Сложное дополнение после глаголов, выражающих мнение, суждение, предложение, желание и т.д.



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Сложное дополнение после глаголов, выражающих мнение, суждение, предложение, желание и т.д.



Опознавательным признаком конструкции «сложное дополнение» может служить наличие вводящего глагола, который обозначает умственную деятельность человека или волеизъявление to expect, to believe, to assume, to know, to consider, to suppose, to wantи т.д.

Упр. 40. Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения:

1. We assume the simple ware form to act on the antenna. 2. We know radio electronics to surround us everywhere. 3. We know Ethernet to be the dominant network technology in the IT computing world. 4. Scientists consider the frequency stability of generators to be the hart of all radio transmitting systems. 5. Manufacturers of the magnetic shield consider it to be effective. 6. We expect the documents to serve experienced programmers. 7. The editor declared this multiformat audio test instrument to be the most important one. 8. The Intel developers want the computer to be noiseless. 9. Japan Electronics Show Association wants the International Broadcast Exhibition 2005 to be successful. 10. If Cleverbox want us to develop this software, then we should have approximately twenty software engineers. 11. Software as a Service will require ordinary users to have more powerful computers. 12. He wished the matter to be taken seriously. 13. We proved this suggestion to be wrong. 14. One would expect the true value to have a 90% chance.15. We regard these views to be self-evident. 16. She suffered him to use that date for the research (в составе этой конструкции переводится: неохотно позволять). 17. I hate you to use my laptop (в составе этой конструкции переводится: терпеть не могу). 18. Bohr recognized the substance as having a condensed – ring system.19. We consider the program as consisting of three stages. 20. We have had the device repaired.

 

Сложное дополнение после глаголов to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to observe и т.д.

Обратите внимание на то, что после этих глаголов частица to перед инфинитивом не употребляется.

Упр. 41. Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения:

1. They saw his activity bring great success. 2. The group watched the computer operate. 3. Scientists see DBC (Direct – Broadcast Satellite) provide better pictures and sound. 4. Vodafone and Sony feel their research partnership find new ways for successful work. 5. One cannot fail to see other countries tending for mutual cooperation.

 

 

1.3. Сложное дополнение после каузативных глаголов.

Сложное дополнение может стоять после так называемых каузативных глаголов (от лат. сausa = причина) to causeвызывать, являться причиной того, что; to makeзаставлять; to permit, to allowпозволять; to enableдавать возможность; to letпозволять, разрешать.

Примеры: The sound pressure makesthe pressure on the granules vary – давление звука заставляет давление на гранулах изменяться.

Keying the number in on a telephone causes the pager to beep – набор номера по телефону вызывает звонок пейджера.

Обратите внимание на то, что если английский инфинитив имеет форму страдательного залога (типа to be used), то обычно приходится изменять порядок слов: сначала перевести инфинитив (формой действительного залога), а потом существительное.

Пример: The new method permitted ǀ these phenomena to be investigated ǀ thoroughly – новый метод позволил тщательно исследовать эти явления.

Упр. 42. Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения:

1. Variable current makes the diaphragm vibrate. 2. The inductance in a circuit causes the rise and fall of current to produce a voltage in the same circuit. 3. This force causes the electrons to be attracted to the cathode. 4. Bluetooth, a technology standard, allows digital devices to connect wirelessly. 5. A spreadsheet is a piece of software which allows data to be displayed and managed in a table format. 6. Word is great because it allows making text files easily. 7. UNIX provides multitasking, which allows simultaneous programs to be shared by several users at one time. 8. The decrease in the weight of the structure of airplane enables more passengers to be carried. 9. The technique permitted problems to be solved. 10. The pulse method enables thermodynamic equation to be formulated in a simple manner. 11. This sequence causes digitized images to be stored in core memory. 12. High temperatures allowed the reaction to be carried out in two hours. 13. Digital television enables viewers to interact with the content and provide feedback to the programmer via telephone line, cable or satellite. 14. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) allows sensors in warehouse to monitor deliveries. 15. The power of the modern microcomputer enables it to be used for all kinds of tasks. 16. The business lets customers manage their sales data. 17. App Engine lets users run custom applications. 18. Let us consider this question. 19. Let us imagine that this new model of computer has come on the market. 20. Different kinds of parallel processing software may permit synchronization to be achieved.

