Forms of Businesses in the U.S.A. 

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Forms of Businesses in the U.S.A.

Businesses in the U.S.A. may be organized as one of the following forms:

• individual business

• general partnership

• limited partnership

• corporation

• alien corporation

An individual business is owned by one person.

A general partnership has got several owners. They all are liable for debts and they share in the profits.

A limited partnership has got at least one general owner and one or more other owners. They have only a limited investment and a limited liability.

A corporation is owned by persons, called stockholders. The stockholders usually have certificates showing the number of shares which they own. The stockholders elect a director or directors to operate the corporation. Most corporations are closed corporations, with only a few stockholders. Other corporations are owned by many stockholders who buy and sell their shares at will. Usually they have little interest in management of the corporations.

Alien corporations are corporations of foreign countries. All the corporations are to receive their charters from the state authorities. The charters state all the powers of the corporation.

Many corporations try to receive their charters from the authorities of the State of Delaware, though they operate in other states. They prefer the State of Delaware because the laws are liberal there and the taxation is rather low. Such corporations, which receive their charters from an outside state are called foreign corporations.

All the corporations require a certificate to do business in the state where they prefer to operate.


II. Answer the following questions:

1) What are the forms of companies in the UK and the USA?

2) Are the partnerships in the UK the same as general and limited partnerships in the USA?

3) Are all limited liability companies joint-stock companies in the UK?

4) What is the corporation in the USA?

5) What is a branch of a foreign company in the UK?

6) What can you say about alien corporations in the USA?

7) How are all partnerships and companies registered?

III. Compare the two previous texts on the following types of business in the UK and the USA and their incorporation requirements?

sole trader   partnerships   limited liability companies (public and private)   branches of foreign companies   charter, statutes, memorandum, delivered by the company and certificate of incorporation, issued by the Registrar individual business   general and limited partnerships   corporations (closed and ordinary)   alien corporations   charter and certificate, issued by the state authorities


J Speaking Practice

I. Translate the following speech patterns and memorize them:

to agree about smb's goals.

I'd like to clear up.

It's a package of documents...

an agreement on the establishment of the joint venture

to draft documents as soon as possible

we'll resume our negotiations

it's time to discuss...

to draft the charter

We want the feasibility study to be prepared...

No objection.

We'll attend to all these questions in due time.

II. Read and act out the following dialogue.

Discussing Foundation Documents

Foreign representative (F. r.), Russian representative (R. r.)

F. r.: Gentlemen, I'm glad we have agreed about our common goals. But there are some specific questions I'd like to clear up.

R. r.: We are all attention.

F. r.: It concerns the documents that must be prepared for set­ting up our J.V.

R. r.: It's a package of docu­ments including an agreement on the establishment of the joint venture, a charter and a feasibility study.

F. r.: I see. We must have these documents drafted as soon as possible.

R. r.: Sure. They are the docu­ments required for the regis­tration of our J.V. And now I suggest a break for lunch. You must be hungry.

F. r.: We won't say no to your suggestion. We had an early breakfast today.

R. r.: Good. And then we shall resume our negotiations. It's time to discuss the amount of our J.V's authorized fund and the share of each participant.

And meanwhile our legal advisers should draft the charter.

By the way, we want the feasi­bility study to be prepared by specialists of both sides.

F. r.: No objection. We'll attend to all these questions in due time.



? Writing Practice

I. Read and translate the models:

Известно, что основой всякой торговли является реклама. Поэтому одним из шагов к установлению прочных деловых контактов является обмен рекламными материалами с целью дать как можно более полное представление о той продукции (информации, услугах), которая может стать основой будущего партнерства.

Наиболее популярным, простым и доступным средством рекламы была и остается печатная продукция – проспекты, каталоги, рекламные листовки и брошюры, пресс-релизы и пр. В рекламном письме желательно проявить изысканную вежливость.



