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Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
A. Work in pairs. Talk about these two offices.
E.g. Office A has got a lift. Office B hasn’t got a balcony.
B. Describe your own study room
Exercise 23. Complete the e-mail. Use the information from the box and the correct form of have got/haven’t got
Exercise 24. Put in have got ('ve got), has got('s got), haven't got or hasn't got it."
1. They like flowers. They've got a lot of roses in their garden.
2. Jane hasn't got a car. She goes everywhere by bicycle.
3. Everybody likes Tom. He _____________________ a lot of friends.
4. Mr and Mrs Eastwood ____________________ two children, a boy and a girl.
5. This insect _____________________ six legs.
6. I can't open the door. I ____________________ a key.
7. Quick! Hurry! We __________________ much time.
8. "What's wrong?" - "I _____________________ something in my eye".
9. Ben doesn't read much. He _____________________ many books.
10. It's a nice town. It __________________ a very nice shopping centre.
11. Mother is going to the dentist. She _____________________ a toothache.
12. "Where's my newspaper?" – “I don't know. I _________________________ it.”
13. Julia wants to go on holiday but she ___________________ any money.
14. I'm not going to work today. I _____________________ a bad cold.
Exercise 25. Answer the following questions according to the model.
Model: What does a driver do? - He drives.
What do drivers do? - They drive.
1. What does a singer do? 2. What does a runner do? 3. What do students do? 4. What does a dancer do? 5. What do cooks do? 6. What do dancers do? 7. What does a painter do? 8. What do teachers do? 9. What does a typist do? 10. What do painters do? 11. What do writers do?
Exercise 26. Write the following sentences in the 3rd person singular.
1. I think I am ill. 2. They often visit their granny. 3. We live in Leeds. 4. You usually speak too quickly. 5. Do you like boiled potatoes? 6. Good animals always obey their masters. 7. The boys box in the gymnasium on Fridays. 8. His dogs always attack the neighbours. 9. Heavy trucks make a lot of noise.
Exercise 27. Write the following sentences a) in the negative,
b) in the interrogative.
1. She understands the rule. 2. He usually has breakfast at 8 o'clock.
3. The lecture starts at 10.15. 4. The flowers look fresh. 5. She usually walks in the morning. 6. He has coffee in the evening. 7. She remembers them well. 8. He plays chess very well. 9. She leaves home at 10 o'clock every day. 10. Ann misses you badly. 11. They feel very cold. 12. Tom looks sick. 13. They harvest grapes in March. 14. The last boat sails at 10 p.m. 15. That train goes very fast.
Exercise 28. Complete the sentences, using the verbs in the negative form.
Model: She plays the piano, but she doesn't play it very well.
1. That shop sells office furniture, but it _____ computers. 2. Scott smokes a lot, but he _____ before breakfast. 3. We know Robert, but we ________ his father. 4. His father gives him pocket money, but he _____
him much. 5. I feel tired, but I _____ unwell. 6. I make mistakes, but I ______ grammar mistakes. 7. He does homework every evening, but he _______ much. 8. English people eat a lot of potatoes, but they ______ much rice. 9. My mother buys a lot of food every day, but she _____ much meat. 10. We like fish, but we _____ eat it every day. 11. He spends a lot of money, but he _____ all his salary. 12. Laura grows a lot of flowers in her garden, but she ______ roses. 13. They work hard, but they ______ more than seven hours a day. 14. I understand the first question, but I ______ the others. 15. Mrs. Stone teaches English, but she ______ any other languages.
Exercise 29. Transform the affirmative sentences into the negative and the negative sentences into the affirmative.
Model: She comes from Italy. — She doesn't come from Italy.
1. My Granny lives in a small cottage in the country.
2. Winter doesn't follow autumn.
3. Little children like to listen to fairy tales.
4. I don't get on well with her.
5. The Whites have wonderful parties.
6. English schoolchildren don't wear uniforms.
7. We often travel about Russia by car.
8. The Moon doesn't go round the Earth.
9. Mr. Smith works in a small shop in his town.
10.Those girls don't like to play active games.
