Практикум по развитию навыков устной речи и 

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Практикум по развитию навыков устной речи и


Практикум по развитию навыков устной речи и

чтения студентов специальности

«Технология и предпринимательство»

(английский язык)

Часть II








Кафедра иностранных языков № 2


Практикум по развитию навыков устной речи и

чтения студентов специальности

«Технология и предпринимательство»

(английский язык)

Часть II




Technology and Business: практикум по развитию навыков устной речи и для обучения чтению студентов специальности «Технология и Предпринимательство» / сост. А.Ю.Симонова, В.В.Айвазова; Сургут. гос. ун-т. – Сургут: Изд-во СурГУ, 2009.


Практикум содержит аутентичные тексты и упражнения, направленные на формирование лексических навыков студентов, а также на развитие у них коммуникативных умений иноязычного речевого общения в профессиональных ситуациях, понимания и продуцирования иноязычного текста профессионального профиля.

Основная цель практикума - формирование иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции студентов на основе проектно-ориентированной технологии продуктивного обучения иностранному языку и развитие профессиональных умений студентов.

Практикум состоит из 2 тематических разделов, включающих 5 частей, каждая часть содержит текст, сопровождаемый пред- и после текстовыми заданиями, проектное задание, сформулированное в соответствии с программой обучения английскому языку.

Развитие профессиональных умений студентов посредством организации иноязычного обучения – одна из главных методических целей настоящего практикума.

Предназначен для студентов I-II курсов очного и заочного педагогического отделения, обучающихся по специальности «Технология и Предпринимательство».

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Сургутского государственного университета.


Рецензент:лЛ.А. Сычугова, к.филол.н., доцент, зав. кафедрой иностранных языков №2 Сургутского государственного университета.


© Сургутский Государственный Университет – ХМАО




Part I. Design and Technology


Unit 1. Computer graphics and Web design ……………………… 5

Unit 2. Working with design……………………………………… 9

Unit 3. Art and Painting…………………………………………… 13


Part II. Business and Advertisement


Unit 4. Types and Forms of Business…………………………….. 19

Unit 5. Advertisement…………………………………………….. 24

Literature………………………………………………………….. 28

Supplement 1……………………………………………………… 29

Supplement 2……………………………………………………… 30


Unit 2. Working with design

  1. Read and answer the questions:
  1. Would you like to be a designer?
  2. What spheres and fields need design requirements?
  3. What sphere would you like to work in?
  4. Make a word map to describe the varieties of using the design.


Car design  
Furniture design

Mobile phones design


  1. Study the active topical vocabulary.

Design (n) –1) the way that something has been planned and made, including its appearance, how it works; 2) a decorate pattern on something;3) the art or process of making a drawing of something to show how you will make it or what it will look like.

(v)1) to make a drawing or plan of something that will be made or built; 2) to plan or develop something for a specific purpose.

Costing (n) –a calculation of the cost of design and manufacture of a product.

Brief (n) –instructions and information given to somebody before they do a piece of work

Function (n) – the purpose or use that something has.

Requirement (n) –something is needed.

Sketch (v) –to draw quickly and simply without details.

Supplies (n) –the parts and materials that a manufacturer needs to make things.

Model (n) – a three - dimensional image or prototype used as part of the design process.

Mass – produce (v) –to manufacture something in large quantities.

Manufacturing (n) –making or producing goods by machinery or other industrial process, usually in large quantities.


  1. Read the text and put the phrases in correct order.

Designer speaks about the design process:

“I start with a design brief - a description of the problem I’m going to solve. In this case, it’s to design a backpack for cross-country skiers. Then I investigate, and do some research about cross-country skiers, the things they need to carry and the weight they find comfortable. I also think about the best choice of material- waterproof, hard - wearing, easy to work with. Next, I sketch different shapes for the backpack and choose what I think is the best solution. I transfer my sketch to a computer to make a proper drawing with all the dimensions in place. Then, I ask a company to realize it and make up some prototypes to test how well it works. Finally, I compare the product with the brief. I evaluate it by asking questions like: Does it meet all the requirements? Can I make it any better, or improve it somehow?”