Рекламное письмо


Dear Sir,

Our new Spring collection of suitings contains designs which, I am sure, will be of great interest to you personally.

Interest, however, is not merely confined to the more formal suitings, for we also have an exceptionally pleasant selection of week-end and country worsteds in our Daks suiting range. I believe the patterns enclosed will appeal to you, one is a novel design for town wear, and the other two indicate the trend for muted shades for country wear.

I do hope you will be able to call and let us show these fine new materials. As you know, we are open until 7 p.m. on Thursdays.

Should you require any further information on current styles or cloth, please do not hesitate to telephone me at Grosvenor 7688.

Yours sincerely,



II. Try to make up an advertising letter.


Lesson 14

Reading Practice: Contract as a document.

Speaking Practice: Discussing a contract.

Writing Practice: Contract.


& Reading Practice


Pre-text Exercises

I. Pay attention to the following words and word combinations and make up your own sentences with them:


formal document – официальный документ

mutual business obligations – взаимные деловые обязательства

contract clauses – условия контракта

legal titles – условия контракта

terms of inspection – условия приемки

claim – претензия

to conclude a contract – заключить контракт


II. Read the text and be ready to discuss it.

Contract as a document

A contract is the most accepted form of formal document con­firming the decision of the contracting parties to carry out mutual business obligations.

The major contract clauses in­clude articles on legal titles of the parties, subject of the con­tract, quality and quantity of the goods, terms of inspection, delivery and payment, require­ments for packing and mark­ing, claims and arbitration and other articles.

As a rule concluding a contract is preceded by discussing the enquiry of the Buyer and the offer of the Seller.

Here is a part of a specimen contract:

Contract No 32-1

Moscow September 4th, 1994

Foreign trade company Chemico, Moscow, hereinafter referred to as the Sellers, on the one part, and Messrs. Petro Co., Liverpool, England, hereinafter referred to as the Buyers, on the other part, have concluded the present Contract to the following effect.

The Sellers have sold and the Buyers have bought on с i f terms 10 000 kgs. of Chemicals ST to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 1994. Partial shipments are allowed. The quality of the Chemicals is to be confirmed by certificate issued by a competent independent and recognized laboratory. The Chemicals are to be packed in plastic bags.

The price is 175 English pounds sterling per kilo с i f Liverpool. The total value of the Contract is GBP 1750,000 (one million seven hundred and fifty thousand English pounds sterling).

The date of the bill of lading issued in the name of the Buyers is to be considered the date of delivery. Payment for the Chemicals delivered under the present Contract is to be made by a letter of credit on the presentation of the following documents:

1. Sellers' Commercial Invoice.

2. Full set of clean on board Bills of Lading.

3. Quality Certificate issued by the laboratory.

4. Weight Certificate issued by the recognized company.

5. Certificate of Origin issued by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

6. Insurance Policy issued by the State Insurance company. Payment is to be made through the National Bank, Liverpool.



III. Answer the following questions:

1. What kind of document is a contract?

2. What do the contract clauses include?

3. Who has concluded the Contract No 32-1?

4. What is the subject of the contract?

5. What can you say about the quality of the goods?

6. What are the terms of payment?


J Speaking Practice


I. Translate the following speech patterns and memorize them:

We are interested in establishing contacts with you.

What's your final decision?

We are quite able to meet the dates.

We would like to give us a discount of …%.

As a special concession to a new customer…

These terms are acceptable to us.


II. Read the conversation and practice it in pairs.


Discussing a Contract.

Mr. Petrov (P) has come to London to continue talks with Mr. Black (B). He contacts Mr. Black and at 10 o'clock he is in Mr. Black's office.

B: Good morning, Mr. Petrov.

P: Good morning, Mr. Black.

B: How are you?

P: Just fine, thank you. And how are you?

B: Very well, thank you. Are you enjoying your stay in London?

P: Yes, my stay here is very pleasant. The weather is fine.

