ТОП 10:

The effects of the surface area/ volume ratio in architecture



Words and word-combinations to be remembered:

effect – наслідок

performance – ефективність

to gain – отримувати

conversely – навпаки

polystyrene – полістирол (пінополістирол)

to conclude – робити висновок

angle – кут

 

Read and translate the text:

The effects of the surface area/ volume ratio in architecture

The relation between surface area and volume has many effects on the performance of buildings. For example, the rate at which a building gains or loses heat through its walls depends on its surface area/ volume ratio. Heat transfer is directly proportional to surface area and inversely proportional to volume. Thus a building with a proportionately large surface area, such as a one room house, will lose or gain heat relatively rapidly. Conversely, a building with a large volume in relation to its surface area, such as a block of flats, will retain heat.

Heat losses from a building are reduced by using insulating materials such as expanded polystyrene. Thickness of insulation is in inverse proportion to heat transfer.

We can conclude that the more compact the shape of the plan of a building for a given area, the less the heat loss. It can also be shown that for a given required total area in a two or more storey building, the higher the building, the greater the heat loss. However, buildings gain heat from the sun as well as losing heat to the cold. The more directly the face of a building is at right angles to the sun, the greater the heat gain.

 

Exercise 1

What’s the English for:

поверхня залежати від

зменшити такий як

передавати використання

втрата тепла багатоповерховий будинок

прямо розмір

товщина форма

 

Exercise 2

Make true statements from these tables.

 

Heat transfer Heat loss Heat gain Heat retention is directly inversely proportional to air temperature gradient, thickness of insulation, surface area, volume.

 

The higher the ratio between surface area and volume, the more quickly it gains or loses heat.
The lower the ratio between surface area and volume, the more it retains heat.
The smaller the size of the building,    
The larger the size of the building, the faster the rate of heat transfer.
The thicker the insulation of a building, the less it retains heat.
The more compact the shape of a building, the more slowly it gains or loses heat.
The less compact the shape of a building, the slower the rate of heat transfer.

 

Exercise 3

Answer the questions in English:

1. Що має багато наслідків для ефективності будівлі?

2. Від чого залежить величина отримання чи втрати тепла через стіни будівлі?

3. Який будинок буде відносно швидко отримувати чи втрачати тепло?

4. Як можна зменшити втрату тепла?

5. Як залежить передача тепла від товщини ізоляції?

6. Як залежить втрата тепла від форми (плану) будівлі?

Text 10

The heating system

Words and word-combinations to be remembered:

heating - опалення

to circulate – циркулювати, розповсюджувати

radiator – радіатор, батарея опалення

boiler – котел, бойлер

burner - пальник

constant temperature – постійна температура

thermostat - термостат

aquastat - аквастат

outlet pipe – випускна труба

continuous loop – замкнений контур

to transfer - передавати

high thermal conductivity – висока теплопровідність

fin - ребро

pipe, tube - труба

pump - насос

return line – зворотна лінія

to switch on - вмикати

to switch off - вимикати

expansion tank – компенсаційний бак

expansion - розширення

safety valve – запобіжний клапан

 

Read and translate the text:

The heating system

One method of heating a building is to circulate hot water through radiators which are located in each room. The water is heated in a boiler by a burner and is kept at a constant temperature by a thermostat device called an aquastat. The aquastat is located on the outlet pipe from the boiler. The pipe runs in a continuous loop from the boiler to the radiators and back to the boiler. The function of a radiator is to transfer the heat from the hot water to the air in the room. Therefore they are made of a material which has the property of high thermal conductivity. The shape of the radiator is also important because the greater the surface area the more rapidly it gives off heat. One type of radiator, called a fin tube, consists of a number of thin fins shaped like a circle which are welded to a pipe passing through their centers.

A thermostat in the room can be set to the required temperature. When the air temperature in the room decreases, the thermostat switches on the pump which is located on the return line from the radiators. When the room reaches the set temperature, the thermostat switches off the pump.

An expansion tank is provided to allow for expansion of the water as it heats. A safety valve, located on the pipe leading to this tank, serves to relieve the pressure in the boiler if it is too high.

 

Exercise 1.

What’s the English for:


опалення

циркулювати,

радіатор,

котел,

пальник

постійна температура

термостат

аквастат

випускна труба

замкнений контур

передавати

висока теплопровідність

ребро

труба

насос

зворотна лінія

вмикати

вимикати

компенсаційний бак

розширення

запобіжний клапан


 

Exercise2

Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following English words and word – combinations:

high thermal conductivity, device called, surface area, to relieve the pressure, to reach the set temperature, like a circle, continuous loop, to allow, to circulate hot water, safety valve, to relieve the pressure , switches off the pump, expansion tank, consist of, more rapidly, too high, a pipe.

Exercise 3

Make true statements by matching these halves of sentences:

a)When the pump is switched on the aquastat shuts down the burner.

b)When the temperature of the water in the the safety valve relieves the pressure. boiler decreases the thermostat switches on the burner.

c)When the temperature of the water in the it flows into the expansion tank.

boiler reaches the set temperature the aquastat starts up the burner.

d)When the air temperature decreases heat is transferred from the hot water

e)When the radiator is turned on to the air in the room.

f)When the water in the boiler expands hot water flows through the pipe to

g)When the boiler pressure is too high the radiators.

 

Exercise 4.

Complete the sentences according to the text:

1. The water is heated in a boiler by…

2. The aquastat is located on the…

3. The function of a radiator is…

4. A fin tube consists of…

5. …, the thermostat switches on the pump which is located on…

6. When the room reaches the set temperature, …

7. …is provided to allow for expansion of the water as it heats.

8. A safety valve, serves…

 

Exercise 5.

Answer the questions in English:

1. What enables the inside of a building to be kept warm?

2. Which part of the heating system circulates hot water through the continuous pipe?

3. Which part acts as the room temperature controller?

4. Which part functions as a means of controlling the temperature of the water in the boiler?

5. Which part is designed to transfer the heat from the hot water to the air in the room?

6. Which part prevents the boiler from blowing up?

7. Which part serves as a device for heating the water in the boiler?

8. Which part enables the water to expand safely?

Text 11

A low-pressure hot-water system

Words and word-combinations to be remembered:

low-pressure hot-water system – система водяного опалення низького тиску

dense – щільний

to sink – опускати, осідати

convection – конвекція

to rise – підніматися

primary flow – прямий стояк

storage cylinder – акумуляційний циліндр

to descend – опускатися

primary return – зворотній стояк

draw-off point – зливний кран

feed tank – витратний бак

to dissolve – випаровуватися

to release – випускати

vent pipe – вентиляційний канал

air lock – повітряна пробка

to drain – спускати воду

Read and translate the text:







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