Words and word combinations you may need

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Words and word combinations you may need

embarrassing adj – обескураживающий

make redundant - уволить (по сокращению штатов)

sack v - уволить

overtime n — сверхурочная работа

neglect duties - пренебрегать обязанностями

lack n — нехватка

bonus n — премия



Exercise 91. Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous or present perfect continuous.

1. He (to run) now. He (to run) for ten minutes without any rest. 2. What they (to do) now? They (to work) in the library. They (to work) for two hours. 3. She (to wash) in the bathroom now. She (to wash) for half an Практические упражнения

hour. 4. Where is Nick now? He is in the garden. He (to plant) trees. He (to plant) trees the whole morning.



Exercise 92. Translate into English using either the present continuous or present perfect continuous.

1. а) Она все еще изучает испанский язык.

b) Она уже два года изучает испанский язык.

2. а) Они все еще живут на даче.

b) Они уже четыре месяца живут на даче.

3. а) Она все еще разговаривает по телефону.

b) Она разговаривает по телефону уже двадцать минут.

4. а) Мой брат все еще решает эту трудную задачу.

b) Он решает эту задачу уже полчаса.

5. a) Она все еще пишет письмо бабушке.

b) Она уже целый час пишет это письмо.

6. а) Они все еще ловят рыбу.

b) Они ловят рыбу уже пять часов.

7. а) Дедушка и бабушка все еще играют в лото.

b) Они играют в лото уже два часа.

8. а) Они все еще спорят.

b) Они спорят уже два часа.

9. а) Она еще спит.

b) Она спит уже два часа.

10. а) Он еще делает уроки.

b) Он делает уроки уже три часа.

11. а) Мальчики все еще играют в футбол.

b) Они играют в футбол уже сорок минут.

Exercise 93 Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or present perfect continuous.

1. Sorry I'm late. - That's all right. I (not to wait) long. 2. Look at my hands. They are dirty. I (to paint the ceiling) 3. Ann (to travel) in Europe for three months. She (to see) three countries so far. 4. This young man (to write) books since he was 15. He (to write) 10 books so far. 5. John (to chose) clothes for two hours. He (to chose) only two suits.



Практические упражнения

Exercise 94. Complete the conversation with the following sentences:

1. Have you been working? 2. You sound as if you've been enjoying yourself. 3. What have you been doing this summer? 4. Which hotel have you been working in?5. Did you enjoy them? 6. Have you done any sightseeing? 7. How long have you been here? 8. Have you seen any Shakespeare plays yet?


B: I've been travelling around Europe and doing some jobs here and there.


B: Here in Stratford? Oh, for a few days.


B: Yes, I have. In a hotel.

A: It's a small hotel. I think you haven't heard about it.


A: Yes, I have seen «Hamlet» and «Romeo and Juliette».


A:Yes, I did. I liked «Hamlet» very much.


A: Yes, Г ve seen Shakespeare's birthplace and some other places of interest.


A: Yes, I have. It's a great place.



Exercise 95. Choose either the present perfect or the present perfect continuous.

1. He knows Africa well because he (travel) a lot there.

A has been travelling

В has travelled

2. You (write) this composition for two hours and can't complete it.

A have been writing

В have written

3. - John is still repairing his car. - He must be tired. He (repair) it all day.

A has repaired

В has been repairing

4. Alice promised to come, but she's absent. Something (happen) to her.

A has been happening

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B has happened

5. The children are drawing. They (draw) since they came home.

A have been drawing

В have drawn

6. _______ they (tell) anything about their summer plans?

A Have they been telling

В Have they told

7. My aunt (have) the big house in the country.

A has always been having

В has always had



Exercise 96. Put yourself in the following situations. How would you react? Write the questions using the present perfect or present perfect continuous.


