Основні суфікси прикметників і прислівників



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Основні суфікси прикметників і прислівників



 

 

6. Післялоги

В англійській мові є ряд слів, які вживаються з післялогами і утворюють нові поняття. Завдяки післялогам порівняно небагато чисельна група слів відрізняється великою багатозначністю. До цієї групи відносяться дієслова: to get, to be, to make, to go, to put та ін.

В словнику дієслова з післялогом пишуться після дієслівного значення дієслова в порядку алфавіту післялогів

to go – іти

to go about – циркулювати

to go back – повертатися

to go in for – захоплюватися

 

7. В англійській мові дуже часто іменник вживається у формі означення без змін своєї форми. Структура “іменник+іменник+іменник” викликає труднощі при перекладі. Головним словом в такій групі є останнє, а всі попередні іменники є означеннями до нього.

train staff – залізничний персонал

machine-building industry – машинобудівна промисловість

 

8. В текстах наукового характеру англійські словосполучення часто перекладаються одним словом:

raw material – сировина

radio operator – радист

construction works – будівництво

 

9. Іноді при перекладі з англійської мови на українську доводиться застосовувати описовий переклад і передавати значення англійського слова за допомогою декількох українських слів.

Іменники:

characteristics – характерні особливості

efficiency – коефіцієнт корисної дії

solid – тверде тіло

Дієслова і прислівники:

to average – складати, дорівнювати в середньому

mainly (chiefly) – головним чином

 

10. Наукова література характеризується наявністю великої кількості термінів.

Термін– слово чи словосполучення, яке має одне суворо визначене значення для визначеної галузі науки і техніки.

UNITE 2

Text 1

From the history of human dwellings

Words and word-combinations to be remembered:

protection - захист

to protect - захищати

wall - стіна

branch - гілка

to cove - покривати

to settle - оселятися

to shelter - ховатися

to destroy - руйнувати

decorated - прикрашений

hut - хатина

pole – стовп, жердина

tent - намет

kitchen - кухня

bedroom - спальня

storey - поверх

thick - товстий

narrow - вузький

window - вікно

courtyard - двір

room - кімната

walk - алея

ceiling - стеля

pillar - стовп

column - колона

upstairs - нагорі

plaster - штукатурка

clay - глина

light - світло

hearth - вогнище

hole - отвір

roof - дах

door - двері

 

Read and translate the text:

From the history of human dwellings

Most of the time of a modern man is spent within the walls of some building. Houses are built for dwelling; large buildings are constructed for industrial purposes; theatres, museums, public and scientific institutions are built for cultural activities of the people. The purpose of modern buildings differs widely, but all of them originate from the efforts of primitive men to protect themselves from stormy weather, wild animals and human enemies.

Protection was looked for everywhere. In prehistoric times men looked for protection under the branches of trees; some covered them selves with skins of animals to protect themselves from cold and rain; others settled in caves.

When the Ice Age had passed Europe remained very cold, at least in winter, and so the people of the Old Stone Age had to find some I warm and dry place to shelter from bad weather. They chose caves, dwelling places that storm and cold could not destroy. On the walls of their caves ancient people painted pictures. Such decorated caves are found in Europe, Asia and Africa.

When man began to build a home for himself, caves were imitated in stone structures, trees were taken as a model for huts built of branches, skins were raised on poles and formed tents.

Primitive stone structures, huts and tents are the earliest types of human dwellings, they are lost in the prehistoric past but serve as prototypes for structures of later historic times.

In the days of early civilization, once men had learnt how to build simple houses for their families, they began to feel a need to have a number of different kinds of houses in one place. At first the difference was mainly in size - the chief or leader had a larger hut or tent than the rest of the people. Much later, when men began to build towns, there grew up a difference between town houses and country houses. The streets in towns were very narrow and there was not much place for building within the town walls, and therefore houses had to be built higher than they were in the country. A typical town house consisted of a shop opening on the street where the man did his work or sold his goods, with a kitchen behind and a bedroom above.

In the country ordinary people lived in simple one-storey cottages which did not differ much from the mud and stone huts of an earlier age.

The rich people in the country, on the other hand, built huge castles with thick walls and narrow windows. These castles were built not only as dwellings, but also to stand up to enemy attack and to be strong bases in time of war. The earliest houses of which anything is known are those of ancient Egypt. They were built of bricks dried in the sun. Some of them were built around a courtyard or garden with rooms opening into it.

Greek houses, too, had a courtyard in the middle and round their courtyard ran a covered walk, its ceiling supported by pillars. There were special women's quarters, usually upstairs on the second storey.

