Find in Text 11A the paragraph saying about the advantages of concrete blocks over clay bricks and translate it into Russian.



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Find in Text 11A the paragraph saying about the advantages of concrete blocks over clay bricks and translate it into Russian.



Read aloud paragraph 5.

Explain the following references.

 

a) it affects the appearance of the wall. What does the pronoun //refer to?

b) This is known as cavity wall insulation. What does the pronoun this refer to?

c) in order to fit them together. What does the pronoun them refer to?


d) these can be rubbed on a hard stone
What does the pronoun these refer to?

e) They are usually much larger than ordinary bricks
What does the pronoun they refer to?

f) They are often used as the structural core for veneered brick
masonry

What does the pronoun they refer to?

g) This increases wall strength and stability more economically
than filling and reinforcing all voids.

What does the pronoun this refer to?

Find in Text 11A some key words and expressions to speak about bricklaying. Retell the Text in English.

19. Skim Text 11B "Masonry" and try to understand what it is about and what information is already known to you.

• TEXT 11B

Masonry

Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, stone such as marble, granite, travertine, limestone; concrete block, glass block, and tile. Masonry is a highly durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, and the pattern in which the units are assembled can affect the durability

Stretcher bond

of the overall masonry construction.



Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей


UNIT 11.BUILDING THE WALLS 249


 


               
   
     
 
 
 
     
 

Header bond

Masonry is commonly used for the walls of buildings, retaining walls and monuments. Brick and concrete block are the most common types of masonry in use in industrialized nations and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer. Concrete blocks, especially those with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in masonry construction. They generally provide great compressive strength and are best suited to structures with light transverse loading when the cores remain unfilled. Filling some or all of.the cores with concrete or concrete with steel reinforcement (typically rebar) offers much greater tensile and lateral strength to structures.

Flemish bond

The use of materials such as brick and stone can increase the thermal mass of a building, giving increased comfort in the heat of summer and the cold of winter, and can be ideal for passive solar applications. Brick will not require painting and so can provide a structure with reduced life-cycle costs, although sealing appropriately will reduce potential spalling due to frost damage. Non-decorative concrete block generally is painted or stuccoed if exposed. The appearance, especially when well crafted, can impart an impression of solidity and permanence. Masonry is heat resistant and thus provides fire protection. Masonry walls are more resistant to projectiles, such as debris from hurricanes or tornadoes than walls of wood or other softer, less dense materials. Extreme weather causes degradation of masonry wall surfaces due to frost damage. This type of damage is common with certain types of brick, though rare with concrete block. If non-concrete (clay-based) brick is to be used, care should be taken to select bricks suitable for the climate in question. Masonry tends to be heavy and must be built upon a strong foundation (usually reinforced concrete) to avoid settling and cracking. If expansive soils (such as


adobe clay) are present, this foundation needs to be quite elaborate and the services of a qualified structural engineer may be required, particularly in earthquake prone regions.

Masonry boasts an impressive compressive strength (vertical loads) but is much lower in tensile strength (twisting or stretching) unless reinforced. The tensile strength of masonry walls can be strengthened by thickening the wall, or by building masonry piers (vertical columns or ribs) at intervals. Where practical, steel reinforcements can be added.

The strength of a masonry wall is not entirely dependent on the bond between the building material and the mortar; the friction between the interlocking blocks of masonry is strong enough to provide a great deal of strength on its own. The blocks sometimes have grooves or other surface features added to enhance this interlocking, and some dry set masonry structures forego mortar altogether.

Solid masonry without steel reinforcement tends to have very limited applications in modern wall construction. While such walls can be quite economical and suitable in some applications, susceptibility to earthquakes and collapse is a major issue. Solid unreinforced masonry walls tend to be low and thick as a consequence.

Solid brickwork is made of two or more layers of bricks with the units ranning horizontally (called stretcher bricks) bound together with bricks ranning transverse to the wall (called header bricks). Each row of bricks is known as a course. The pattern of headers and stretchers employed gives rise to different bonds such as the common bond (with every sixth course composed of headers), the English bond, and the Flemish bond (with alternating stretcher and header bricks present on every course). There are no significant utilitarian differences between most bonds, but the appearance of the finished wall is affected. Vertically staggered bonds tend to be somewhat stronger and less prone to major cracking than a non-staggered bond.



250 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей


UNIT 11.BUILDING THE WALLS


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20. Identify the topic of each paragraph of Text 11B.



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