Situation Reaction
You see a friend who has shaved his head. He is completely bald! You say: “What have you done to your hair?” do?
1. You can't find your school-bag. You think your mother might know where it is.   see?
2. You bought yourself a bar of chocolate yesterday. Today there is only half a bar left. You ask your brothers, sisters or friends.   eat?
3. Even worse! All the chocolate is gone - only the wrapper is left! who/ eat?
4. You haven't seen Douglas Smith for some time. Perhaps he doesn't live in your town any more. You ask a school friend.   see/ recently?
5. You are late for the date with your boyfriend/girlfriend. You run all the way to the disco, but he/she is already there.   wait/ long?


Практические упражнения


6. There was an article in the newspaper about the oldest man (97) in your town, but you didn’t read it. You ask a friend about him.   how long/ live here?
7. You are having a party, but you best friend arrives an hour late!   where on earth/ be?
8. Someone says “I’m very sorry” to you, but you don’t know why.     what/ do?
9. Someone arrives at school with very dirty hands.     where on earth/ be?
10. You look very tired after this exercise. A friend asks you:     how long/ practice/ English?  


Exercise 97. Open the brackets using the present simple, present continuous, present perfect, present perfect continuous tense forms.


1. The nearest shop (open) at 9 o'clock and (close) at 20.00 every day. 2. The Olympic games (take place) every four years. 3. Rice (not to grow) in Belarus. 4. Vegetarians (not to eat) meat. 5. The water (boil). Can you turn it off? 6. Let's go out. It (not to rain)and the sun (shine) brightly. 7. Hurry up! Everybody (wait) for us. 8. You (believe) in God? .9. He told me his name but I (not to remember) it now. 10. You (see) that girl over there? She is my friend. 11. Shall I phone to reserve a table? - No, I just (do) it. 12. Would you like something to eat? - No, thank you. I already (have lunch). 13. Jane isn't here at the moment. She (go) to the shop. 14. I (drink) two cups of coffee today but I'd like to have one more. 15. It's the first time she (drive) a car. She never (drive) a car before. 16. You ever (be) to China? - No, I never (go) there. 17. It (rain) for two hours already. 18. How long you (learn) English? - I (learn) it since morning. 19. My brother began looking for a new job six months ago. He still (look) for it. He (look) for a job for six months already. 20. Tom still (watch) TV. He (watch) TV all

Практические упражнения

day. 21. She always (go) to Scotland for her holidays. She (go) there for years. She (go) there next summer too. 22. You (hear) from Ann recently? - No, I (not to see) her since we finished school.

Exercise 98. Open the brackets using the present simple, present continuous, present perfect, present perfect continuous tense forms.


1. This man (to be) a writer. He (to write) books. He (to write) books since he was a young man. He already (to write) eight books. 2. What you (to do) here since morning? 3. Lena is a very good girl. She always (to help) her mother about the house. Today she (to help) her mother since morning. They already (to wash) the floor and (to dust) the furniture. Now they (to cook) dinner together. 4. He (to run) now. He (to run) for ten minutes without any rest. 5. What they (to do) now? - They (to work) in the reading room. They (to work) there for three hours already. 6. Where he (to be) now? - He (to be) in the garden. He (to play) volleyball with his friends. They (to play) since breakfast time. 7. I (to live) in St. Petersburg. I (to live) in St. Petersburg since 1990. 8. This is the factory where my father (to work). He (to work) here for fifteen years. 9. You (to find) your notebook? - No! I still (to look) for it. I already (to look) for it for two hours, but (not yet to find) it. 10. You (to play) with a ball for three hours already. Go home and do your homework. 11. Wake up! You (to sleep) for ten hours already. 12. I (to wait) for a letter from my cousin for a month already, but (not yet to receive) it. 13. She already (to do) her homework for two hours; but she (not yet to do) half of it. 14. I (to wait) for you since two o'clock. 15. What you (to do)? - I (to read). I (to read) for two hours already. I already (to read) sixty pages.



Exercise 99. Open the brackets using the present simple, present continuous, present perfect, present perfect continuous tense forms.