In Rome bricks were used for building and. houses were often finished with plaster over bricks on both inside and outside walls. The centre of family life was a garden-courtyard, surrounded by columns and with rooms opening out into it.

The earliest houses in Britain were round, built of wood or wicker basket work plastered over with clay. In the centre of the house was the hearth and light came in through the hole in the roof above it and through the door because there were no windows.

Exercise 1.

What’s the English for:


захист

захищати

стіна

гілка

покривати

оселятися

ховатися

руйнувати

прикрашений

хатина

стовп, жердина

намет

кухня

спальня

поверх

товстий

вузький

вікно

двір

кімната

алея

стеля

стовп

колона

нагорі

штукатурка

глина

світло

вогнище

отвір

дах

двері


Exercise 2.

Complete the sentences according to the text:

1. Houses are built for…

2. In prehistoric times men looked for protection…

3. On the walls of their caves ancient people…

4. The chief or leader had … than the rest of the people.

5. A typical town house consisted of…

6. In … ordinary people lived in simple one-storey cottages.

7. Huge castles were built not only as …, but…

8. The houses in Egypt were built of…

9. Rome houses were often finished with…

10. … were round, built of wood or wicker basket work plastered over with clay.

11. Light came in through the hole in the roof above it and through the door because…

 

Exercise 3.

Answer the questions in English:

1. What are different kinds of buildings built for?

2. What’s the main purpose of building?

3. Where did primitive people look for protection?

4. Why had the people of the Old Stone Age to find some warm and dry place?

5. What are the earliest types of human dwellings?

6. Why were the houses in town higher than in the country?

7. What did a typical town house consist of?

8. What houses did the ordinary people live in Egypt?

9. Why did the rich people build huge castles?

10. What were the houses in Egypt build of?

11. How did Greek houses look like?

12. What building material was used for building in Rome?

13. How did the light come into early English houses?

 

 

Text 2

The art of building

Words and word-combinations to be remembered:

Ferro - concrete - залізобетон

outer wall – зовнішня стіна

to be structural – бути несучою конструкцією

framework - каркас

support - несуча конструкція

to support – підтримувати, нести

interior – інтер’єр, внутрішній

refrigeration - охолодження

air-conditioning – кондиціонування повітря

labour- saving devices – прилади, які дають економію праці

construction materials – будівельні матеріали

interior decoration – внутрішнє оздоблення

to represent a harmonious blend of national and modern style – гармонійно поєднувати риси національного і сучасного стилів

Read and translate the text:

The art of building

Man's earliest structures protected him from the weather, from wild animals or from the attacks of other men.

Since that time the art of building has changed greatly, but its main object has remained protection. Now we are, living in the age of machinery, of scientific achievements, of the discovery of new sources of power and new materials. The three main materials are concrete, together with ferro-concrete (or reinforced concrete), steel and new kinds of glass. Constructions that were not possible before can now be permitted with the help, of these new materials.

Modern architecture is mainly the architecture of steel and concrete. The outer walls and the roof have lost their old importance. They are no longer structural. In the modern building it is the floor and its supports that are structural. The use of a steel framework has made it possible to construct tall buildings.

The walls which no longer have to support the structure can be of any kind of material. It is possible to build a factory in which the walls are made of any shape we like. The roofs may be flat. Changes in the interiors of buildings have also been made. Electric light, central heating, air-conditioning and refrigeration and all kinds of labour-saving devices have been installed.

We have had all these things for some time. And our modern homes have become much more comfortable than the homes of the past.

Apart from professional skill, an architect must have an extensive knowledge of ail spheres of the cultural life of the people. He must know all kinds of building materials and technology provided by the building industry of today.

With glass and ferro-concrete as their construction materials and with modern synthetic materials at their disposal for interior decoration, our architects and construction workers have to erect structures which must represent a harmonious blend of national and modern style.

The architects and building workers realize that the fruits of their labour will serve not only the present generations but future ones.

 

Exercise 1.

What’s the English for:

 


залізобетон

зовнішня стіна

бути несучою конструкцією

каркас

несуча конструкція

підтримувати, нести

інтер’єр, внутрішній охолодження

кондиціонування повітря

прилади, які дають економію праці

будівельні матеріали

внутрішнє оздоблення

гармонійно поєднувати риси національного і сучасного стилів


 

 

Exercise 2.

Read the following international words and give their Ukrainian equivalents:

comfort, protection, attack, material, form, modern, structure, revolution, electric, central, journalist, concert, music, activity, geography, machine, sculptor, demonstration, regulator, elevator, accumulator, director, conductor, engineer, tourist, colonist, capitalist, leader, piano, communism, socialism.

 

Exercise 3.