E 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

  1. Match the questions to each stage in the design process. There is more than one question for some stages.

Ex. QuestionIs it safe? StageTesting

a)What are the most suitable materials? b)Does it work? c)What exactly is required? d) How well does it match the brief? e) Is this the best design? f) How many ways are there to solve this problem? g) How will the product look? h) How can we make a prototype? i) Can it be impro-ved?

  1. Read the text about Kenneth Blake, a furniture Designer.

I decided to use plastic because it’s durable. You can make it in a lot of colours and it’s easy to mass-produce plastic items.

I went to the local garden centre to examine the chairs other companies made, the rival products, and to find out their cost – about ?20. I bought three different models. I wanted a chair without arms so I cut the arms of one of them. This made the back too weak so I added vertical supports to make the back stronger.

I sketched my designs on paper, and from these I produced technical drawings with all the dimensions. I made a full-scale model to make sure the chair looked good and was comfortable. Then I transferred my drawings to a 3 – D computer modeling programme, and sent a copy by file transfer to the moulding company. They made a mould and sent me a prototype chair. I added more supports to the back and the chair was ready to produce.


  1. Read about Kenneth. Complete sentences 1-6 with words from the text.

a) Plastic is very hard - wearing it’s_________________.

b) A company which competes with yours is a __________.

c) A ___________helps to make a structure stronger.

d) Kenneth_______his designs first and then makes finished drawings.

e) You can make hundreds of plastic chairs form one__________.

f) A________is a model which is ready for testing.


  1. Study the requirements in the design brief for Kenneth Blake. Then match each requirement to the correct reason.

PRODUCT: garden chair

Requirement Reason
1) Lightweight a) Stores easily in winter
2) Strong b) Spends most of the time outside
3) Stackable c) Supports heavy adults
4) Available in a range of colours d) Keeps manufacturing costs low
5) Durable e) Easy to lift
6) Comfortable f) Competes with rivals
7) Easy to mass-produce g) Looks attractive
8) Sells for less than ?20 h) Encourages people to use

8. Read the texts about three people talking about their work with design. Complete the table below.


“I design practical products for use in the home, especially the kitchen. When I’m designing, I think about the function of the object and how people will use it. Then I sketch my ideas on paper, starting with the shape. I make lots of these rough drawings until I get the shape that I want.”


“I’m an industrial designer. I design mass-produced products. I always have to balance what people need and what it’s possible to make. I start with a sketch and when I’m happy with the result, I plan the basic layout on a computer. Then I print out technical drawings to make templates. I use the templates to cut out a model in foam plastic. This gives me an idea of the shape and look of the object. ”


“I’m a product developer. I have to work with the designers, on the one hand, and the manufactures on the other hand. And I have to keep both of them happy to get good designers which can be produced at prices people can afford. I get the drawings and models from the designers, talk to the manufacturers about the production, and work out the costings.”


Name What does he\she design What does the man start with? What does the woman have to work out?


9. Project work. Find the information about one designer. Complete the table below and exchange the information with your group.

Name Ferdinand Porsche
Dates 1875-1951
Nationality Austrian
Famous for designing Designed the first Volkswagen

Unit 3. Art and Painting

1. Read and answer the questions:

1. Do you like painting? What kind of pictures to you usually draw?

2. In what way are painting and art connected with your future profession?

3. What genres of painting do you know?

4. Do you have your favorite picture? How is it called?

2. Study the Active Vocabulary.

1. art n 1.creation of beautiful things, as a work of art; art-lover; art critic; genuine art; pretence of art; graphic art; applied art; folk art; the Fine Arts (painting, music, sculpture), e. g. I am interested in the new trends in art.

2. artist n a person who practises one of the Fine Arts, esp. paintings, as a professional artist, amateur artist, e. g. Reynolds was the most prominent artist of his day.

3. artistic adj done with skill and good taste, as artistic skill; artistic taste; artistic person, e. g. Gainsborough was essentially an artistic person.

4. draw v. to make lines on paper, as to draw well; to draw in pencil; to draw a bunch of flowers, e. g. He drew a picture of his niece. I can draw a map of the area for you.

5. drawingn.the art of making pictures; a picture, e. g. Turner left a vast mass of work, oil paintings, water-colours and drawings.

6. picturen. painting, drawing, sketch, as a picture gallery; in the
foreground (background) of the picture, e. g. There is nothing of interest in the subject matter of the picture. Every detail in the picture
plays its role in the composition.

