Make a table about types and forms of business

Type\Form of business Definition and description
Sole proprietorship …………………………………

6. Translate the following sentences:

1. Владельцы генеральных товариществ несут ответственность по долгам и участвуют в распределении прибыли. 2. Владельцы товариществ с ограниченной ответственностью делают ограниченные инвестиции и несут ограниченную ответственность. 3. Акционеры обычных корпораций мало интересуются вопросами управления корпорации. 4. Акционеры различных корпораций обычно имеют сертификаты, где указано количество акций, которые они имеют. 5. Большинство корпораций - это корпорации закрытого типа с небольшим числом акционеров. 6. Корпорации должны получить регистрационные документы от властей штата. 7. Корпорации должны получить сертификат (лицензию) в том штате, где они хотят функционировать.

Mind the difference and insert the right word: company, firm,


1. company - a group of people combined together for business, trade, artistic purposes, etc.; note the use of the preposition "for" e.g. to work for a steel company.

2. firm - (two or more) persons carrying on a business; note that "firm" is preferable to "company" in any style when followed by «of».

3. enterprise - undertaking, esp. one that needs courage or that offers difficulty; carrying on of enterprises, e.g. private enterprise versus government control of commerce and industry. Enterprise is not widely used in the sense of a business organization.


1. When she left school she got a job with a publishing ... .2. This ... produces a wide range of high-quality leather goods. 3. The ... he works for is closing two of its factories so he may be made redundant soon. 4. The famous English conductor and producer Sir Thomas Beecham showed great ... in inviting the Russian opera to London for the first time in 1913 and renting Drury Lane Theatre for the season because his associates at Covent Garden did not think that such a tour would be successful. 5. The Baltic Shipping ... was established in 1922. 6. They offered the contract to a local building .... 7. The actors are English but the film was made by an American film .... 8. Her husband works for a civil engineering ... in Bristol. 9. A mixed economy is one with a combination of nationalization and private ... . 10. "Twinings" is a famous English ... of tea merchants.


Render the text.


9. Project work. Look at the chart and with its help compare the types of business in the UK and the USA. Choose one type and tell about your own business according to one of them.

Great Britain the USA
sole traders individual businesses
  partnerships general and limited partnerships
public/private limited liability companies corporations (closed and ordinary)
branches of foreign companies charter, statutes, memorandum, delivered by the company and certificate of incorporation, issued by the Register alien corporations charter and certificate issued by the state authorities

Unit 5. Advertisement

1. Look at “Know your logos!” Identify the brand in each case. Choose the correct brand in each case.

Discuss the following questions.

a) Which of these brands are popular in our country? What products are advertised most of all?

b) Do you own anything of these brands? What do these brands advertise?

c) How many logos can you draw? Show your logos to a partner and see how many brands they can identify.

d) What is an advertisement? Are the ads useful or harmful?

3. Transcribe the following words:

1. papyrus; 2. excavations; 3. Cyprus; 4. Cairo; 5. archeologist; 6. specialized; 7. technique; 8. announcement; 9. contemporary.

4. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

1. public announcement; 2. to promote the sale; 3. a form of mass selling; 4. advertising technique; 5. commercial persuasion; 6. excavation; 7. announcement; 8. to attract customers; 9. goods; 10. an integral segment of urban industrial civilization; 11. single advertising campaign; 12. trade

5. Read and translate the text.


Advertising is a collective term for public announcements designed to promote the sale of specific commodities or services. Advertising is a form of mass selling, employed when the use of direct, person-to-person selling is impractical, impossible, or simply inefficient. Advertising techniques range from the publishing of simple notes in the newspapers to the use of television, radio, direct mail, and other communications media in the course of a single advertising campaign.

It isn't easy to establish when the first advertisement appeared, and it is not surprising since it goes back to very ancient times. A papyrus in the collection of the British museum, in London, advertises the sale of a slave. Rock drawings and inscriptions along the roads were also an excellent way to advertise things.

Probably the oldest advertisement was found in the excavations of the ancient Egyptian town of Memphis. It says: "I, Rhinos from Cyprus, live here. God gave me the gift of the true telling of dreams." This advertisement is 2,500 years old. It is carved in stone and visitors to one of the Cairo museums can inspect it. In the excavations of one of the towns of ancient Greek archaeologists found about 300 stone fragments with letters of the Greek alphabet. When they put the fragments together they found it was a tablet for a shop window with a list of goods and their prices.

The first newspaper in the world that put in an advertisement was a hand­written Roman newspaper "Daily Happenings". It contained announcements of meetings, births, and marriages in the noble families of Rome.

To attract customers bright signs with the name of the owner and his goods painted on them appeared above shops. Fruit, vegetables, sheep, shoes, hats were painted by "naive painters." Some of these painters were really outstanding masters, such as Niko Pirosmanishvili.