Give nouns corresponding to the following words:

comfortable, structural, to protect, to attack, to build, to live, scientific, to achieve, to discover, glassy, possible, to support, to construct, electric.

 

Exercise 4.

Find in the text the antonyms to the following words:

latest, old, impossible, to dislike, to attack, after, ancient, uncomfortable, future.

 

Exercise 5.

Answer the following questions:

1. What is the main object in the art of building?

2. In what age are we living?

3. What are the three main materials used in construction now?

4. What form can the roofs have now?

5. What changes have been made in the interiors of houses?

6. What labour-saving devices can you name?

7. Do you live in a comfortable house?

8. What conveniences do you have?

9. Is there electric light and central heating in your flat?

10. Do you like your room? Is it warm and light?

11. What houses are more comfortable: the new ones or the old ones?

 

Exercise 6.

Translate the words given in brackets and read the sentences:

1. There are different styles in (архітектурі).

2. The use of prefabricated panels has brought great changes in the (мистецтві) of building.

3. New (джерела) of power have been discovered in the 20th century.

4. Power and heat are the (головні) factors in (сучасній) industry.

5. (Кондиціонування повітря) is used for processing of materials in industry and for human comfort.

6. The chemical gas Freon is used in (заморожуванні).

7. The roof of that new building is (плоский).

8. By using these new (прилади) we can save much (праці).

9. The chicken was (подане) in a large dish.

10. Now we are living in the age of machinery, of scientific (досягнень), of the discovery of new (джерел) of power and new materials.

11. Man’s earliest structures (служити для захисту).

12. All kinds of (будівельних матеріалів) are used in (сучасній) architecture.

13. What (прилади, які дають економію праці) have appeared recently?

 

 

Text 3

The architect’s work

Words and word-combinations to be remembered:

commission – замовлення

site – майданчик, ділянка

to draw up – розробляти, складати, проектувати

preliminary plan – попередній план

rough estimate of the cost – приблизний кошторис вартості

to submit – подавати на розгляд

approval – схвалення, затвердження

client – замовник

final design – остаточний проект

exact dimension – точний розмір

contractor – підрядник

to bid – брати участь у тендері

tender – тендер, заявка на підряд

price – ціна, вартість

to specify – точно визначати, вказувати

defect liability period – період усунення недоробок

to correct – виправити, усунути

fabric – будівля без облицювальних робіт, конструкція

to take possession of – вступити у володіння

 

Read and translate the text:

The architect’s work

When an architect receives a commission for a building, he meets the client and discusses his requirements. After visiting the site, the architect draws up preliminary plans and, together with a rough estimate of the cost, submits them to the client for his approval. If the client suggests changes, the architect incorporates them into the final design which shows the exact dimension of every part of the building. At this stage, several building contractors are invited to bid for the job of constructing the building. When they submit their tenders or prices, the architect assists his client in selecting the best one and helps him to draw up a contract between the client and the contractor.

Work now starts on the building. As construction proceeds, the architect makes periodic inspections to make sure that the building is being constructed according to his plans and that the materials specified in the contract are being used. During the building period, the client pays the bills from the contractor. Subsequently, the contractor completes the building and the client occupies it. For six months after completion there is a period known as the defects liability period. During this period, the contractor must correct any defects that appear in the fabric of the building. Finally, when all the defects have been corrected, the client takes full possession of the building.

 

Exercise 1.

What’s the English for:


замовлення

підрядник

майданчик, ділянка

брати участь у тендері

розробляти, складати

тендер, заявка на підряд

попередній план

ціна, вартість

приблизний кошторис вартості

точно визначити, вказувати

подавати на розгляд

період усунення недоробок

схвалення, затвердження

виправити, усунути

замовник

будівля без облицювальних робіт

остаточний проект

вступати у володіння


 


Exercise 2.

Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following English word-combinations:

To receive a commission for a building; to draw up preliminary plans; to suggest changes; to show the exact dimension of every part of the building; several building contractors; to bid for the job of constructing the building; a contract between the client and the contractor; as construction proceeds; periodic inspections; according to his plans; the materials specified in the contract; during the building period; for six months after completion; must correct any defects than appear in the fabric of the building; to take full possession of the building.

 

Exercise 3.

Answer the questions in English:

1. Who meets the client when receives a commission for a building?

2. What does the architect do after visiting the site?

3. Who is invited to bid for the job of constructing the building?

4. What does the architect help to draw up after submitting tenders?

5. Why does the architect make periodic inspections of the construction?

6. Who pays the bills from the contractor?

7. What is the “defects liability period”?

8. When does the client take full possession of the building?

 

Exercise 4.