 

Перевод придаточных дополнительных предложений с союзами «whether» и «if».

Перевод придаточных дополнительных предложений с союзом «whether»и«if» следует начинать со сказуемого с добавлением частицы «ли».

Пример: Franklin did not know whether current flowsfrom the positive or negative terminal–Франклин не знал, течет ли ток от положительной или отрицательной клеммы.

Упр. 43. Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения:

1. Employees are deciding whether to accept the offer. 2. How do I test whether Java is working on my computer? 3. It is necessary to decide whether this statement is true or false. 4. We do not know whether the universe as a whole is finite or infinite in extent – either in space or* in time. 5. We failed to discover whether data is available. 6. Check whether you can access other Web pages? 7. Thus it would be of great importance for us to know whether the manufacturer`s claims are actually true. 8. West Africa geophysicists carried out surveys to see whether there were any oil reservoirs underground. 9. We try to learn if the value is changeable.

 

Упр. 44. Прочтите и переведите бессоюзные придаточные дополнительные предложения:

1. It was stated the conclusion was right. 2. Dave Wells said the new office only needed satellite phones. 3. The approach means it is virtually impossible for the entire Net to crash at once. 4. Greg says he will check her network card with a ping test. 5. Microsoft believes cloud computing is a transformational technology that offers huge opportunities for firms and their customers.

 

Упр. 45. Прочтите и переведите текст, обращая внимание на перевод конструкции «сложное дополнение»:

Men of science consider Lobachevsky to be a great mathematician. The whole world knows Lobachevsky to have strictly demonstrated and explained the principles of the theory of parallel lines. We consider him to be a great organizer of popular education, and we know him to have written much on the problems of education.

Lobachevsky was born on December 1, 1792 near Nizhny Novgorod. His father died when he was only a child, leaving his family in extreme poverty. The family moved to Kazan where Lobachevsky was admitted to the gymnasium. We know his progress to have been extremely rapid in mathematics and classics. At the age of 14 he entered the University of Kazan where he is known to have spent 40 years as a student, assistant professor, and finally rector. Under his direction great improvements were made at the University. We know an observatory to have been founded and equipped and a mechanical workshop to have been established.

For 2200 years all the mankind believed Euclid to have discovered an absolute truth. Lobachevsky proved Euclid`s axiom on parallel lines not to be true. He built a new geometrical theory quite different from that of Euclid. We know his ideas to have greatly influenced not only geometry, but mechanics, physics, astronomy as well. Like Galileo, Copernicus and Newton he is one of those who laid the foundation of science.

 

Упр. 46. Прочтите и переведите текст, обращая внимание на перевод различного рода дополнений:

Telephone Problems

Though we expect telephone to have convenience and speed it also has the power to convey a poor impression of the efficiency of individuals and organizations and create confusion and irritation.

Telephone firms encourage customers to make telephone calls as they seem cheaper than sending a letter. Many organizations calculate that the average cost of sending a letter is about £ 25, which allows the customers to buy a lot of telephone time even at current rates. But telephone calls do not necessarily save time – and in business time is money. We have all suffered from the irritating waste of time caused by bad telephone manners. Sometimes to make a call takes us longer time than it takes to write or dictate a letter.

Perhaps the principal cause of the telephone inefficiency is that although the standard telephone allows a customer to perform oral communication, it doesn`t yet transmit visual communication. Facial expression, gestures and posture not only help people convey the real meaning of words, but are often the principal means of feedback in face-to-face conversation. They allow misunderstandings to be instantly corrected. Without visual communication we expect such typical problems as missed words, misheard words, misunderstood words to occur.

 

Определение

Определение член предложения, которое определяет существительное. Определение отвечает на вопросы какой?, который?и может стоять как слева, так и справа от определяемого существительного, образуя с ним группу существительного.

 

1. Перевод существительного с левыми определениями.

1.1. Левые определения, представленные одним или несколькими существительными.

В научно – технической литературе широко используются определения, представленные одним или несколькими существительными, стоящими перед определяемым словом (так называемые «цепочки»). Определения могут состоять также из существительных в сочетании с прилагательным, причастием, герундием или числительным.