Exercise 30. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple.
My working day (to begin) at seven o'clock. I (to get) up, (to switch) on the radio and (to do) my morning exercises. It (to take) me fifteen minutes. At half past seven we (to have) breakfast. My father and I (to leave) home at eight o'clock. He (to take) a bus to his factory. My mother (to be) a doctor, she (to leave) home at nine o'clock. In the evening we (to gather) in the living room. We (to watch) TV and (to talk).
Exercise 31. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple.
(USUALLY) Andrea Schatzmann, an exchange student from
Switzerland, (to live) with the Connor family in San Francisco. She (to get) up at 7 am and (to take) a shower. She normally (not to have) breakfast. At half past seven she (to catch) the bus. Her first class (to start) at a quarter past eight. She always (to have) lunch at 12 o'clock in the cafeteria. The cafeteria food (to be) OK and it (to be) cheap too. Her afternoon classes (to be) from 1.15 till 3.00 pм, so she (to be) at school all day. She usually (to have) dinner with the Connors at about 8.00. On Saturdays she (to have) lunch at the restaurant. Once a week, usually on Sunday mornings, she (to go) swimming. A few friends usually (to go) along, too. One of her friends has got a car, so he (to pick) them up and then he (to drive) them home. After swimming they often (to go) out for a pizza. On Saturday evenings she sometimes (to go) out with friends to a party or maybe to a concert. Sometimes she (to invite) friends to her house and they (to listen) to music and (to talk). Mr. and Mrs. Connor often (to take) them for a camping weekend to the seaside or to the mountains. From time to time she (to call) her family in Switzerland. They never (to talk) for very long because it (to be) expensive. She usually (to call) on Sundays because it (to be) cheaper then.
Answer the following questions:
1. What time Andrea usually (to get) up?
2. When she (to catch) the bus?
3. She (to take) a shower in the morning?
4. She (to go) home for lunch?
5. When she (to go) swimming?
6. How she (to get) to the pool?
7. What she (to do) on Saturday evenings?
Exercise 32. Complete the article about Giorgio Armani's working day. Use the verbs from the box.
Giorgio Armani wakes up at 7 a.m. He ________2 to the gym and ________3 an hour there. He _________4 breakfast and then _________5 to the office with his bodyguard. He has pasta and a salad for lunch and then he _________6 for 10 minutes. He _________7 until 8 p.m. on Практические упражнения
design and administration. He _________8 every two months - to the US, Russia or other parts of Europe. On his way home from the office, he often ________9 for a drink at Nobu. At weekends he goes to his villa.
Exercise 33. Put the verb in brackets into the present simple.
1. Oscar Wilde and Bernard Shaw (be) the most witty British writers.
2. Fishermen often (tell) tales about their catches. 3. Their children (go) to a private school. 4. Little Amanda (collect) all sorts of toy-pigs. 5. My father (like) a lot of milk in his tea and a few lumps of sugar. 6. Anything that he (say) (be) worth listening to. 7. We usually (spend) our holidays in Spain. 8. My English friends (live) in a nice house that (stand) on a hill that (overlook) lake Windermere, which (be) in the Lake District. 9. What this sentence (mean)? 10. I (live) in Tver, which (be) my native town. 11. My brother (sing) in Italian opera. 12. My sister (have) a good appetite and she always (eat) heartily. 13. Let's go outside. It (be) terribly hot in the house. 14. What you (see) over there? 15. In England the traffic (keep) to the left but on the Continent it (keep) to the right. 16. This map (be) the largest that we (have). 17. They often (come) to see me in my town house. 18. The twittering of birds in the trees in spring (be) a pleasant sound.
Exercise 34. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple. Use short forms if possible.
Gina and I work for Eurobags. Gina _______ (be) a marketing assistant and I ______ (be) a sales clerk. She ________ (work) in Marketing and I ________ (work) in Sales. Eurobags ___________ (be) an Italian company. The headquarters __________ (be) in Traviso, but we _________ (have) subsidiaries in Brazil and Venezuela. Eurobags _________ (be) in the packaging business. It ___________ (produce) paper and plastic shopping bags. Its main markets ____________ (be) in Europe, but it also _________ (export) to the US and South America.