Modern advertising is an integral segment of urban industrial civilization, mirroring contemporary life in its best and worst aspects. Advertising falls into two main categories: consumer advertising, directed to the ultimate purchaser, and trade advertising, in which the appeal is made to dealers through trade journals and other media. Both consumer and trade advertising employ many specialized types of commercial persuasion.

Advertising may be local, national, or international in scope. The rates charged for the three different levels of advertising vary sharply, particularly in newspapers; varying rates are set also by newspapers for amusement, legal, political, financial, religious, and charitable advertisements.


6. Answer the following questions:

1. What is advertising? 2. In what ways do the advertising techniques range?

3. Why isn’t it easy to establish when the first advertisements appeared?

4. How old may the first advertisement be? 5. What was the title of the first newspaper that put in an advertisement? 6. What kinds of advertising can you name?

7. Translate the following sentences:


1. Реклама - коллективный термин для общественно-направленных объявлений, которые стремятся содействовать продаже товаров или услуг. 2. Реклама - это форма массовой продажи, которая появляется тогда, когда личностная форма торговли непрактична, невозможна или неэффективна. 3. Техника рекламы варьируется от простых прямых объявлений в отделе рекламы и объявлений в газете до комплексных видов рекламы с применением газет, журналов, ТВ, радио, почты и других средств массовой информации в ходе одной рекламной кампании. 4. Реклама делится на торговую, обращение нацелено на торговцев посредством торговых журналов и других средств массовой информации, и потребительскую, нацеленную на покупателя. 5. По охвату реклама может быть местной, общегосударственной или международной. 6. Расценки на эти три вида резко отличаются друг от друга, особенно в газетах, которые назначают разную цену за разные виды рекламы: развлекательной, юридической, политической, финансовой, религиозной и благотворительной.


8. Put the key sentences in order, divide into small groups and speak about some aspects of advertising:

- types of advertising;

- techniques to attract customers;

- modern advertising;

- the history of advertising;

- the essence of advertising, advertising techniques.

Render the text.

Work with a partner.

Take it in turns to be a Student A and Student B. Student A, describe an advertisement you have seen at the cinema or on television. Do not say what the advertisement was for. Student B, listen to your partner describing the advertisement and try to guess what the ad is for. Ask questions if you need more information.

11. Discuss which advertisement you like most and which you like least. Explain why. Which advertisements do you think are the most effective at selling the product?


12. Project work. Role play.

Divide into 3 groups. Think of the product/service you would like to advertise. You are going to be the experts of the advertising agency, act out the meeting of the advertiser and the ad makers. Think of the ways to present the ad to the advertiser. (see Supplement 2)


Frank Bilson (the advertiser). The task is the usual one, through the advertising research the experts are to search for the potential consumers of the product/service of your company and then make the strategy of appealing to the feelings and emotions of the customers to make them buy your product or service. You apply to the professionals, who have different advertising techniques, tricks and so on to make people want some product. So you’re open to any suggestions.

Task: You should act as a boss, agree or disagree with the suggestions, come up with your proposals.

Group 1. Planning group. We've made necessary calculations and consider television to be the most appropriate advertising medium as it is the most popular source of information and advertising among the target audience. We think in our case the most efficient advertisement will be a directly addressed ad. As it addresses some certain sector of society, taking into account the values the people of this particular group appreciate and thus an advertisement, for sure, is to create attention, interest, desire and it is to lead to action.

Task:You should compare the costs for different types of advertising. Think of the ways to place the advertisement on TV. What will you do to create attention, interest, desire? How will you plan the budget?

Group 2. Strategy group. No doubt, we have various advertising methods, techniques at hand and I think they may range from the publishing of simple notes in newspapers to the use of newspapers, magazines, television, radio and other communications media in the course of a single advertising campaign.

Task: You should work out the advertising message and plan of this campaign. Think of the brand, creed, motto and ways to introduce the product/service to different media.

Group 3. Executive group. First of all, we suggest trying advance publicity. I think it's to your advantage to spend money on advertising in all the Mass Media, thus as many people as possible will not remain unaffected by your advertisement. The ad will be read, listened and watched.

Task: You should write the text of the advertisement for the newspaper, think of the plot of the ad for the television and write the speech for the radio report.


1. Практический курс английского языка. 3 курс. Учеб. для педвузов по спец. "Иностр. яз.» / Под ред. В.Д. Аракина. –М.: Гуманит. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 1999. – С. 136- 176

2. Практический курс английского языка (V курс): Учеб. пособие для пед. вузов по спец. «Иностр. яз.»/ Г.В. Андреева, А.П. Красильчикова, Л.А. Сычугова и др./ Под ред. С.М. Полякова. –Шадринск: Из-во ПО «Исеть», 2005. – 368 с.

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  7. Speegle, Roger. WilliamB. Giesecke. / Business World. A collection of readings on contemporary issues. Oxford University Press, 1983. – 184 p.
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  12. Dictionary of Contemporary English. - Longman Group UK Limited, 1995. – 1700 p.
  13. Режим доступа: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_design
  14. Режим доступа: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_graphics

Supplement 1

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