Перевод терминологических словосочетаний (цепочек) на русский язык следует начинать с последнего слова, т.е. с определяемого существительного. Остальныекомпоненты цепочки переводятся существительными в родительном падеже, прилагательными или существительными с предлогами. Иногда требуется подобрать русский термин, принятый в данной области.

Примеры: process controlуправление процессом; control process - процесс управления; semiconductor deviceполупроводниковое устройство; reduction cost - затраты на уменьшение; delay line storeблок памяти с линией задержки; low power consumptionнебольшое потребление энергии; fraud risksриски, связанные с возможностью быть обманутым.

Упр. 47. Прочтите и переведите следующие словосочетания и предложения, обращая внимание на перевод «цепочек»:

a) Test operation, operation test, satellite dish, broadband speeds, cost reduction, power consumption, a bespoke solution, Internet access devises, data network providers, power consumption change, size reduction need, network management application, solid state storage device,high – speed computers, relatively cheaper source material, the cheapest source material,local exploration office, national fibre backbone, a user`s location, the world`s third largest telecom equipment manufacturer.

b) 1. Transistor performance was steadily improved. 2. All our customers need is a broadband pipe into our network cloud. 3. The geophysicists did not find evidence of underground oil reservoirs. 4. It should support our voice and email requirements. 5. In the mountains regions they are erecting point to point microwave towers. 6. High-performance servers require high performance network connection. 7. We have a ten-strong Application Implementation team. 8. This analysis provides a specification or Software Requirements Analysis.

 

1.2. Левые определения, в состав которых входят причастия.

Примеры: an increasing size – увеличивающийся размер; partially changedoperations - частично изменённые (изменяемые) операции.

Обратите внимание: the boiling water – кипящая вода (причастие I в функции левого определения); the boiling temperature – температура кипения (герундий в функции левого определения).

Упр. 48. Прочтите и переведите следующие словосочетания и предложения, обращая внимание на перевод существительных с левыми определениями, в состав которых входят причастия:

a) An operating device, an existing software product, a slowly operating device, digital switching equipment, the increased complexity of the designs, commercially produced devices, twisted copper pair, packetized voice over Internet, the advantage of carefully prepared silicon surfaces.

b) 1. Developing countries seek to upgrade their telecoms networks. 2. 3G (and coming soon, 4 G and LTE) is a well-established wireless network in developed countries. 3. Chess – playing computers probably provide the best examples of machines exhibiting what might be thought of as «intelligent behavior». 4. Mobile Wi-Max supports both fixed and* mobile applications with improved performance. 5. Copper fixed lines are being rolled out. 6. Historically, in-country, we have had poor fixed line infrastructure. 7. One recently invented microelectronic functional element has a distinction. 8. Several assigned channels were transmitted and received from the antenna atop this tower. 9. Talking Software is an SME-sized software development company.

 

2. Перевод существительных с правыми определениями, представленными

а) устойчивыми словосочетаниями (существительное с предлогом),

b) прилагательными, c) герундием, d) причастиями.

Обратите внимание, что многие устойчивые сочетания (существительное с предлогом), а также одиночные прилагательные и причастия на «ed», после которых нет группы слов с предлогом, при переводе обычно ставятся перед определяемым существительным.

Примеры: а) The event under considerationрассматриваемое событие.

b) The shift possible is used … - возможный сдвиг используется … .

c) The way of developing materialsспособ разработки материалов.

d*) The reliability concerning the device points … - надёжность, касающаяся устройства.

d**) The technique being developed is of great importance –разрабатываемая технология имеет большое значение/технология, которая разрабатывается, имеет большое значение).

d***) The dimension required– затребованный (требуемый) размер.

d****) The delay associated with the interconnection is dependent on two parameters – задержка, связанная с соединением, зависит от двух параметров.

