: прислівники часу (adverbs of time): today (сьогодні), yesterday (вчора), now (зараз), soon (незабаром), late(пізно), before (до того як); прислівники місця (adverbs of place): here (тут), there (там), near (поблизу); прислівники повторюваності та частотності (adverbs of repetition and frequency): often (часто), never (ніколи), sometimes (деколи), ever (будь-коли); прислівники ступеня (adverbs of degree): very (дуже), little (мало), too (занадто), much (багато); прислівники способу дії (adverbs of manner): quickly (швидко), well (добре), slowly (повільно).

· Найчастіше прислівники утворюються від інших частин мови (здебільшого від прикметників) за допомогою суфікса – ly:

quick швидкий – quickly швидко

careful обережний – carefully обережно

year рік – yearly щороку

· Буква –yперед суфіксом– lyзмінюється на–i:

happy щасливий – happily щасливо

day день – daily щодня

· Деякі прислівники збігаються за формою з прикметниками: fast – швидкий, швидко, loud – голосний, голосно. Їх легко відрізнити від прикметників, тому що прислівник, як правило, відноситься до дієслова, а прикметник – до іменника:

They get up early – Вони встають рано

They like early vegetables – Вони люблять ранні овочі

 

 

Exercise 1: Make the adverbs from the given words:

careful, fast, calm, late, slow, quick, careless, beautiful, wonderful, bad, rapid, day, happy,cool,health.

 

Exercise 2: Transform the following sentences using adverbs instead of the given adjectives (Перетворіть подані речення на конструкції з прислівником, замість поданих прикметників):

Vocabulary

· table manners –правила етикету за толом

· not to put elbows on the table –не класти лікті на стіл

· not to eat off the knife –не їсти з ножа

· not to lick the spoon –не облизувати ложку

· not to talk with a full mouth –не розмовляти з повним ротом

· not to sip the soup –не сьорбати суп

· not to chew and swallow aloud –не жувати та ковтати голосно

Exercise 1: Read and translate text:

Basic Table Manners

Things you should do:

· 1. if you are at a dinner party wait until your host(ess) starts eating or invites you to do it;

· 2. chew and swallow all the food in your mouth before taking more or taking a drink;

· 3. chew with your mouth closed;

· 4. break bread and rolls with your fingers not with your knife;

· 5. you may use a piece of bread on a fork to soak up sauce, never hold the bread in your fingers to go this;

· 6. you may eat chicken or pizza with your fingers if you are at a barbecue, or very informal setting. Otherwise always use a knife and a fork;

· 7. say "please" and "thank you" when you want something to be passed to you.

· 8. talk about pleasant subjects;

· 9. be good-mannered and kind. If you do not like the food, you should never say so.

Things you shouldn’t do:

· 1. not to put elbows on the table;

· 2.not to eat off the knife;

· 3. not to lick the spoon;

· 4. not to talk with a full mouth;

· 5. not to sip the soup or tea;

· 6. not to chew and swallow aloud;

· 7. never put too much food in your mouth;

· 8. never blow your nose with your hands;

 

- Are table manners important? Why?

- What is the most important table manners’ tip for you?

- What is the less important table manners’ tip for you?

- How do you think why are tips 3, 7, 8 of “Things you should do” important?

- What other table manners do you know?

- How would you behave if someone near you blows his nose during the dinner? Are you patient or impatient?

- How would you behave if someone near you sips a cup of tea loudly?

- How would you behave if someone near you talks a lot with the full mouth?

 

 

TABLE MANNERS POST-TEST

Grammatical Topic

THE ADVERB (Прислівник)

· Прислівники мають теж ступені порівняння.

· Вищий ступінь порівняння односкладових прислівників утворюються за допомогою закінчення –er, найвищий –закінчення –est: late – later – latest, fast – faster – fastest.

· Ступені порівняння прислівників,що мають два і більше складів, утворюються за допомогою слів more (у вищому ступені) і most (у найвищому ступені): carefully – more carefully – most carefully.

· Ступені порівняння прислівників wellдобре і badly погано утворюються від інших коренів:

well – better – best

badly – worse – worst

Exercise 1: Write down the correct form of the word in brackets (adjective or adverb).