Exercise 35. Write short answers to these questions.
Exercise 36. Analyze the tenses in the following conversation:
Answer the following questions:
Exercise 37. What would you say in these situations? Give possible answers.
1. You want to know if Ann plays tennis. Ask her.
2. You need to know if the train arrives on time. Ask your friend.
3. You want to know if the train stops at this station. Ask the conductor.
4. You want to know if your friend enjoys spending his holidays in Scotland. Ask him.
5. You are wondering if Mike and Bill go camping every summer. Ask them.
6. You expect that this sportsman wins prices at all competitions. Ask your neighbour.
7. You want to know if your friend remembers to bring the photos. Ask him.
8. You expect that your sister's son works hard at school. Ask her.
9. You wonder if your sister waits for her son after the lessons every day. Ask him.
10. You want to know if it often snows in England. Ask your teacher.
Exercise 38. Ask special "Wh"- questions for additional information.
1. The U.K. exports industrial goods almost to all parts of the world.
2. In Wales many people speak Welsh, not English, in daily life.
3. We read novels to enjoy leisure hours, but recreation reading is not only pleasant but also useful in many ways.
4. When adults begin to learn a foreign language, problems often arise.
5. Walking five miles a day makes him strong and healthy.
6. A good teacher needs some of the gifts of a good actor.
7. Research work involves an ability to observe individual facts and draw conclusions.
8. Renaissance means “a new birth”, “a revival”. Thus we call the time of the great revival of art and learning which covers the 15th and 16th centuries.
9. This period marks the transition from medieval to the modern art.
10. Many Americans consider two religious holidays Easter and Christmas as the most important celebrations of the year.
11. On New Year’ Day people often promise themselves to overcome their bad habits and welcome the idea of making a new start in life.
12. The Americans celebrate the Thanksgiving Holiday on the third Thursday of November in memory of the first English settlers in the seventeenth century. This holiday recalls America's early history.
Exercise 39. Choose the correct answer.
Exercise 40. Translate into English, using the verbs in the present simple.
1. Где ты живешь? - Я живу в Москве. 2. Когда у тебя каникулы? - В январе. 3. Что тебе больше всего нравится в школе? 4. Мой брат работает в больнице. Он врач. Он встает в двадцать минут восьмого. Он работает утром и днем. Вечером он не работает. Вечером он отдыхает. 5. Твоя сестра говорит по-французски? - Нет. Она говорит по-немецки, а ее муж говорит по-английски. 6. Когда вы встаете? - Я встаю без четверти семь. 7. Когда встает твой брат? - Он встает без двадцати восемь. - А твоя сестра тоже встает без двадцати восемь? - Нет. Мой брат ходит в школу, а моя сестра не ходит в школу. Она еще не ученица. Она встает в девять часов. 8. Он не моет руки перед едой. 9. Этот мальчик свистит в классе. 10. Он не играет ни на каком музыкальном инструменте. 11. Но мальчик играет в футбол и любит смотреть мультипликационные фильмы. 12. Он любит школьные каникулы, особенно летние каникулы. 13. День рождения у мальчика 31 декабря. 14. Он поэтому получает много подарков.
Exercise 41. Translate into English, using the verbs in the present simple.
Мой дядя - инженер. Он очень занят. Его рабочий день начинается рано утром. Он встает в семь часов. Он умывается, одевается и завтракает. После завтрака он идет на работу. Он работает в институте. Он любит свою работу. Он женат. Его жена - врач. Она работает в больнице. Вечером она изучает французский язык. Она посещает курсы французского языка. Мой дядя не говорит по-французски. Он говорит по-русски и по-немецки. Он изучает английский язык. Вечером он посещает курсы английского языка. Сын моего дяди - ученик. Он ходит в школу. В школе он изучает английский язык.
Exercise 42. Read the sentences and analyze the use of the preesnt continuous.