Упр. 49. Прочтите и переведите следующие словосочетания и предложения, учитывая особенности перевода существительных с правыми определениями:

a) A network operator in charge…, the chip under development provides… , the problem in point…, difficulty of manufacturing switching systems…, the instrument available can provide … , benefit resulting from microelectronic…, a computer network covering a local area…, an educational laptop being produced…, a wafer of silicon spoken about is heated…, software delivered as a service….

b) 1. There are about three million computers in use in the world now. 2. The concept of cloud computing under consideration is far from new. 3. Telecoms companies under discussion made most of their profits from voice calls. 4. From the information available, the technology under consideration demands substantial design efforts. 5. There will not be fibre available to the customers` premises for at least two years. 6. This method of recording, editing and distributing audio, video and sound files served as an efficient means of organizing the project.

 

Упр. 50. Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения:

1. There are dominant factors limiting device performance. 2. So there are redundant connections and services coming into the country. 3. Processors using the K5 architecture are fully compatible with software applications for Windows. 4. A RAM module holding 40 components was described at the Electronic Components Conference. 5. Open source software being used is becoming more and more popular. 6. The signal being transmitted varies continuously, both in frequencies and in amplitude. 7. The device used was mechanically strong. 8. Circuits developed consisted of two layers. 9. John, would you mind explaining the workstreams involved? 10. The explanation offered was rather uncertain. 11. The most common device used for input on microcomputers is the keyboard. 12. Circuits developed in the new project had tow layers. 13. Time delays associated with interconnection made of different materials have been considered. 14. The «mouse» developed by the Logitech firm and known as Mouseman has an asymmetrical form for the right or left hand. 15. Data recorded in the form of magnetized dots can be arranged to represent coded patterns of bits.16. More murky sources include phishing software planted by computer hackers.

 

2.1. Инфинитив в функции определения в пассивной форме.

Такой инфинитив обычно имеет модальный оттенок необходимости или значение будущего времени и переводится на русский язык придаточным определительным предложением, начинающимся словом «который», причем в состав сказуемого вводятся слова «нужно», «необходимо», «следует» или же глагол-сказуемое ставится в будущем времени.

Пример: The information to be stored is taken from the journal – информация, которую нужно сохранить (которая будет сохранена), взята из журнала.

Примечание: В литературе встречается инфинитив в функции определения в форме действительного залога. В этом случае он также переводится определительным придаточным предложением, но без добавления слов «нужно», «необходимо», «следует».

Пример: Equipment to operate under water has been designed …. – оборудование, которое работает под водой, было сконструировано …. .

 

Упр. 51. Прочтите и переведите следующие словосочетания и предложения:

a) Reliability to be achieved, the components to be fabricated, a wireless network to be established, software to be manufactured, the concept to be referred to in the paper … , a map of the local area to be displayed on the device screen… , some dirty or unclean data to be removed.

b) 1. The convergence of technologies is the problem to be studied in the next twenty years.2. The cloud and cloud computing are new terms to be explained. 3. The alternative method to be considered is contactless payment.4. Another factor to be taken into consideration is the cost of high-quality GPS (Global Positioning System).5. Polysilicon to be used meets all of the requirements addressed above.7. Also, the programs to be verified will have to be well constructed, to make the job easier.8. A problem to be solved by a digital computer must be expressed in mathematical terms that the computer can work with. 9. Because of their ability to remove any dirty or unclean data this software is in operation.10. The quality of speech signals to be transmitted may. degrade.11. The primary factors to be considered are signals power and noise power.12. The computer to be made will have a cycle time (время выполнения одной операции) of two nanoseconds.

2.2. Инфинитив в функции определения после слов the first, the last переводится определительным предложением, вводимым славами который или кто, время глагола-сказуемого этого предложения зависит от формы времени глагола в главном предложении.

Пример: Dr. Brown was among the first researchers to test the new software on aphasics - доктор Браунбыл среди первых исследователей, кто испытал новую программу на больных афазией.

Упр. 52. Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения:

1. Telecoms companies were among the first to give their customers facilities such as Internet access or mobile telephony. 2. A Blackberry (a type of hand-held device) was the last to be mentioned. 3. The Barclaycard was the first business contactless payment system to be launched in London. 4. The operating system is the first program to be processed after the computer is turned on. 5. The first to achieve a chain reaction were the Jolio –Curies. 6. Giles Sequeira, 40, a property developer from London, is one of the first people to test the new privacy marketplace.

 



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