ТОП 10:

Say whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false statements.

a) Concrete is made from three different materials.

b) Coarse aggregate ranges in size from 20 mm to 40 mm.

c) When the minimum thickness of the finished concrete is 100 mm, the maximum size of aggregate should not be greater than 25 mm.

d) When the reinforcing rods are close together, the maximum size of aggregate used should be 10 mm.

e) Cover is the thickness of concrete between the reinforcing rods.

f) The reinforcing rods are placed near the bottom of the rib of a concrete beam.

g) Spalling can occur in a solid concrete slab when the cover to the reinforcement is greater than the maximum size of the coarse aggregate.

h) When the minimum horizontal distance between reinforcing rods is 15 mm, the maximum size of aggregate should be less than 12mm.



Text 15

Metals as building materials

Words and word-combinations to be remembered:

wrought iron – ковка м’яка сталь

cast iron – чавун

mild steel – м’яка сталь

high tensile steel – напружена сталь

chemical composition – хімічний склад

mechanical properties – механічні властивості

steel structure – сталева конструкція

hot-rolled section – гарячекатана секція

rolling mill – прокатний стан

light metal – легкий метал

magnesium – магній

alloying metal – легований метал

conjunction – сполучення, з’єднання

to employ – використовувати

heat and sound insulation – тепло та звукоізоляція

compound – сполука

hydrogen – водень

oxygen – кисень

nitrogen – азот

carbon – вуглець


Read and translate the text:

Metals as building materials

The history of building in iron and steel is hardly more than a hundred years old. The construction of the first railways has given considerable impetus to cast and wrought iron production. The commonest quality of steel for building construction is that known as mild steel (m.s.). Several qualities of high tensile steel are widely used everywhere. They vary both in their chemical composition and their mechanical properties.

The elements used for most steel structures, are the hot-rolled sections, produced in a great variety by the rolling mills.

Aluminum is the most important of the light metals used in the building industry. Magnesium is still lighter, but it has not yet become a building material. It is used only as an alloying metal in conjunction with aluminum. The major characteristics of aluminum in which the architect is interested and its durability, and its light weight.

Glass is now generally employed in the construction of industrial buildings, office blocks and schools. In recent years it has eclipsed all other materials for heat and sound insulation purposes.

Plastics are a new building material. Nearly all the plastics are compounds of such simple elements as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sometimes nitrogen. The characteristics of the various plastics depend upon the way in which these elements are combined. Plastics are used where the older materials are not satisfactory, or for the development of entirely new uses.


Exercise 1.

What’s the English for:

ковка м’яка сталь магній

чавун легований метал

м’яка сталь сполучення, з’єднання

напружена сталь використовувати

хімічний склад тепло та звукоізоляція

механічні властивості сполука

сталева конструкція водень

гарячекатана конструкція кисень

прокатний стан азот

легкий метал вуглець


Exercise 2.

Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following English word-combinations:

The construction of the first railways; cast and wrought iron production; the commonest quality of steel; to be widely used everywhere; to produce in a great variety; the light metals; the major characteristics of aluminum; its durability and light weight; industrial buildings, office blocks and schools; for heat and sound insulation purposes; nearly all the plastics; to depend upon the way in which these elements are combined; the development of entirely new uses.


Exercise 3.

Answer the questions in English:

1. When was the first railway constructed?

2. What is the commonest quality of steel for building?

3. What is the most important of the light metals?

4. Where are plastics used?

5. What are the major characteristics of aluminum?

6. For what purposes is glass employed in construction?


Exercise 4.

Put in the missing prepositions:

1. Modern buildings can be divided … two types.

2. These buildings are made … stone and brick.

3. Plastics are used … the development … new uses.

4. Glass is employed … the construction … industrial buildings.

5. Timed was one … the first materials used … man.


Exercise 5.

Ask questions on all the parts of the following sentences:

1. Timber has always been one of the most important materials used by man.

2. Nowadays concrete is widely used in many countries.



Text 16

Crane accessories

Words and word-combinations to be remembered:

ability – можливість

application – застосування

clamshell bucket – грейферний ківш, грейфер

concrete bucket – ківш для бетону

dragline bucket – ківш драглайна

cracker – дробарка

device – пристрій, механізм

to dig – копати

to develop – розвивати

to handle – управляти, обробляти

hoist line – лебідка, підіймач

to hoist – піднімати

hook block – гаків блок

heavy machinery – машинне устаткування

to include – включати

to lift out – піднімати

scrap - металолом

particularly – зокрема

railroad ties – залізничні шпали

to use – використовувати

variety – різноманітність

sling – канат, ремінь

in conjunction with – у поєднанні з ...

tongs – захвати, кліщі

clamp – захват, затискач


Read and translate the text:

Crane accessories

The crane is an extremely versatile unit and may be used to handle a wide variety of materials, shapes and containers by simply changing the device on the end of the hoist line to adapt it to different conditions. It is due to the ability of the crane to handle these many accessories that it finds such a wide application work and also on material handling jobs, particularly in and around industrial plants.

Crane accessories include the clamshell bucket for handling bulk materials, the dragline bucket for excavation and stripping, the concrete bucket for placing concrete, the magnet for handling scrap, castings, iron and steel products, the skip for lifting materials out of shafts and deep excavations, grabs for handling pulpwood and mine shoring, slings to handle pipe and heavy machinery, grapples for handling stacked pulpwood, railroad ties, etc., the skull cracker (which, although it does not handle materials, does serve to break it up prepare it for easier, quicker handling), the hook block (which must be used in conjunction with many of these items), tongs for handling logs, clamps for handling barrels, drums, boxes, etc., and special hooks, which, together with many items may be developed to handle any specific job or material.


Exercise 1.

What’s the English for:

можливість гаків блок

застосування машинне устаткування

грейферний ківш, грейфер включати

ківш для бетону піднімати

ківш драглайна металолом

дробарка зокрема

пристрій, механізм залізничні шпали

копати використовувати

розвивати різноманітність

управляти, обробляти канат, ремінь

лебідка, підіймач у поєднанні з

захвати, кліщі захват, затискач


Exercise 2.

Choose the right variant end read it:

1. a) The clamshell bucket is used for excavation and stripping.

b) The clamshell bucket is used for placing concrete.

c) The clamshell bucket is used for handling bulk materials.

2. a) The magnet of the crane is used lifting materials out of shafts and deep excavations.

a) The magnet of the crane is used for handling, scrap, castings, iron and steel products.

b) The magnet of the crane is used for handling pulp wood.


Exercise 3.

Finish the following sentences:

1. The crane may be used, to handle … .

2. Crane accessories include … .

3. The clamshell bucket of the crane is used for … .

4. The dragline bucket of the crane is used for … .

5. The concrete bucket places … .

6. The crane magnet handles … .

7. The skip of the crane lifts … .

8. Slings of the crane handle … .

9. The crane grabs handle … .


Exercise 4.

Pick out the words in the text having the same root with the words given below:

кран, матеріал, контейнер, адаптація, диференціал, кондиція, аплікація, індустріальний, екскаватор, магніт, продукт, ліфт, блок, спеціальний, специфіка.


Exercise 5.

Answer the following questions:

1. What kind of unit is the crane?

2. What is the crane used for?

3. What do crane accessories include?

4. What is the clamshell bucket used for?

5. What is the dragline bucket used for?

6. What is the skip used for?



Text 17

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