A. 1. The baby is crying again. I think it's hungry. 2. Emma can't come to the phone right now, she is having a shower. 3. Martha is still working in the garden. 4. Why are you shouting at me? What's wrong? 5. Look! It's snowing heavily. 6. Denis is working at a new project this semester. 7. Now Olga is studying at the courses in the British Council. 8. Longman is publishing new books this year. 9. They are redecorating their house in the summer.
B. 1. The bus is leaving in five minutes. 2. Are you going to see the new play? 3. When is the plane taking off? 4. Is Sam coming with us? 5. I'm cleaning the house on Monday. 6. Mum and I are leaving for the country one of these days.
Exercise 43. Put the verbs in brackets into the proper tense form.
1. Look out of the window. (It, rain)? Should I take my umbrella? 2. Shhh. The baby (sleep). 3. Right now I am in class. I (stand) at my desk and (speak) English to my students. 4. Mary is at home. She (eat) dinner and (listen) to music. 5. It (rain not) at the moment. The sun (shine), and
the sky (be) blue. Light clouds (fly) across the sky. 6. Denny is in the library. He (sit) at a table. He (write) a composition. 7. - The students (take) a test in class right now? - No, the lecturer (explain) something to them. 8. Johnny, (listen) to me? What you (think) about, I wonder? 9. - What you brother (do) in the kitchen? - He (do) the crossword in the newspaper. 10. I like winter. Every morning I come to the window to see if it (snow). 11. Jack, why you (sit) at the back of the class today? 12. - Has Ben finished his homework? — No, he still (do) it. 13. The sun (set). It'll get dark soon. 14. I (look) at the man, but I can't recognize him. Who is he? 15. Mrs. Loveday usually teaches Class A, but this year she (teach) Class C. 16. Simon (take) driving lessons as he is going to buy a car.
Exercise 44. Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous.
(NOW) It (not to rain) any more, it (to clear) up and the sun (to shine). The jazz band (to play) in the park. A lot of people (to listen) to the music and they really (to have) a good time. But they (not to dance) yet. There is a coffee shop there. Only seven people (to sit) there, and only five people (to wait) in the queue. Some people (to have) sandwiches and (to drink) coffee, tea or fruit juices. Boys and girls over there (to laugh) and (to make) a lot of noise. They (to play) games and Tom (to take) pictures. So what (to go) on?
Exercise 45. Transform the sentences into the present continuous according to the model. Begin each sentence with Look!
Model: They teach their children to climb trees. — Look! They are teaching their children to climb trees.
1. They sell exotic vegetables.
2. Children build sandcastles at the seaside.
3. My dog eats potatoes.
4. Young girl wears dirty jeans.
5. The teacher listens to Russian folk music.
6. Her parents take Mary to the Zoo.
7. Ben and Tim ride our bicycles.
8. She cooks fantastic pancakes.
9. He travels by horse.
10. She walks alone.
Exercise 46. Write short answers to these questions.
1 Is the situation getting better?
Yes, it is.
2 Are Sonara and Alfitel working together now?
3 Are they improving the quality of their services?
4 Is Mr Robertson looking for a bigger factory?
5 Are you and Robert testing our new product?
6 Hi, Sam! So you aren't working for RTS Sports any more?
7 Is Barbara trying to get money for her new project?
8 Is their new shop attracting a lot of customers?
Exercise 47. Answer the questions using the words in brackets.
Model: Are you drawing? (write a story)
- No, I'm not. I'm writing a story.
1. Is he writing a letter? (watch television) _____________________
2. Are you reading Byron's poems? (learn them by heart) __________
3. Is Dad smoking in his study? (read a newspaper) ______________
4. Are they listening to the radio? (talk with a friend) _____________
5. Are you hurrying to work? (go home) _______________________
6. Is Joan playing the piano? (listen to a concert) _________________
7. Are you working at your essay? (write a film script) ____________
8. Is she washing up? (cook) _________________________________
Exercise 48. Answer the questions using the words in brackets.
Model: Is Mother very busy just now? (type a report)
- Yes, she is. She is typing a report.