7. depictv. to make a picture of, e. g. Perov liked to depict the scenes and types of common life. syn. represent, portray,e. g. The picture represented two Italian women talking. Turner tried to portray the mood of the sea.

8. picturesqueadj giving vivid impression of nature or reality; romantic, e. g. I wonder who lives in that picturesque cottage over there.

9. paintvt. 1)to put paint on, e. g. They painted the door white. 2) to make a picture by using paint, as to paint from nature, e. g. Ceremonial portraits were painted according to formula. Turner painted marine subjects. 3) to describe vividly in words, e. g. You are painting the situation too dark.

10. paintern an artist, as painter of battle-pieces, genre painter, landscape painter, portrait painter.

11. colour1) as bright (dark, rich, cool, warm, dull, faded) colours,
e. g. The dancers wore tight-fitting dresses of richly glowing colours.
colour schemecombination of colours, e. g. Gainsborough's pictures are painted in clear and transparent tone, in a colour scheme where blue and green predominate materials used by painters, e. g. Turner constantly used water-colour for immediate studies from nature, to paint smth. in (dark) bright coloursto describe smth. (un)favourably, e. g. The headmaster painted the school's future in bright colours.

3. Read the text about arts and translate it using a dictionary.


Art for heart’s sake

By R. Goldberg

"Here, take your pineapple juice," gently persuaded Koppel, the male nurse.

"Nope!" grunted Collis P.Ellsworth.

But it's good for you, sir."


"It's doctor's orders,"


Koppel heard the front door bell and was glad to leave the room. He found Doctor Caswell in the hall downstairs. "1 can't do a thing with him," he told the doctor. "He doesn’t want to take his pineapple juice. He doesn't want me to read to him. He hates the radio. He doesn’t like anything!"

Doctor Caswell received the information with his usual professional calm. This was no ordinary case. The old gentleman was in pretty good shape for a man of seventy-six. But he had to be kept from buying things. All his purchases of recent years had to be liquidated for his health and his pocketbook.

The doctor took a chair and sat down close to the old man. "I've got a proposition for you," he said quietly.

Old Ellsworth looked suspiciously over his spectacles.

"How'd you like to take up art?"

But the old gentleman's answer was a vigorous "Rot!" 4

"I don't mean seriously," said the doctor. "Just fool around with chalk and crayons. It'll be fun."


"All right." The doctor stood up. "I just suggested it, that's all."

"But, Caswell, how do I start playing with the chalk — that is, if I'm foolish enough to start?"

"I've thought of that, too. I can get a student from one of the art schools to come here once a week and show you."

Doctor Caswell went to his friend, Judson Livingston, head of the Atlantic Art Institute, and explained the situation. Livingston had just the young man — Frank Swain, eighteen years old and apromising student. He needed the money. How much would he get? Five dollars a visit. Fine.

Next afternoon young Swain was shown into the big living room. Collis P. Ellsworth looked at him appraisingly.

"Sir, I'm not an artist yet," answered the young man.


Swain arranged some paper and crayons on the table. "Let's try and draw that vase over there on the mantelpiece," he suggested. "Try it, Mister Ellsworth, please."

"Umph!" The old man took a piece of crayon in a shaky hand and made a scrawl. He made another scrawl and connected the two with a couple of crude lines. "There it isr young man," he snapped with a grunt of satisfaction. "Such foolishness. Poppy cock!"

Frank Swain was patient. He needed the five dollars.

As the weeks went by Swain's visits grew more frequent. He brought the old man a box of water-colors and some tubes of oils. He wanted to show the doctor how hard he'd been working.

The treatment was working perfectly. No more trips downtown to make purchases.

The doctor thought it safe to allow Ellsworth to visit the Metropolitan, the Museum of Modern Art and other exhibits with Swain. An entirely new world opened up its charming mysteries. The old man displayed curiosity about the galleries and the painters who exhibited in them. How were the galleries run? Who selected the canvases for the exhibitions? An idea was forming in his brain.

When the late spring sun began to shine, Ellsworth executed a god-awful smudge? which he called "Trees Dressed in White". Then he made a startling announcement. He was going to exhibit it in the Summer show at the Lathrop Gallery!

