National Experience with Population Issues (UN, 1998)



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

National Experience with Population Issues (UN, 1998)



(Читается с американским акцептом) Madam Chairwoman,

Population issues are one of the most important priorities of the government of the Russian Federation, since in recent years the demographic situation in our country has been in a state of crisis. The major factors are: the deterioration of health and an unprecedented rise in the mortality of the population, in particular for people of working age, a sharp drop in the number of births, the continuation of a downward trend in life expectancy, particularly among men, a rise in general and age-related morbidity due to an increase in forced migration, aging and an absolute reduction in the numbers of the population.

The demographic crisis has been caused by a number of factors, including a global long-term trend towards a decline in the birth rate, and a trend specific to Russia of a rise in mortality and a reduction in life expectancy. The socio-economic situation in the country is having a direct impact on the processes of population development.

Russia has already reached the point of depopulation. A natural decline as the major indicator of demographic problems was noted for the country as a whole, starting at the end of 1990. From 1993-96 a natural decline in the population was observed in 69 regions of the country, though ten years ago such phenomena were observed only in three regions of Russia.

Reproduction of the population in Russia is at such a low level that it does not even result in that simple reproduction of the population needed for numerical replacement of the generation of parents by their children. This is borne out by the net coefficient of reproduction of the population required for numerical replacement of the parents' generation by their children. While in 1989 it was at 0.593, in 1996 the figure was 0.603.

As for mortality factors, Russia's experience confirms the conclusion as to a general shift in the ranking of mortality causes from infectious diseases towards non-infectious chronic and acquired diseases, primarily cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumors. The greatest number of people in Russia are dying from circulatory


illnesses. And it is precisely the changes in mortality from cardiovascular diseases which are impacting decisively on general mortality. In recent years as the result of a strong new upward trend, mortality from accidents, poisoning and trauma among the population of working age, in particular men, for the first time has exceeded mortality from cancer and is one of the negative factors of the demographic situation in Russia.

Moreover, mortality in Russia from infectious diseases is mainly due to tuberculosis, which in various years has accounted for from 70 to 90% of all deaths from infectious diseases among men and from 40-70% among women.

An important role in the development of this situation can be attributed to the behavioral factor, which in turn depends on policy designed to promote a healthy life style.

Several positive developments in 1995-97 have not yet changed the general trend. In particular, there has been an increase in male mortality, making it one of the highest rates in the world. There continued to be a high level of child and maternal mortality.

Starting in 1995 there were signs of an increase in life expectancy: there has been a gradual rise among men and women, 59.8 years for men and 72.5 for women.

There has been a start of encouraging trends through a drop in infant mortality: in 1996 the coefficient for infant mortality was 17.4, and in 1997 - 16.9 cases per 1000 births.

The existing data, however, do not allow for an accurate determination of the length, intensity, regional differentiation, structure and consequences of the demographic crisis and the impact on it of external factors.

A vital objective here is to obtain true and reliable information in the field of population. An extremely important source of such information is the census. Here we would like to support the idea that without reliable statistical data and indicators it is impossible to formulate proper policy in the field of population.

In formulating Russia's demographic policy the government is attempting to expand the number of its partners, and is actively involving in this work (inter alia) public and non-governmental organizations.

Thank you.


Текст 17

Вопрос о положении женщин: Национальные планы действия (ООН,1998)

Господин Председатель,

Содержавшаясяв Платформе действий Пекинской конфе­ренции рекомендацияпринять в кратчайшие срокинациональ­ные планы действия по улучшению положения женщин была положительно воспринятав Российской Федерации, где к этому моменту уже стала очевидной необходимость выработки новых концептуальных подходов к проблеме обеспечения равных прав и возможностей мужчин и женщин в условиях перехода к рыночной экономике.

Утвержденнаяв январе 1996 года Концепцияулучшения по­ложения женщин стала документом, заложившим теоретические основы и определившим стратегические цели деятельности пра­вительства по претворению в жизнь конституционного положе­ния о равноправии мужчин и женщин в Российской Федерации.

Принятыйв августе 1996 года национальный план действийпо улучшению положения женщин и повышению их роли в общест­ве до 2000 года в свою очередь расширил и дополнил положения Концепции конкретными практическими шагами государствен­ных структур по достижению сформулированных в ней целей.

С одной стороны, экономические преобразования в странах с переходной экономикой открыли перед женщинами новые го­ризонты, дали возможность по-новому реализовать себя,а с дру­гой - солидные издержкирыночных реформ больнее всего ска­зываются именно на женщинах: усиливается феминизация бед­ности, растет женская безработица, ухудшается здоровье женщи­ны.Нас беспокоят негативные демографические процессы: сни­жение рождаемости, низкие показатели ожидаемой продолжи­тельности жизни, высокие цифры смертности населения, осо­бенно в трудоспособном возрасте, негативные тенденции в ре­продуктивном здоровье. Снизился уровеньзанятости женщин, среди безработных 60% составляют женщины. Говоря о нравст­венном состоянии общества, следует отметить факты жестокого обращения в семье и насилия в отношении женщин.