1. Her children (to be) in the yard. They (to play) football now. They (to play) it since ten o'clock.

2. She (to speak) English well. She (to study) it for five years. Listen! She (to speak) English to her teacher.

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3. His son just (to return) home. He (to be) dirty. He (to play) volley-ball.

4. Where David (to be)? - He (to be) in the library. He (to work) there at the moment. - How long he (to be) there? - He (to work) for three hours.

5. Why she (to look) tired? - She (to work) all night.

6. Since when they (to wait) for us? - They (to wait) for half an hour. We (to be) late.

7. My sister (to drive) a car. She (to learn) to drive for two months.

8. Beth (to be) busy this morning, hasn't she? - Yes. She already (to write) some letters and (to interview) four people.

9. Julia already (to return) home. She always (to come) home at this time. She (to do) her lessons. She (to do) them since three o'clock.

10. My baby (to sleep) at the moment. My baby (to sleep) for two hours.

11. Peter (to write) letters now. He (to write) since seven - o'clock. He (not to finish) writing yet.

12. What they (to do) now? - They (to discuss) a very important problem. They (to discuss) it for two hours; but they (not to reach) the agreement yet.

13. I never (to suppose) that he can cook. He (to be) in the kitchen now. He (to cook) for an hour and he already (to prepare) some tasty dishes.

14. The weather (to be) fine today. There (to be) no clouds •in the sky, the warm wind (to blow). The sun (to shine) since early morning.

15. Where (to be) the pupils? - They (to be) in the garden now. They (to plant) and (to water) the trees. They already (to plant) twenty trees.

16. You (to decide) where to go tonight? - I (to think) about it since eight o'clock but I (not to take) the decision yet.

17. Where my purse (to be)? - You (to put) it into your bag.

18. Why you (not to like) this woman? - I (to hate) since I met her.

19. He (to work) as a translator for already five years.

20. I can say nothing about this ballet as I (not to see) it.

Exercise 100. Translate these sentences into English.

1. Мистер Роджерс работает в банке.

2. Не мешайте ему, он работает.

3. Он работает в этом банке уже 7 лет.

4. Он уже проработал в этом банке 7 лет и думает о том, чтобы уйти на пенсию через 20 лет.

Практические упражнения


5. Памела пишет статьи каждый день.

6. Что она сейчас делает? - Пишет статью.

7. Она пишет ее уже час.

8. Сегодня она написала 2 статьи.

9. М-р Быстрое производит спортивное оборудование.

10. Сейчас они производят экспериментальную партию.

11. Они производят это оборудование уже год.

12. Они уже произвели 20 тысяч образцов.

13. Стефания делает упражнения каждый день.

14. Она занята, она делает упражнения.

15. Она делает упражнения всю жизнь.

16. Она уже сделала много упражнений сегодня.

17. М-р Стенслер зарабатывает много денег.

18. Он сейчас зарабатывает деньги.

19. М-р Стенслер зарабатывает деньги с 15 лет.

20. Он уже заработал 200 млн. долларов.



Exercise 101. Rewrite the following text into the past.


On Monday we have five lessons. The first lesson is Russian. At this lesson we write a dictation and do some exercises. Nick goes to the blackboard. He answers well and gets a "five". Pete does not get a "five" because he does not know his lesson. After the second lesson I go to the canteen. I eat a sandwich and drink a cup of tea. I do not drink milk. After school I do not go home at once. I go to the library and take a book. Then I go home.

Exercise 102. Fill in the correct past simple form of the verb in brackets.

Five years ago production at Greville Motors __________ (rise) to 53,000 cars a year. Then the dollar __________ (fall). Prices in America __________ (go) up and sales ____________ (decline) dramatically. Greville then _______ (try) to increase sales at home and in other, markets, especially Japan. It also _______ (stop) production of its cheapest model, the 670, and _______ (start) selling more expensive cars. For a short time this _________ (be) very successful.

Практические упражнения

Exercise 103. Complete the sales report. Use the past simple of the verbs in brackets

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