For the Summer show at the Lathrop Gallery was the biggest art exhibition of the year. The lifetime dream of any mature artist in the United States was a Lathrop prize.

To the utter astonishment of all "Trees Dressed in White" was accepted for the Lathrop show.

Fortunately, the painting was hung in an inconspicuous place where nobody could notice it. Doctor was very happy about it, because he was afraid that his patient would become a laughing-stock. During the course of the exhibition the old man kept on taking his lessons. He was un­usually cheerful.

Two days before the close of the exhibition a special messenger brought a long official-looking envelope to Mister Ellsworth while Swain, Koppel and the doctor were in the room. "Read it to me," requested the old man. "My eyes are tired from painting."

"It gives the Lathrop Gallery pleasure to announce that the First Landscape Prize of $1,000 has been awarded to Collis P.Ellsworth for his painting, "Trees Dressed in White"."

Swain and Koppel were shocked. Doc­tor Caswell said: "Congratulations, Mister Ellsworth. Fine, fine ... See, see ... Of course, I didn't expect such great news. But, but — well, now, you'll have to admit that art is much more satisfying than business."

"Art's nothing," snapped the old man. "I bought the Lathrop Gallery last month."


4. Answer the following questions:

1) What can you say about the health and temper of the old man? 2)Whom did he call “old pineapple juice” and why? 3) What was the old man’s disease? 4) What progress did the old man make in art? 5)How did Ellsworth change after he took art? 6) Why was it easy for Old Ellsworth to wind everybody round his finger? 7) How did the story finish? 8) What are your impressions of the story? 9) What service do you think the artist performs for mankind?


5. Study the word combinations and phrases, find them in the text and retell the part of the text in which they were used.


to be in good (bad) shape

to exhibit (smth.) in a show

a lifetime dream

a promising student

to take up art (painting)

a mature artist

tobecome a laughing-stock

a box of water-colours

a tube of oils

to award a prize (a medal)

to execute a picture (a statue)


1. company - a group of people combined together for business, trade, artistic purposes, etc.; note the use of the preposition "for" e.g. to work for a steel company.

2. firm - (two or more) persons carrying on a business; note that "firm" is preferable to "company" in any style when followed by «of».

3. enterprise - undertaking, esp. one that needs courage or that offers difficulty; carrying on of enterprises, e.g. private enterprise versus government control of commerce and industry. Enterprise is not widely used in the sense of a business organization.


1. When she left school she got a job with a publishing ... .2. This ... produces a wide range of high-quality leather goods. 3. The ... he works for is closing two of its factories so he may be made redundant soon. 4. The famous English conductor and producer Sir Thomas Beecham showed great ... in inviting the Russian opera to London for the first time in 1913 and renting Drury Lane Theatre for the season because his associates at Covent Garden did not think that such a tour would be successful. 5. The Baltic Shipping ... was established in 1922. 6. They offered the contract to a local building .... 7. The actors are English but the film was made by an American film .... 8. Her husband works for a civil engineering ... in Bristol. 9. A mixed economy is one with a combination of nationalization and private ... . 10. "Twinings" is a famous English ... of tea merchants.


Render the text.


9. Project work. Look at the chart and with its help compare the types of business in the UK and the USA. Choose one type and tell about your own business according to one of them.

Great Britain the USA
sole traders individual businesses
  partnerships general and limited partnerships
public/private limited liability companies corporations (closed and ordinary)
branches of foreign companies charter, statutes, memorandum, delivered by the company and certificate of incorporation, issued by the Register alien corporations charter and certificate issued by the state authorities

Unit 5. Advertisement

1. Look at “Know your logos!” Identify the brand in each case. Choose the correct brand in each case.


Advertising is a collective term for public announcements designed to promote the sale of specific commodities or services. Advertising is a form of mass selling, employed when the use of direct, person-to-person selling is impractical, impossible, or simply inefficient. Advertising techniques range from the publishing of simple notes in the newspapers to the use of television, radio, direct mail, and other communications media in the course of a single advertising campaign.

It isn't easy to establish when the first advertisement appeared, and it is not surprising since it goes back to very ancient times. A papyrus in the collection of the British museum, in London, advertises the sale of a slave. Rock drawings and inscriptions along the roads were also an excellent way to advertise things.