1. Is Jerry very busy just now? (study) ________________________
2. Are the students very busy just now? (read) __________________
3. Is Susan very busy just now? (have breakfast) ________________
4. Are the Greens very busy just now? (shop) ___________________
5. Is Miss Black very busy just now? (sew) _____________________
6. Is Jane very busy just now? (wash up) _______________________
7. Is Henry very busy just now? (skate) ________________________
8. Are the girls very busy just now? (rehearse) ___________________
Exercise 49. Answer the questions using the words in brackets.
Model: What are you doing? (daydream)
- I'm daydreaming.
1. Why is Father making such a terrible noise? (teach the dog to bark) ______________________________________________________
2. What are you doing with the scissors? (cut out a dress) ______________________________________________________
3. Where are you hurrying to? (run to catch my bus) ______________________________________________________
4. What are you doing in this shop? (buy a mink coat) ______________________________________________________
5. Why are you leaving so soon? (go to the University) ______________________________________________________
6. Why is she playing the violin so late? (rehearse for a concert) ______________________________________________________
7. Why are the children listening so attentively? (listen to a favourite fairy tale) ______________________________________________________
8. What is George doing in the kitchen? (bake an apple pie) ______________________________________________________
Exercise 50. Complete these sentences using some of these verbs: get, become, change, improve, fall, increase, rise.
Model: The water level is rising very fast.
1. The prices for food _____________________ at the moment.
2. He is still weak but he ______________________ stronger slowly.
3. These days life ____________________ more and more expensive.
4. The weather ________________ every moment: now cold, now hot.
5. The cost of living ___________ Every year things are more expensive.
6. Victor has gone to work in America. When he arrived, his English wasn't very good but now it _______________________________
7. The environment is already very bad and it ______________ worse.
Exercise 51. Complete the article about the food group Pret a Manger. Use the present continuous form of the words from the box
The number of Pret a Manger (PaM) shops is increasing1 not only in London, but also in other parts of the UK. At present PaM ________2 its overseas business, particularly in China. Currently it ___________3 its advertising material into Chinese. PaM __________4 its winning formula to Hong Kong and Japan. PaM ___________5 to open new shops in New York.
Exercise 52. Analyze the tenses in the following conversation. Answer the questions given below.
Julia: Mark? I'm at the station. I'm waiting for the train to London.
Mark: Hello, Julia. Glad to hear you. I'm waiting for you here.
Julia: What are you doing? Are you getting the dinner ready? Oh, I don't hear you. The train is coming. I'm arriving home in an hour. Bye.
Is Julia waiting for the train at the station?
Where is she going to?
Who is waiting for Julia?
Is Mark waiting for Julia at home or at the station?
Mark is getting the dinner ready, isn't he?
I wonder if Mark is meeting Julia at the station?
Exercise 53. Look at Tom Kent's diary for next week. Then read the examples and look at the tip. Complete the conversation between Sue and Tom's secretary. It is now Friday 11th.
1. Tom Kentis visiting the Brunsfield factory on Monday morning.
2. On Wednesday morning, he is attending a departmental meeting.
Tip: We use the present continuous tense to talk about fixed arrangements. This is sometimes called the diary future.
Sue: Hello. I'd like to make an appointment to see Tom Kent on Wednesday afternoon.
Secretary: I'm afraid Mr Kent is _______1 then. And he is not _________2 until Saturday.
Sue: Right. How about Monday?
Secretary: He's tied up all day Monday. Would Tuesday suit you?
Sue: Tuesday? Fine. What sort of time?
Secretary: Well, he's_________3 till 10.00, but he could see you after that. Otherwise in the afternoon he's ________4, but I'm sure he could fit you in.
Sue: Three o'clock would be great.
Secretary: Three. Right. I've made a note of that, and I'll call you back to confirm the appointment.
Sue: Thank you very much.
Exercise 54. Sometimes we all try to start a new life. Then we make resolutions, give ourselves promises, plan ahead.
What are you planning to do in the future? Tell your friends about your future plans in the following way:
In January (February, etc.)
When I come back home from this trip
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