1. Tom is (slow)… . He works… .

2. Sue is a (careful) … girl. She climbed up the ladder … .

3. The dog is … (angry) . It barks … .

4. He acted … (excellent) . He's an … actor.

5. They learn English … (easy) . They think English is an … language.

6. Max is a … (good) singer. He sings … .

7. It's … (awful) cold today. The cold wind is … .

8. The little boy looked … (sad) . I went over to comfort him and he looked at me.

9. I tasted the soup … (careful) but it tasted … (wonderful) .

 

Exercise 2: Find the adjective in the first sentence and fill the gap with the adverb:

1. Joanne is happy. She smiles … .

2. The boy is loud. He shouts… .

3. Her English is fluent. She speaks English … .

4. Our mum was angry. She spoke to us … .

5. My neighbour is a careless driver. He drives … .

6. The painter is awful. He paints … .

7. Jim is a wonderful piano player. He plays the piano … .

8. This girl is very quiet. She often sneaks out of the house … .

9. She is a good dancer. She dances really … .

10. This exercise is simple. You … have to put one word in each space.

Questions to the text «Food, Glorious Food»:

1. What is junk food? How often do you eat such kind of food?

2. What can you eat instead of junk food?

3. Why is the way you chew so important? Why is it not good to eat fast for?

4. Why are al biscuits and sweets bad for your mind and body? What can we eat instead of sweets to increase the level of energy?

5. What should we do to eat the right food at the right time?

6. What food from the text is important for the body and organism?

7. What food from the text is harmful for the body and organism?

8. What should we do to be healthy?

 

to be satisfied – бути задоволеним

sensitive – чутливий

a wide variety of – широке розмаїття чогось

instead of – замість

to eat in a hurry – їсти поспішаючи

to send a message to your brain – відправити повідомлення, сигнал до мозку

to absorb – поглинати

unfortunately – нажаль

to increase – збільшити

to contain – містити

 

 

Заняття№15

Vocabulary

· healthy food – здорова їжа

· to develop, to be slim, in a good fit and mood – розвиватися, бути струнким, в хорошій формі та настрої

· to prevent from – запобігати

· sea products, cereal – морські продукти, крупи

· to be an essential part of – бути невід’ємною частиною

· to cut down on – обмежувати в

Exercise 1: Read and translate the text:

Healthy food helps people to develop, to be slim, in a good fit and mood. It prevents us from illnesses, it gives us energy and it is the source of power. What people eat is very important. To be healthy is not so hard, the first thing you can do – you can start from food.

You should eat fish and other sea products. So in the morning it is good to have some cheese with kefir, then tea with two sandwiches. At dinner vegetable soup, a salad and fried fish are very perfect decision. For supper you can eat a salad and fruit.

For somebody food is a source of pleasure, for others - a source of energy. Healthy food should be quite simple. We should know that we do need fat to live, it's an essential part of our diet and physically we couldn't exist without it.

So people should eat all kinds of milk products, especially kefir, cheese. Cereals are also an essential part of healthy lifestyle. Also it is important to consume different kinds of salads, dressed with olive oil or sour cream and all kinds of potato dishes. Eat less salt, sugar and fat, which can be in meat, dairy products; crisps, cakes, biscuits and chocolate. But bitter chocolate or home-made jams can be also useful for everyone. To be healthy means also to drink a lot. People should drink natural juices or mineral water, it is very necessary for your skin and organism. To have good red dry wine is also a good procedure to be healthy. Many doctors say that red wine in reasonable quantities is very good for health. Eat regularly — your body needs a steady flow of energy. Don’t forget about vitamins and minerals in your food.

The food we eat depends on lots of things. Taste is a big factor. Culture, religion and health also play a part in what food we eat. Advertising and social factors also have a big influence.

Finally, there are three main messages to follow for healthy eating:

First, we should eat less fat. Secondly, we are to cut down on sugar and salt.

Thirdly, we must eat more fresh fruit and vegetables and drink a lot. Be healthy!

 

 

Exercise 2: Answer the questions:

1. Is healthy food important? What can it to for us?

2. Is it hard to be healthy? What can we start from?

3. What should we eat for breakfast \ dinner \ supper?

4. What should people eat to be healthy?

5. What should people drink to be healthy?

6. What is food for you: a source of pleasure or a source of energy?

7. Do you eat healthy food? What healthy products do you eat?

8. Why is to drink a lot so important and healthy?

9. Why are fruits and vegetables important?

10. What does food depend on?

11. What are the main factors to be healthy? What should people do?

 

 

Exercise 3: Fill in:

Healthy Food

It’s very important to choose the right food nowadays. Healthy and balanced diet is … for every person. When the body is healthy, the mind will also be healthy. Different types of food … of different nutrients for our body. Some of them have carbohydrates, some proteins or fats, some vitamins and … .

Many people think that fat is bad for people and they try to cut … it. There is even a special line of products, called low-fat. The problem is that we do need some kinds of fat, but such fats from animal products, like red meat, … and cheese, can be really bad for health. Friendly fats can be found in avocados, nuts, olives and fish, and in some other … . Some people cut down on too much sugar and salt, which is also a good idea. One of the healthiest types of food is … and vegetables. More and more people tend to grow fruit and vegetables in their own gardens, instead of buying them. Another problem is modified food. It’s much … than ordinary food, which is why people often buy it, but such food can cause dangerous diseases. The food depends on people’s culture, religion, beliefs, health and other factors such as: less fat, sugar and … ; and more water, vitamins, fresh fruit and vegetables.