Проблемы безработицы, проблемы положения женщин и мно­гие другие общественные вопросы носят глобальный характер.Массовая хроническая безработица бьет и по тем,кто смог найти работу. Ведь угроза быть выброшенным за ворота вынуждает их мириться с произволом предпринимателей. Так, по данным МОТ,


предприниматели, как правило, платят молодым работникам 40-50% от зарплаты взрослых за аналогичную работу.

Незанятость значительной части молодого поколения явля­ется первопричиной многих социальных зол.Лишенные возмож­ности трудиться, молодые люди начинают ощущать свою отчуж­денность, ненужность обществу. А это, в конечном итоге, ведет к росту наркомании, преступности, проституции.

И не надо забывать о том,что сегодня средства массовой ин­формации обладают огромным потенциалом воздействия на об­щественное сознание. Это особенно ощутимо сегодня, когда международные отношения все больше становятся делом не только профессиональных дипломатов, но и широких слоев ми­ровой общественности, когда гласность, информированность становятся обязательным условием и ускорителем демократиза­ции международной жизни.

Конкретным результатомработы в части улучшения положе­ния женщин стали предпринимаемые меры по обеспечению занятости женщин. Принятыгенеральное трехстороннее согла­шение между правительством, работодателями и профсоюзами, программа поддержки и развития малого предпринимательства. Проводится опережающее обучение работников,находящихся под угрозой увольнения, осуществляется социальная адаптация безработных. Организованапрофессиональная переподготовка безработных женщин, оказывается содействие в трудоустройст­ве оканчивающим высшие учебные заведения. Социальная помощь переходит на строгую адресность.

Проблемы положения женщин носят глобальный характер.

Огромное значение для успешной реализации Пекинских доку­ментов имеет солидарность женщин, тесное сотрудничество правительственных и общественных структур.

Спасибо, господин Председатель.

* * * Mr. Chairman,

The recommendation containedin the Platform of Action of the Beijing Conference/That/Something/What is containedin the Platform of Action of the Beijing Conference, namely/that is/I mean/ I am referring to the recommendation/toadopt as soon as possible/in the very nearfuture/national plans of action to improve the status of women, has the approval of/was approved by/meets with the approvalof/the Russian Federation, where there already is a clear need to/where the need is evident/obvious/clear to draw up/produce/work out/for


drawing up/producing/working out/new conceptual approaches to (the problem of) ensuring equal rights and opportunities for men and women in conditions of/during/the transition to a market economy.

The concept which was approved/adopted/That/Something which was approved/adoptedin 1996, namely/I mean/that is/the concept for

the improvement of the status of women became a document which laid the theoretical foundations/bases/and determined/defined the strategic goals for the activities of the government in implementing constitutional provisions regarding the equality of men and women in the Russian Federation.

The national plan of action adoptedin August 1996 to improve the status of women and enhance their role in society by the year 2000 in turn has expanded and supplemented the provisions of the Concept through specific practical steps/actions/by state institutions to implement the goals/objectives it contains contained in it/its goals/objectives.

The economic transformations/changes in countries with transition economies have opened up new horizons/opportunities/for women, have provided new opportunities for self-fulfillment/self-rea-lization/and,on the other hand, the major burden/costs/ofmarket reforms are impacting most of all/are most intensively felt/born/ experienced by women: there has been a rise/increase in female poverty, a growth of women's/female unemployment and a deterioration of women's health.We are concerned about the negative demographic processes: a drop/decline in the birth rate, low life expectancy indicators, high mortality figures for the population, especially of working age, and negative trends in reproductive health. There has been a drop/decline in the levelof female employment, and 60% of the unemployed are women/women account for 60% of the unemployed. In speaking of the moral state of society, we should take note of incidents/cases of harsh/brutal behavior/treatment/within the family and of violence against women.

The problem of unemployment, the problem of the status of women and many other social issues are global in nature/universal/ widespread.Mass and chronic unemployment also strikes/affects/

those who have found work. This is because/For/the threat of being fired/dismissed/downsized/let go/forces them to put up with/accept the arbitrary will/whims/of entrepreneurs. Thus, according to ILO data, entrepreneurs as a rule pay young workers (some) 40-50% of the salaries paid to adults for similar/such/identical/work.

Unemployment of a significant part of the younger generation is the root/primary/underlying/primary/major/cause/reason for/of many social ills/problems/issues.Deprived of the possibility to work, young


people begin to experience/feel/alienation/a feeling of alienation, that they are useless to society. And this ultimately/finally/in the last analysis leads to an increase in drug addiction, crime and prostitution.

Nor should we forget/And we should not forget/it should not be forgotten/there should be no forgettingthat today the mass media have enormous potential for impacting on/influencing public opinion. This/is particularly true/makes itself particularly felt/today, when international relations are increasingly becoming a matter/subject/ affair/field not only for/professional diplomats but also for broad strata/ a wide range/of world public opinion, when glasnost and the availability of information are becoming a prerequisite/sine qua поп and a catalyst for the democratization of international life.