B: We have a few problems to discuss. First comes the problem of deli­very terms. As far as I remember you prefer f.o.b. terms.

P: You're quite right.

B: These terms are acceptable to us.

P: What's your idea of an f.o.b. price?

B: It's 1 200 Pounds per unit. If you buy on f.o.b. loaded and stowed terms, then the price will be 1300 Pounds.

P: Pardon?

B: 1300 Pounds.

P: Well, I suppose f.o.b. loaded and stowed terms suit us. But will you give us a discount if we buy, say, 50 machines?

B: In this case we can give you a 10% discount.

P: So, the problem has been settled. When can you deliver the machines?

B: Well, we can dispatch the machines in two equal lots of 25 machines each. We can promise to deliver the first lot in April.

P: And can the second lot be delivered in July?

B: Yes, I think we can meet these delivery dates.

P: Fine. It seems to me we have settled all the problems and we can sign the contract now.

B: We'll do so as soon as the secretary has typed it... You'll have to wait a little.

(Mr. Black buzzes on the intercom and gives the necessary instructions to his secretary).

Mr. Petrov would you like to go to the theatre tonight? We can go and see a very good modern ballet at the Royal Opera House.

P: That's a wonderful idea. Thank you very much.

B: The performance starts at 7 p.m. I'll be in the lobby of your hotel at 6.30.

P: Well, I'll be there on time.

III. Act out a similar dialogue.


? Writing Practice


I. Read the document. Try to make up a similar one.

Contract No 58/3-1


Moscow 23 December, 19..

Messrs Brown and Co., London, England hereinafter referred to as "Sellers" on the one part, and Russian Italian Joint Venture Loco, hereinafter referred to as "Buyers" on the other part, have concluded the present Contract whereby it is agreed as follows:

1. Subject of the Contract

According to the present Contract the Sellers have sold and the Buyers have bought the goods which description, quantity and prices are indicated in Specification No 1.

The Specification is considered an integral part of the Contract.

2. Prices and Total Value of the Contract

Prices for the goods to be delivered under the present Contract arc understood franco- warehouse, Moscow, in US Dollars, including packing, marking, freight and insurance.

The total value of the Contract is USD 141,000.00 (one hundred and forty one thousand American Dollars).

3. Time of Delivery

Time of Delivery of the goods is determined and indicated in Specification No I of the present Contract. The date of the Air waybill issued in the name of the Buyers is considered to be the date of delivery. The goods shall be shipped by lots indicated in Specification No 1. Partial shipments are not allowed.

4. Quality of the goods

The quality of the goods delivered under the present Contract shall conform to the quality of the samples selected by the Buyers for the purchase.

5. Packing and Marking

Packing and marking of the goods to be delivered under the present Contract are made in accordance with the Rules for Air Transportation. Packing shall provide the full safety of the goods during transportation as well as their storage.

6. Notification of Shipment

The Sellers arc obliged to notify the Buyers of the shipment by telex or by fax not later than 2 hours after shipment indicating the following:

number of the Contract

description of goods

date and time of shipment

number of the Air waybill

quantity of goods

weight in Kgs

total value of goods

The address of the Buyers is indicated in Specification No 1.

Lesson 15


Reading Practice: Fairs and Exhibitions.

Speaking Practice: At the Exhibition.

Writing Practice: Claims and Adjustments.


Pre-text Exercises

I. Pay attention to the following words and word combinations and make up your own sentences with them:


an exhibition – выставка

a fair – ярмарка

to hold in – проводить

to take part – принимать участие

the scope of smth. – масштаб чего-то

the purchase – покупка

goods – товары

a participant – участник

to advertise – рекламировать

the sale – продажа

an achievement – достижение

to be crowded – быть заполненным

to pay the way for smth. – прокладывать путь чему-то

an eye-opening experience – убедиться воочию

to negotiate – устраивать, вести дело


& Reading Practice


I. Read the text and be ready to discuss it.

Fairs and Exhibitions


Every year a lot of international, national and special­ized exhibitions and fairs are held in different countries of the world. The number of countries and companies who take part in them is growing from year to year and the scope of fairs and exhibitions is becoming larger.