Probably the oldest advertisement was found in the excavations of the ancient Egyptian town of Memphis. It says: "I, Rhinos from Cyprus, live here. God gave me the gift of the true telling of dreams." This advertisement is 2,500 years old. It is carved in stone and visitors to one of the Cairo museums can inspect it. In the excavations of one of the towns of ancient Greek archaeologists found about 300 stone fragments with letters of the Greek alphabet. When they put the fragments together they found it was a tablet for a shop window with a list of goods and their prices.

The first newspaper in the world that put in an advertisement was a hand­written Roman newspaper "Daily Happenings". It contained announcements of meetings, births, and marriages in the noble families of Rome.

To attract customers bright signs with the name of the owner and his goods painted on them appeared above shops. Fruit, vegetables, sheep, shoes, hats were painted by "naive painters." Some of these painters were really outstanding masters, such as Niko Pirosmanishvili.

Modern advertising is an integral segment of urban industrial civilization, mirroring contemporary life in its best and worst aspects. Advertising falls into two main categories: consumer advertising, directed to the ultimate purchaser, and trade advertising, in which the appeal is made to dealers through trade journals and other media. Both consumer and trade advertising employ many specialized types of commercial persuasion.

Advertising may be local, national, or international in scope. The rates charged for the three different levels of advertising vary sharply, particularly in newspapers; varying rates are set also by newspapers for amusement, legal, political, financial, religious, and charitable advertisements.


6. Answer the following questions:

1. What is advertising? 2. In what ways do the advertising techniques range?

3. Why isn’t it easy to establish when the first advertisements appeared?

4. How old may the first advertisement be? 5. What was the title of the first newspaper that put in an advertisement? 6. What kinds of advertising can you name?

7. Translate the following sentences:


1. Реклама - коллективный термин для общественно-направленных объявлений, которые стремятся содействовать продаже товаров или услуг. 2. Реклама - это форма массовой продажи, которая появляется тогда, когда личностная форма торговли непрактична, невозможна или неэффективна. 3. Техника рекламы варьируется от простых прямых объявлений в отделе рекламы и объявлений в газете до комплексных видов рекламы с применением газет, журналов, ТВ, радио, почты и других средств массовой информации в ходе одной рекламной кампании. 4. Реклама делится на торговую, обращение нацелено на торговцев посредством торговых журналов и других средств массовой информации, и потребительскую, нацеленную на покупателя. 5. По охвату реклама может быть местной, общегосударственной или международной. 6. Расценки на эти три вида резко отличаются друг от друга, особенно в газетах, которые назначают разную цену за разные виды рекламы: развлекательной, юридической, политической, финансовой, религиозной и благотворительной.


8. Put the key sentences in order, divide into small groups and speak about some aspects of advertising:

- types of advertising;

- techniques to attract customers;

- modern advertising;

- the history of advertising;

- the essence of advertising, advertising techniques.

Render the text.

Work with a partner.

Take it in turns to be a Student A and Student B. Student A, describe an advertisement you have seen at the cinema or on television. Do not say what the advertisement was for. Student B, listen to your partner describing the advertisement and try to guess what the ad is for. Ask questions if you need more information.

11. Discuss which advertisement you like most and which you like least. Explain why. Which advertisements do you think are the most effective at selling the product?


12. Project work. Role play.

Divide into 3 groups. Think of the product/service you would like to advertise. You are going to be the experts of the advertising agency, act out the meeting of the advertiser and the ad makers. Think of the ways to present the ad to the advertiser. (see Supplement 2)


Frank Bilson (the advertiser). The task is the usual one, through the advertising research the experts are to search for the potential consumers of the product/service of your company and then make the strategy of appealing to the feelings and emotions of the customers to make them buy your product or service. You apply to the professionals, who have different advertising techniques, tricks and so on to make people want some product. So you’re open to any suggestions.

Task: You should act as a boss, agree or disagree with the suggestions, come up with your proposals.

Group 1. Planning group. We've made necessary calculations and consider television to be the most appropriate advertising medium as it is the most popular source of information and advertising among the target audience. We think in our case the most efficient advertisement will be a directly addressed ad. As it addresses some certain sector of society, taking into account the values the people of this particular group appreciate and thus an advertisement, for sure, is to create attention, interest, desire and it is to lead to action.