A specific resultof work to improve the status of women are the measures undertaken to ensure/provide female employment. There has been/we have seen the adoptionof a general tripartite agreement between the government, employers and trade unions, and of a program of support and development for small enterprises. Intensive/sophisticated /state of the art/advanced trainingis being carried out/conducted for workers who are in danger of/threatened with/vulnerable to/dismissal /downsizing, and there are programs for social adaptation of the unemployed. We have seen the organization of/There has been the organizationof/professional retraining of unemployed women, and assistance is being rendered/given to help graduates of universities/ institutes of higher learning/university graduates/find jobs. Social assistance is now becoming carefully/specifically targeted.

The problems of the status of women are in fact/indeed/truly global/universal/in nature/are global/universal.Very important/of enormous significance/A major factor/for the successful implementation of the Beijing documents is the solidarity of women, and also close cooperation between governmental and public organizations/ institutions.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

This text is particularly rich in participial constructions, and provides good examples of how to deal with the syntactic problems which arise in these sentences. There are also a number of sentences with impersonal subjects which require some reworking.

Комментарии:

1) содержавшаяся... рекомендация— if the interpreter does not have a text, it will be difficult for him to wait until the noun рекомендацияshows up before starting the sentence. As soon as you hear a participle as the first word of the sentence in this type of clause, you can say


"Something/that/which... was contained in the Platform of Action..."and

then, when the noun finally appears — рекомендация— you can insert before it "that is/namely/I mean/I am referring to/the recommendation."

2) в кратчайшие сроки— the idea is "as soon as possible,"
"in the immediate future."
Don't try to translate срокиas "time period"
or "dates" — this will only complicate the sentence.

3) была положительно воспринята— get away from literal translation
here: "positively" and "perceived" do not sound idiomatic. "Was
approved by"
is what is meant.

4) утвержденная... концепция— this is the same kind of participial
construction as those described above. The participle and the noun it
modifies are fairly close to each other, but the interpreter who does not
want to wait for the noun can begin the sentence with "That which was
adopted... namely, the Concept..."

5) принятый... национальный план действий— a similar construction,
though here a literal translation would work: "Adopted in August 1996, the
national plan of action to improve the status of women... has in turn
expanded and supplemented..."
"Action" here sounds better in the
singular, as "plan of action" is an accepted cliche, though theoretically
"plan of actions" would do.

6) по-новому реализовать себя— here some restructuring is in order.
"Realizing oneself does not work. The idea is that of "opportunities for
self-fulfillment."
Changing the Russian verb into an English nominal
construction creates an idiomatic sentence.

7) солидные издержки— "солидный" is often а "ложный друг пере­
водчика," since it frequently cannot be rendered as "solid." The idea is
that of significant or important costs.

8) растет женская безработица, ухудшается здоровье женщин —this
sentence requires syntactic reorganization. Starting the sentence with
"There has been a growth of female unemployment"is much smoother than
trying to start off with the verb "растет" or with a present tense. The
conjunction "and" then links the two clauses and leads to a logical ending
for the sentence. Of course, the interpreter could also say "female
unemployment is rising, women's health is deteriorating,"
but it requires
quick thinking to reorder both clauses.

9) снизился уровень— this is similar to the above sentence, since starting
with "There has been"allows the other components of the sentence to fall
into place.

 

10) носят глобальный характер— the interpreter is well advised to forget
about the verb носить, and to reword this as "the problems are
widespread/global."
"In nature" can safely be omitted.

11) бьет и по тем— here too, the original verb needs some rephrasing.
"Strikes" or "affects"can render the verb, or this can be reworded as
"mass and chronic unemployment is also a problem for those..."


12) первопричиной многих социальных зол — "the root cause of many
social ills"
would do it, but the interpreter can simplify further:
"unemployment... underlies/explains/many social problems."

13) и не надо забывать о том...— it is not absolutely necessary to
translate this и as "and." "Nor"gives emphasis to the idea and stresses
the negative nuance.

14) конкретным результатом— this phrase should be translated as the
nominative subject of the sentence. "Specific"is usually much more
idiomatic in English than "concrete."

15) приняты— this is a tricky sentence, with a plural verbal form as the
first word followed by a list. The plural should set off an alarm bell in the
interpreter's head and prompt "There has been"or an attempt at
rephrasing such as "We have seen the adoption of..."to clear the way for

• a listing of the measures adopted.

16) проводится опережающее обучение работников —here we have
another orphaned verb wailing for a subject, which the interpreter must
hastily supply. "There has been" or "We have seen"takes care of both
parts of the sentence, as the interpreter can then skip "осуществляется:"
"there has been the organization of professional retraining of unemployed
women and assistance to help graduates..."
The sentence in English is also
better off with the addition of a noun: "the organization/creation/
establishment of professional retraining"
rather than simply "there has been
professional retraining,"
though if necessary that will do.

17) организована— this requires the same type of inversion as the other
past passive participles or reflexive verbs: "There has been/We have
seen/the organization of..."

18) носят глобальный характер— this is the same expression
encountered earlier; since it is at the end of the speech, a bit of emphasis
can be added: "The problems of the status of women are indeed/in fact
universal/global."

19) структур— these can be rendered as "organizations" or "institutions,"
since "structures" does not work, and "systems" is too restrictive for this
context.



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