The display during these exhibitions includes a wide range of exhibits which show the latest achievements in different fields of industry, science and agriculture of many countries.

Usually fairs and exhibitions are crowded with visitors, who show much interest in the exhibits on display.

At international and national exhibitions commercial centres are established where participants can negotiate the sale and the purchase of different goods.

Every exhibition is an eye-opening experience and also a method to advertise products. Fairs and exhibitions are usually held under various mottoes: people and progress, peace and progress through economic cooperation and so on. International fairs and exhibitions pave the way for the consolidation of friendship among countries and nations.


Last month Stepanov, an engineer from Soyuzimport had instructions to visit an exhibition of electronic equipment which was held at Olympia in London.

Soyuzimport was interested in purchasing computers of the latest model. The Model R 800 computer of Witson & Co attracted Stepanov's attention. After he had seen the computer in operation he got in touch with Mr. Adams, the Sales Manager of the company, to start talks for the purchase of computers.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. What are held every year in different countries of the world?

2. What happens from year to year with the number of countries and companies who take part in exhibition and fairs?

3. What does the display during these exhibitions include?

4. Are fairs and exhibitions usually crowded with visitors?

5. What are established for selling and purchasing the different goods?

6. What is an exhibition?

7. How are fairs and exhibitions usually held?

8. What way do international fairs and exhibitions pave for?

III. Give your own point of view on fairs and exhibitions.

J Speaking Practice

I. Translate the following speech patterns and memorize them:

· Have you been to our pavilion?

· We've just seen your display.

· The latest models of equipment.

· Does the equipment go for export?

· Your equipment meets our requirements.

· The demand for the equipment.

· You are interested in the equipment to set up a joint venture.

· It'll be mutually beneficial.

· Let's discuss the matter in detail.

· We'd like to establish business relations with you.

· We'll be glad to cooperate with you.

II. Read the conversations and practice them in pairs.


At the Exhibition

Charma: Good morning, Mr. Somov.

Somov: Good morning, Mr. Charma. I'm glad to see you. Have you been to our pavilion?

Charma: Yes, we've just seen your display. It's wonderful. Your latest models of agricultural equipment are particularly good.

Somov: Have you seen them in operation?

Charma: Yes, we have. Does the equipment go for export?

Somov: Yes, we've sold it to many companies.

Charma: Your agricultural equipment meets our requirements. Our government is paying much attention to the development of the agricultural sector of our economy so the demand for the equipment will be high.

Somov: Fine. If you are really interested in our equipment we can set up a joint venture for the production of agricultural equipment in your country. It'll be mutually beneficial.

Charma: An excellent idea!

Somov: Then let's continue our talks in the Director's office and discuss the matter in detail there.

A Visit to the Plant

Taylor: We like your plant, Mr. Ivanov. It's quite modern.

Ivanov: Glad to hear that, the plant is really new. We built it only 2 years ago.

Taylor: By the way, how long did it take you to construct it?

Ivanov: Three years, though it's one of the biggest plants here.

Taylor: You produce very good compressors, they are easy to operate and reliable.

Ivanov: That's right. Our compressors are in great demand in the world market. We export them to many countries of the world. Last year was particularly good. Our total sales increased to... roubles.

Taylor: Incidentally, in what way did you use the profit?

Ivanov: We invested heavily to improve the quality. We increased the salaries and wages. We also arranged a number of training courses for the technical personnel.

Taylor: We'd like to establish business relations with you. We are going to place a large order.

Ivanov: We'll be glad to cooperate with you.