Find a word or an expression in the passage which means:

1. to be given the job of designing a building

2. to offer to a client for his consideration

3. to combine into a whole

4. to offer to do some work at a certain price

5. to look at the building work in detail at regular intervals

6. named or described exactly

7. an interval of time after the building has been finished during which the contractor is responsible for correcting any faults in it

8. to have complete ownership of the building

 

 

Text 4

Parts of a Building.

Words and word-combinations to be remembered:

to dig – копати

basement – котлован

framework – каркас

to erect – зводити

coat – шар

to depend upon – залежати від

to decide – вирішувати

sinking and setting – просідання

crack – тріщина

 

Read and translate the text

Parts of a Building.

Almost everyone saw the construction of a building and followed its progress with interest.

First the excavation is dug for the basement, then the foundation walls below ground level are constructed, after this the framework is erected and clothed with various finishing materials and protected by several coats of paint.

The part upon which the stability of the structure depends is the framework. It is intended for safety carrying the loads imposed. The floors, walls, roofs and other parts of the building must be carefully designed and proportioned.

The architect or designer must decide, what the size of the walls, the floors, the beams, the girders and parts, which make up the framework will be and how they will be placed and arranged.

Here are the main parts of a building and their functions. Foundations serve to keep the walls and floors from contact with the soil, to guard them against the action of frost, to prevent them from sinking and setting which cause cracks in walls and uneven floors.

Floors divide the building into stories. They may be either of timber or of a fire - resisting materials. Walls are built to enclose areas and carry the weight of floors and roofs. The walls may be solid or hollow. The materials used for the wall construction can be brick, strong concrete and other natural or artificial materials.

 

Exercise 1

Read and translate these combinations into Ukrainian:

several coats of paint, stability of the structure, size of the walls, to keep the floors from contact with the soil, fire – resisting material, natural and artificial materials, safety carrying, to prevent them, from sinking, divide the building, against the action of frost, must decide, which cause, make up, carry the weight, will be placed.

Exercise 2

What’s the English for:

утримувати вагу від контакту з грунтом

спричиняти тріщини їхні функції

будівництво дія морозу

пустотний нерівність підлоги

розмір стін штучні матеріали

нижче рівня землі буде розміщений

викопувати котлован кілька шарів фарби

вогнетривкі матеріали

 

Exercise 3

Complete the following sentences:

1. The excavation is dug…

2. The stability of the structure depends upon…

3. The building is divided into stories by…

4. The main parts of a building are…

5. …divide the building into…

6. Walls… to enclose area.

Exercise 4

Answer the following questions:

1. What is done first during the construction of a building?

2. Does the stability of a building depend on the framework?

3. For what purpose is the framework intended for?

4. What are the main parts of a building?

5. What keeps the walls and floors from contact with the soil?

6. What divides the building into stories?

7. What do the walls of a building serve for?

Text 5

Construction Work

Words and word-combinations to be remembered:

to erect – зводити

as far as – наскільки

to be concerned – бути причетним

artificial – штучний

durable – міцний

reinforced – підсилений

occupant – мешканець

 

Read and translate the text

Construction Work

The building erected nowadays can be divided into two general classes: buildings for housing and industrial buildings.

As far as material is concerned buildings can be divided into brick, wood, concrete, and steel buildings. Brick is an artificial building material made of clay, which is then burnt, for hardening. Natural stone (rubble masonry) is used for footing and foundations for external walls carrying the load.

Buildings made of stone are durable and fire resisting.

The floors divide a building into stories. They may be either of timber or, in brick buildings, of reinforced concrete details of big and small sizes.

The coverings or upper parts of buildings meant to keep out rain and wind and to preserve the interior from exposure to weather are called roofs. They tie the walls and give the construction strength and firmness.

Every building must have a beautiful appearance. The interior should be planned to suit the requirements of the occupants while the exterior must be simple with nothing superfluous.

The interior should be provided with water, electricity, ventilation and heating systems. The water supply and sewerage systems are called plumbing.

Careful consideration must be given to the amount of money, which is going to be spent in building the house. An estimate depending upon the design of the building must be calculated after which work on the building can be started.

 

Exercise 1

What’s the English for:

бути поділеним фундамент

незахищеність міцність, непохитність

система опалення затвердіння

каналізація кількість

потреби поверх

зовнішній вигляд захищати

кошторис водогін

цегла камінь

утримувати від сталевий

бетон відповідати вимогам

Exercise 2

Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following English word–combinations:

beautiful appearance, made of clay, tie the walls, amount of money, heating systems, exposure to weather, sewerage systems , consideration, plumbing, concrete, load, firmness, industrial buildings, to suit the requirements, the coverings, to divide.

 

Exercise 3



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