 

Grammatical Topic

THE PRONOUN (Займенник)

· Займенники в англійській мові поділяються на 11 груп: особові (personal pronouns), присвійні (possessive pronouns), зворотні (reflexive pronouns), взаємні (reciprocal pronouns), вказівні (demonstrative pronouns), питальні (interrogative pronouns), сполучні (conjunctive pronouns), неозначені (indefinite pronouns), заперечні (negative pronouns), означальні (defining pronouns), кількісні (quantitative pronouns).

 

· Особові займенники мають два відмінки: називний та об’єктний:

Називний відмінок Об’єктний відмінок
I – я he – він she – вона it – воно (він, вона) we – ми you – ти, ви they – вони me – мене, мені him – його, йому her – її, їй it – його, йому, її, їй us – нас, нам you – тебе тобі, вас, вам them – їх, їм

 

I like this book. This book is for me.Give me this book, please.

Hehas not a picture. I buy this picture for him Give him this picture.

She likes dogs. This dog is for her. Give her a dog

They like salad. This salad is for them Give them a salad

 

Займенник he вживається замість іменників чоловічого роду: father, boy.

Займенник sheвживається замість іменників жіночої статі: sister, girl.

Займенник it замінює іменники – назви неістот, не живих предметів, тварин та рослин: The house is large. It is new – Будинок - великий. Він новий.

 

· Присвійні займенники мають форму: залежну та незалежну:

Залежна форма Незалежна форма Українські відповідники
my his her its our your their mine his hers - ours yours theirs мій, моя, моє, мої його її його,її наш,наша,наше,наші ваш, ваше…. твій,твоя… їхній,їхня,їхнє,їхні

 

Присвійні займенники в залежній формі вживаються перед іменником:

my book – моя книжка, my table – мій стіл my window – моє вікно

his bed – його ліжко, his town – його місто

its window – його вікно (напр.. про будинок This house is big. Its window is large. – Цей будинок є великим. Його вікно велике.)

our house – наш будинок, our computer – наш комп’ютер

their house – їхній будинок

 

Присвійні займенники в незалежній формі не вживаються перед іменником:

I have a lot of books. All these books are mine. – Я маю багато книжок. Всі ці книжки мої.

He forgot a pencil. I gave him mine. – Він забув олівця. Я дав йому свого.

 

· В англійській мові немає такого присвійного займенника, що відповідав би українському займеннику «свій». Український присвійний займенник «свій» на англійську мову перекладається різними іншими присвійними займенниками залежно від особи, якої він стосується:

Я користуюсь своїми записами: I use my notes.

Ти користуєшся своїми записами: You use your notes.

Він користується своїми записами: He uses his notes.

Вона користується своїми записами: She uses her notes.

Ми користуємось своїми записами: We use ournotes.

Ви користуєтеся своїми записами: You use your notes.

Вони користуються своїми записами: They use their notes.

Exercise 1: Translate into Ukrainian:

1) my book, her answer, their food, our home, his flat, our idea, your question;

2) Give him his book. This room is mine. These flowers are for her. I understand them. Give us a help. I believe you. I love her.

3) This country is really large, its forests and lakes are beautiful. Now this room is yours. I can take your coat. Listen to me.

 

Exercise 2: Make all forms from the pronouns:

Vocabulary

· to cause health problems –спричиняти проблеми із здоров’ям

· to be harmful to –бути шкідливим

· to influence –впливати

· to spoil health –псувати здоров’я

· to taste –смакувати

· expensive, cheap – дорого, дешево

Exercise 1: Read and translate the text:

Is fast food bad?

There is no such thing as a "bad" food, but there are some foods you should try not to eat regularly, because it is very harmful. Fast food is high in calories, fat and cholesterol. Eating such food too much over a long period of time can cause health problems such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and others. Such food has more sugar and salt. There is a lot of oil, although it tastes good but it is harmful to your organism. A lot of people like to eat hamburgers and drink coca cola. But what is tasty is not always healthy. Fast food makes you fat. Fast food also has no vitamins, and minerals which are so important for our bodies. Such food influences psychology. That’s why many people become very nervous.

Fast foods are easy to cook quickly. People who are busy all the time have no time to cook. Many fast foods are made in factories, and frozen so that we can reheat or quickly cook them at home. Of course we can buy lots of fast foods in the supermarkets too, because it is not so expensive. But we should remember that our health is the most important thing and we should find time for healthy food.