III. Act out your own dialogues on the basis of the previous conversations.


? Writing Practice

I. Read and translate the models:

Claims and Adjustments

Претензия, связанная с задержкой в поставке

10th August, 20.. Dear Sirs, Order No VC 5 8391 We are writing to you with reference to the above order and our letter of July 28th in which we asked you to expedite delivery of the 60 engines (Model 55) you were to have supplied on July 15th. We have been greatly inconvenienced by this delay because the lorries have been completed except for the engines that need to be fitted. Unless we receive the components within the next five days the order will be cancelled and placed elsewhere. Yours faithfully, ...


Ответ на претензию

l2th August, 20.. Dear Sirs, Thank you for your letter of 10 August concerning your Order (VC 58391) which should have been supplied to you on 15July. First let me apologize for the delay and for the problems you have experienced. But as you may have read in your news­papers we are faced with an industrial dispute which has involved both administrative staff and workers on the shop floor and as a consequence has held up production over the past few weeks. However, I can tell you that the dispute has been settled and we are back to normal production. Your order has been given priority, so we should be able to deliver the engines before the end of this week. May I point out, with respect, that your contract with us had a standard clause stating that delivery dates would be met unless unforeseen circumstances arose, and we think you will agree that a dispute is an exceptional circumstance. Once again let me say how much I regret the inconvenience this delay has caused and emphasize that it was due to factors beyond our control. Please let us know if you wish to complete your order or whether you would prefer to make other arrangements. I look forward to hearing from you within the next day or so. Yours faithfully, T. Blackbell Managing Director


II. Write the similar letter.



Lesson 16


Reading Practice: Marketing Management.

Speaking Practice: Company strategy.

Writing Practice: Fax Message.


& Reading Practice


Pre-text Exercises

I. Pay attention to the following words and word combinations and make up your own sentences with them:

management – управление, руководство, менеджмент

marketing management – дирекция, администрация

managerial – управленческий, административный

it term of – с точки зрения

consumer – потребитель

to evaluate – оценивать, давать оценку

profitability – прибыльность, рентабельность

product life cycle – жизненный цикл товара

decline – падение, снижение

mix – состав, ассортимент

marketing mix – комплекс маркетинга

II. Read and translate the text.


Marketing Management

Management, by definition, is a function of planning, organizing, coordinating, directing and controlling. Any managerial system, at any managerial level, is characterized in terms of these general functions.

Management is revealed in a variety of specific activities. Marketing management refers to a broad concept covering organization of production and sales of products, which is based on consumer requirements research. All companies must look beyond their present situation and develop a long-term strategy to meet changing conditions in their industry. Marketing management, therefore, consists of evaluating market opportunities, selecting markets, developing market strategies, planning marketing tactics and controlling marketing results.

Strategic planning includes defining the company's long-term as well as specific objectives, such as sales volume, market share, profitability and innovation, and deciding on financial, material and other resources necessary to achieve those objectives.

In problems of market selection and product planning one of the key concepts is that of the Product Life Cycle. That products pass through various stages between life and death (introduction - growth - maturity - decline) is hard to deny. Equally accepted is the understanding that a company should have a mix of products with representation in each of these stages. Companies can make far more effective marketing decisions if they take time to find out where each of their products stands in its life cycle.

However, the concept of the product life cycle seems frequently forgotten in marketing planning, which leads to wrong decision-making. This may well be seen in the following story.

A supplier of some light industrial equipment felt that the decline in the sales of his major product was due to the fact that it was not receiving the sales support it deserved. In order to give extra sales support to this problem case a special advertising campaign was run. This required cutting into marketing budgets of several promising products that were still in their "young" growth phase. In fact the major product has long since passed the zenith of its potential sales, and no amount of additional sales support could have extended its growth. This became quite clear in the end-of-year sales results which showed no improvement. The promising products, however, went into gradual sales decline.

In short, management has failed to consider each product's position in the life cycle.