Task:You should compare the costs for different types of advertising. Think of the ways to place the advertisement on TV. What will you do to create attention, interest, desire? How will you plan the budget?

Group 2. Strategy group. No doubt, we have various advertising methods, techniques at hand and I think they may range from the publishing of simple notes in newspapers to the use of newspapers, magazines, television, radio and other communications media in the course of a single advertising campaign.

Task: You should work out the advertising message and plan of this campaign. Think of the brand, creed, motto and ways to introduce the product/service to different media.

Group 3. Executive group. First of all, we suggest trying advance publicity. I think it's to your advantage to spend money on advertising in all the Mass Media, thus as many people as possible will not remain unaffected by your advertisement. The ad will be read, listened and watched.

Task: You should write the text of the advertisement for the newspaper, think of the plot of the ad for the television and write the speech for the radio report.


1. Практический курс английского языка. 3 курс. Учеб. для педвузов по спец. "Иностр. яз.» / Под ред. В.Д. Аракина. –М.: Гуманит. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 1999. – С. 136- 176

2. Практический курс английского языка (V курс): Учеб. пособие для пед. вузов по спец. «Иностр. яз.»/ Г.В. Андреева, А.П. Красильчикова, Л.А. Сычугова и др./ Под ред. С.М. Полякова. –Шадринск: Из-во ПО «Исеть», 2005. – 368 с.

  1. Glendinning, Eric H. Technology 1/Eric H.Glendinning // Student’s Book. Oxford University Press, 2007. – 135 p.
  2. Glendinning, Eric H. Alison Pohl. Technology 2 / Eric H.Glendinning // Student’s Book. Oxford University Press, 2008. – 135 p.
  3. Hutchinson, Tom. Hotline Intermediate. / Student’s Book. Oxford University Press, 1996 - 126 p.
  4. MacKenzie, Ian. English for Business Studies. A Course for Business Studies and Economics students. Student’s Book. Cambridge University Press, 2002- 208 p.
  5. Smith, Tricia. Market Leader. /Business Law. Business English. Longman. Pearson Education Limited, 2000. – 234 p.
  6. Soars, L.J, New Headway English Course./ L.J.Soars.- Oxford University Press, 1997. – 159 p.
  7. Speegle, Roger. WilliamB. Giesecke. / Business World. A collection of readings on contemporary issues. Oxford University Press, 1983. – 184 p.
  8. Stuart Redman. English Vocabulary in Use. Pre-intermediate& intermediate. Cambridge University Press, 1997. – 270 p.
  9. Sue, Kay. Vaughan, Jones. / Inside Out Upper Intermediate./ Macmillan, 2001. P. 98-108
  10. Dictionary of English Language and Culture. / Longman Group UK Limited, 1992. – 1528 p.
  11. The Oxford Dictionary of Art / Oxford University Press,1994. – 548 p.
  12. Dictionary of Contemporary English. - Longman Group UK Limited, 1995. – 1700 p.
  13. Режим доступа: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_design
  14. Режим доступа: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_graphics

Supplement 1

Supplement 2

Advertisement composition outline:

Background: Where and when does the advertisement appear? What product or service is the ad selling?

Target Audience: For whom is this advertisement intended? What is the age, sex, social class, values and life-styles of the intended audience?

Hook and Story: How does the ad get our attention? What is happening in the ad – many ads tell stories. What "problems" will the product solve? What are the advertisers trying to get you to believe? Summarize the story briefly. The developmental techniques of the story will be addressed in other sections.

Primary Informational Message: What actual knowledge/facts, or lack of, have been provided in the ad? For example, car advertisements focus on mileage, acceleration, comfort and style.

Secondary Messages (techniques of structure): These are the messages that are designed to "seduce" the potential consumer. What are the advertisers trying to make you believe? What messages is the ad trying to send? What is the overall message of your ad?

Advertising Claims (techniques of language): What techniques of language will be used in the ad? What style will you choose?





Практикум по развитию навыков устной речи и

чтения студентов специальности

«Технология и предпринимательство»

(английский язык)

Часть II





Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-07-14; просмотров: 450; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - (0.013 с.)