 

 

Exercise 2: Answer the questions:

1. How do you think, can food be bad?

2. Is fast food bad for the organism? Why?

3. What does fast food consist of?

4. What can fast food cause?

5. How can fast food influence your psychological state of mind?

6. What are disadvantages of fast food?

7. What are advantages of fast food?

8. What is fast food for you?

9. Do you like fast food? How often do you eat it?

10. What is your favourite type of fast food?

11. What do you prefer: healthy food or fast food?

12. What should we eat to be healthy?

 

Types of fast food:

Name of the food Historical information
Pop-Corn It’s impossible to imagine American take-away food or snacks without popcorn. Clear as a day, it is made from corn. But what about the first part of the word “pop”. Actually, when you put corn on a fire, the water inside makes the corn explode. This makes a “pop” noise. That is why we call it popcorn.
The Hot Dog The original name of the hot dog was the frankfurter, after the German city of Frankfurt. In the United States frankfurters, sausages on buns, have the name of “dachshund”. It is a dog from Germany with a very long body and short legs. Dachshund sausages first became popular in New-York especially at baseball games. The men walked up and down and said “Get your hot dachshund sausages here!” The newspaper cartoonist Tad Dorgan saw the men with the dachshund sausages and got an idea for a cartoon, but he didn’t know how to spell the word “dachshund” and under the picture he just wrote: “Get your hot dogs!” The sausage in bread looks like the German dog, a “dachshund”.
The Hamburger The hamburger has no connection to ham, but with the German town of Hamburg, which was famous for its steak. German immigrants to the United States introduced the “hamburger steak”. Hamburger steaks were served on buns for the first time. Than, hamburgers have become well-known and favourite all around the world, because of McDonald’s, where hamburgers were the main food on its menu. The first restaurant McDonald’s was opened in San Bernadino, California, in 1949.
Coca-Cola The world famous fresh drink Coca-Cola first was used in medicine. It was a mixing of coca leaves and cola nuts. This mix wasn’t a success and then another druggist, Jacobs, had an idea of selling Coca-Cola as a soda drink. He mixed the syrup with soda water.

 

 

Grammatical Topic

THE PRONOUN (Займенник)

· Зворотні займенники утворюються додаванням закінчення –self (в однині) та –selves (в множині) до присвійних займенників my, your, our, особових займенників him, her, it, them та неозначеного займенника one: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, oneself.

You call yourself a gentleman – Ти називаєш себе джентльменом.

I told myself that it was true – Я сказав собі, що це була правда.

He does not like to talk about himself. – Він не любить говорити про себе.

Let me introduce myself. – Дозвольте відрекомендуватись.

· Наголос у зворотних займенників падає на –self, –selves.

· Деякі дієслова із зворотнім займенником перекладаються на українську мову часткою – ся(сь): I dressed myself – Я одяглась. А також такі займенники можуть перекладатись українським еквівалентом сам: I’ve done it myself – Я зробив це сам.

· В англійській мові є два взаємних займенники: each other та one another, що мають однакове значення – один одного, один одному.

We love each other very much – Ми любимо один одного дуже сильно.

We love one another – Ми любимо один одного.

They take each other’s hands – Вони беруться за руки.

· До вказівних займенників належать: this– цей, that – той, such – такий, the same– той самий. Займенники thisта thatмають форму множини: these – ці, та those – ті. Займенник this (these)вживається стосовно предметів,що знаходяться близько від того, хто говорить, а також тоді, коли йдеться про щось близьке в часі. Займенникthat (those)вживається стосовно предметів,що знаходяться віддалено від того, хто говорить, а також тоді, коли йдеться про щось більш віддалене в часі.

· Між займенником suchі обчислюваним іменником в однині вживається неозначений артикль: Such a nice day! I have never seen such a bird.

Exercise 1: Complete the sentence using reflective pronouns:

Model: I’ve repaired my TV … – I’ve repaired my TV myself.

1. I’ll go to the post-office …

2. She cooks breakfast …

3. We’ll water (поливати) the flowers …

4. The soldiers build the bridge (міст) …

5. Mother said to the boy, “You must always make your bed …”

6. In your place, I should go there …

7. The professor did the operation …

8. The doctor went to Lviv …

Exercise 2: Put into the plural:

1.This is an apple. 2.That is a house.3.That is a cat.4.This is a chair.5.Is this a table?6.This is a garden.7.This is a bus and that is a building.

 

Заняття №17

Vocabulary

· to become –ставати (кимось), робитися

· to be on a diet –«сидіти», бути на дієті

· to cut down on sweets –обмежувати себе в солодкому

· to be a sweet tooth –бути ласункою

· to feel hungry \ thirsty –почуватися голодним \ спраглим

· at dinner \ to have something for dinner –за сніданком \ з’їсти щось на сніданок

· delicious –смачно







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