III. Say what information the text gives about:

· management as a science;

· marketing management as a specific activity;

· the concept of the Product Life Cycle;

· wrong decision-making resulting from failure to consider the correct life cycle of the product.


J Speaking Practice

I. Read and translate the following sentences and word combinations. Let's discuss a company strategy.

Our main objective is to gain market share.

unit costs

to cut one's profits

plant and machinery

to upgrade the product

to adapt to the market


II. Act out the following dialogue.


In the following extract members of the Board of a company are discussing the company strategy.

Fox: Since our main objective is to gain market share, I believe we must first of all reduce our prices.

Brown: But if we reduce prices, that will cut our profits.

Fox: That's right, but we can slowly increase production, which will eventually enable us to cut unit costs.

Smith: That's really a long-term prospect. Unit costs can only come down if we invest in new plant and machinery. I personally think we should go for higher profitability. If we upgrade the product, we can charge higher prices and get larger profits.

Fox: Look, the market is already very competitive. If we increase prices, whatever the quality, the market will immediately respond and sales will drop rapidly. But if we reduce costs in manufacturing, that will put us in a strong position to adapt to the market.


? Writing Practice


Fax Message

Письма и другие документы могут передаваться по сетям телефонной или телеграфной связи, а не только по почте.

Факс – документ, полученный с помощью специального аппарата факсимильной связи.

Факс, по сути, является копией переданного документа. Факсом можно посылать письма, диаграммы, фотографии, техническую документацию и любую другую информацию.

Факсы составляются на фирменных бланках организации. Оформление факса осуществляется аналогично оформлению делового письма, за исключением адресата, в котором вместо почтового адреса указывается номер факсимильного аппарата получателя. Название вида документа в факсах не указывается.

Основные требования к тексту факса – лаконичность и простота изложения. Факс составляется в одном экземпляре, который после передачи по аппарату подшивается в дело.


Шаблон факса имеет следующий вид:


Наименование предприятия


No.: 00 70 95) 2 33 22 33

To: Art Centre

:Attn. Nick Barker

From: Jab Ltd

Mr. J.-A. Bauer

Date: 17 May 2000


Dear Mr Barker


Please do not hesitate to contact me if you need any further information.

(Заключительная фраза текста)

Yours sincerely

Johim A. Bauer


I. Read and translate the following Fax Message.


MOSCOW NARODNY BANK LIMITED 81 King William Street, London EC4p 4js Registered Office. Registered in England No. 159752 Telex: London 885401 Swift Address: MNBLG2L Fax No: 071-2834843 Telephone: 071-623 2063 Our Ref: CASH/PC/LQ Your Ref: 3404/A Import Bank Moscow 23rd April, 1998   Dear Sirs,   Financial Agreement of 21.1.95 and Addendum of 10.3.96 Finsider Transaction. Instalment plus Interest due 16th January 1998   With reference to your letter of 4th February, 1998 and previous correspondence we inform you that after lengthy investigation of this matter we arc unable to trace your alleged discrepancy in the overall amount paid. We note from your records that settlements were paid value 16th January, 1998 as the 15th January 1998 was a United States Bank Holiday and that we received separate instructions from you to pay one additional day interest. In accordance with your instructions these additional amounts of interest were added and paid off accordingly. Furthermore our debit to your account with us for the total was made up of several items representing separate presentations of the Promissory Notes from various banks. Accordingly, we should be obliged if you would review your records once again and inform us on what specific debit advice (quoting our Statement debit number) the discrepancy has arisen. Please provide us with the additional information required to enable us to pursue this enquiry on your behalf. Yours faithfully, p. p. MOSCOW NARODNY BANK LIMITED. Member of the Securities Association


Lesson 17

Revision (Lessons 1-16)

I. Translate into English:


1. Позвольте представиться.

2. Линия занята.

3. Какую пошлину я должен заплатить?

4. Где производится таможенный досмотр?

5. Как вы переносите полёт?

6. С какой скоростью мы летим?

7. Я хочу забронировать одноместный номер.

8. Давай закажем десерт.

9. Принесите, пожалуйста, счёт!

10. Это первоклассный магазин.

11. Подойдите к прилавку.

12. Как пройти к ближайшей гостинице?

13. Идите прямо до светофора, затем поверните направо.

14. Я заблудился. Подскажите куда ведёт эта улица.

15. Компания подразделяется на 3 отдела.

16. Я рад, что мы пришли к согласию.

17. Мы ведём коммерческую деятельность в течение многих лет.

18. Мы закончили обсуждение условий поставки и оплаты товаров.

19. Условия контракта включают несколько пунктов.

20. Я хотел бы открыть валютный счёт в банке.


II. Translate into Russian:


1. After we settle the price problem we'll sign the contract.

2. If you agree to our terms we'll give you a discount.

3. If you are interested in our goods we'll send you our catalogues and price-lists.

4. We'll discuss these problems when we meet next time.

5. The commercial documents will be sent immediately.

6. The currency of payment has been confirmed.

7. The equipment indicated in Contract 258 was delivered on 30th July.

8. We have studied the catalogues enclosed with your letter.

9. The engines manufactured by this Company are in great demand on the European market.

10. The improved model has been offered to different firms.



III. Act out the following dialogues and make up the similar ones.

- Good afternoon, Mr. Black.

- Good afternoon, Mr.... Oh, I am sorry I am afraid I don't remember your name.

- Petrov. A typical Russian name.

- Good afternoon, Mr. Petrov.

- Glad to see you. We have not met for a long time.

- Did you have a good flight, Mr. Black?

- Oh, yes, the plane left London on time. Ah, excuse me, what's Moscow time now?

- It's half past nine.

- Thank you.

- And what hotel are we going to?

- I've made a reservation at the Intourist Hotel.

- Oh, I've heard a lot about it. But I have never stayed there.

- Here is the hotel.

- Oh, it's very big and beautiful.

- I hope the service is very good too... This way, please.... Here is the receptionist. Fill in this form, please.

- Here you are. Thank you for your help.... My room is 35 on the third-floor.

- Good. I'll telephone you tomorrow morning.

- Good. Thank you.

- Good-bye.

- Good-bye.

- Do you like your room?

- Yes, it's really very good. And the service is not bad.

- Do you know there is a restaurant on the first floor?

- Yes, I went there last night. It's small and very good. I like small restaurants. And the food was delicious.

- I am glad you like this hotel and the service.

- When can I see Mr. Bobrov?

- Does 2 o'clock suit you?

- Yes. That's fine.

- Then I'll meet you here in the lobby at 13.45 and take you to our offices. They are near the hotel. I hope it will not rain.

- Does it often rain here in summer?

- Oh, no. But yesterday it rained all day long.


- Now, if you don't mind, let's get down to business.

- Good.

- What would you like to start with?

- Let's discuss the price.

- Fine.

- What's your idea of an f.o.b. price?

- It's about 3500 pounds.'

- And if you deliver the machines c.i.f. English port?

- Then the price will be about 4000 pounds.

- I see.

- Can you give us a discount for a bigger order?

- How many machines are you going to buy?

- We can buy about twenty machines. And don't forget that we are your regular customers.

- Excuse me. I have to answer the telephone call... Well, you see, Mr. Popov, we have a problem in one of our local branches.

- Then let's meet tomorrow and discuss all the other problems.

- Yes, if you don't mind. Does 11 o'clock suit you?

- I'll be in your office tomorrow at 11.

- See you tomorrow. Good-bye.

- Good-bye.

- I am very glad we have signed this Contract.

- Oh, it is a very good Contract for both of us. And thank you for your invitation to come to this restaurant.

- Oh, it's a typical Russian restaurant. And the food is typically Russian too.

- Now, to our good business.

- And to our plans to increase our trade.

- I hope our relations will be better and better. To our good business!

IV. Look through the Business Letter and determine its type.

Messrs. Central Installations Dear Sirs, With regard to your advertisement in the "Builders' Journal" of 3rd November, we would ask you to send us a quotation for the new building materials which are described. There is a steady demand for building materials in our country, if your goods are of good quality, and we receive an acceptable offer, we will place large orders with you. Please quote f.o.b. prices. Payment is usually made for collection. We look forward to hearing from you soon. Yours faithfully, Stroyimport


V. Write one of the business documents.





I. Read and discuss the texts:

Text 1

A British manager is talking about social customs. He is giving advice about three different countries to a group of his colleagues who are going abroad on business.

Part 1

It's very important to know about the differences in culture between your country and the country you are go­ing to visit or you are working in. You can make mistakes and offend people if you don't know the customs.

Handshaking is the first example. In this country they shake hands much more than we do. So you mustn't forget to do that.

Another difference is that at work they use first names much less than we do here in Britain. So it's preferable to call people by their family names.

Food and wine take a very important place in this country, so at a business lunch never start discussing business immediately. That might seem like bad manners.

If you get an invitation to a person's home, take good chocolates, flowers, or a good bottle of cognac. Don't take wine: they drink it every day — it's too ordinary...

Part 2

In Britain we sometimes are five or ten minutes late for a meeting but in this country you should arrive on time, because people are very punctual, especially in work situations. They usually arrive at the arranged time or even earlier.

Family names are more common at work. People often use titles — Doctor, Professor, and so on. Please, remem­ber to do the same. Your foreign colleague will tell you if he or she wants you to use their first name.

You shouldn't try to be humorous or make jokes with people you don't know well, because it might make them feel uncomfortable. Business meetings are usually very serious. At a first meeting it's normal to exchange busi­ness cards, but I don't recommend you to do this until the end of the meeting.

For social invitations, flowers or chocolates are suit­able gifts. And you should give an odd number of flow­ers, say, seven or eleven, and present them without the wrapping paper...

Part 3

When you go to this country, take plenty of busi­ness cards with you. They usually exchange cards at the beginning of a meeting, and they always read your card very carefully. You should do the same with theirs. If you don't, they might think it rude.

If you want to succeed in business, you must learn to be patient, because it takes longer to make decisions in this country than it does in Britain. And don't forget that when they say "Yes", they may mean "I understand", but not "I agree". It may cause misunderstanding.

And a final piece of advice — it's not common, but if you invited to a person's home, remember to take off your shoes before going inside. So make sure you are wearing clean socks!


Say the following in English.

Различия в культуре, делать ошибки, обижать, по­жимать руки, обсуждать дела, опаздывать на сборы, вовремя, шутить, обмениваться визитками, обертка, грубый, непонимание.


Tick the topics the British manager is talking about in each part.

  Part 1 Part 2 Part 3
Topic Shaking hands First/family name Business lunches Titles Punctuality Humour Business cards Making decisions Social invitations      

Choose the country you think the British manager is de­scribing in each text. Discuss your choice with your partners.

Part 1 USA Germany France
Part 2 Germany Spain Italy
Part 3 India Japan China

Discuss in class if these statements are true about cus­toms in your country.

  Yes No It depends
Friends and colleagues do not shake hands every day. They shake hands only when they meet for the first time.      
In work situations business people exchange business cards at a first meeting.      
It's very important to be punctual.      
Students use teachers' first names in class.      
Colleagues generally use family names at work.      
People don't usually socialize with their col­leagues outside working hours. They prefer to keep their work and private life separate.      
When you're invited to a birthday party to your friend's home, it's usual to arrive half an hour later.      


Text 2

Oxford University research psychologist, Dr. Peter Collett, examined some of the differences in the 'body language' among Europeans.


Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-23; просмотров: 1392; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы! Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - (0.404 с.)