Identify the topic of each paragraph of Text 5B. 





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Identify the topic of each paragraph of Text 5B.



21. Complete the sentences choosing the best variant
corresponding to the contents of Text 5B.

1)Concrete has the great advantage because

a) it is made from hydraulic cement, crashed stone or gravel,

and sand.

b) it is made in any shape.

c) it has to be worked to the required shape.

2) Concrete is the building material that

a) can be made on the building site.

b) can't be delivered ready-mixed to the building site.

c) can support walls, floors, beams, columns, girders.

3) The strength of concrete is determined by the quantity of

a) sand and gravel.

b) water.

c) cement.

4) To make concrete stronger

a) it should be put under loads.

b) steel rods should be embedded.

c) it should be put under compression or tension.

5) The reinforced concrete beam is compressed because

a) it is stretched.

b) the stretching force is removed.

c) holes are made through it.


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UNIT 5.BUILDING MATERIALS


j 115


 


6) Lightweight concrete can be made by using

a) processed clinker or air.

b) different types of shuttering.

c) exposing the stones.

22. Read Text 5C "Bricks" and find the answers to these questions. Discuss your answers with your groupmates.

a) Why are bricks considered to be the most lasting of man-made building materials?

b) What ways are bricks made in?

c) What is the soft-mud process characterized by?

d) What does the stiff-clay process consist in?

e) What is specific of the pressed brick process?

f) When are bricks ready for firing?

g) What process produces the bricks of light sandy colour?
h) What advantages do lighter bricks have?

i) What factors does the colour of clay bricks depend on? j) What are oversize bricks called?

• TEXT 5C

Bricks

Good bricks are the most lasting of man-made building materials. They are not much affected by the weather and, if a building catches fire, brickwork resists the effects of fire longer than most other forms of construction. Bricks are fairly small and light and therefore easy to handle, but when they are bonded together with mortar they make extremely strong structures. Good brickwork needs very little maintenance, lasts for a long time, and looks attractive.

Brick is formed in three ways: the soft-mud, stiff-clay, and pressed brick processes. In the soft-mud process, clay is mixed with water to form a stiff paste which is then thrown by hand or forced by machine into wooden or metal box-like moulds of the size of a brick. Sand or water is sprinkled on the inside of the moulds to


keep the clay from sticking. The sand or water also gives the brick a pleasant finish. Such bricks are called sand-struck or water-struck bricks. The soft, wet bricks are removed from the moulds for drying.

In the stiff-clay process, the ground clay is mixed with water in a long trough containing a revolving shaft with blades. The blades mix the clay with water as they revolve and at the same time push it forward into an extrusion machine. This forces it through a rectangular opening. It is extruded in a long bar of the length and width of a brick. A moving belt carries the clay bar to a cutter, which is a metal frame with a number of wires stretched across it. The wires are brought down on the bar to cut it into bricks, which are then dried. Bricks formed in this way are known as extruded wire-cut bricks.

In the pressed brick system, the clay is semi-dry, and is pressed by a heavy machine into metal moulds under such high pressure that the clay particles hold together. Because pressed brick has very little water, it needs little drying.

After being formed, bricks are loaded on rail trucks and pushed into driers, and then into kilns to be fired. Drying takes two to three days and then the bricks are ready for firing.

Clay is the material most often

associated with bricks, but since the

late 19th century other materials have

been used. For example, calcium

silicate bricks, sometimes known as

sand lime bricks, are made by

pressing a mixture of moist sand and „, ,,, .. .

f. . ° , . , . . . . The world s highest

lime into brick shape by machine. с-. u t

_ , . , , , , brick tower of

The bricks are then steamed under s Martin,s church in

high pressure in an autoclave. This Landshut, Germany,

process produces bricks of an completed in 1500


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UNIT5. BUILDING MATERIALS | 117


 


attractive light sandy colour which can be textured and pigmented in a variety of ways.

Not all bricks are completely solid. Some have frogs in them. They make it easier to press and fire the bricks and reduce the weight. Lighter bricks are easier to handle and cheaper to transport. Nowadays many machine-made bricks have holes in them for similar reasons. These are called perforated bricks. Specials as the name suggests, are bricks made for a specific purpose. They are usually shaped to fit angles and curves or to produce a decorative effect.

The colour of clay bricks depends on several factors. The type of clay used, chemicals in the clay, the supply of oxygen while the bricks are being fired, and the temperature the bricks reach during firing. The colours vary from dark purple to light yellow. Facing bricks to be used in the outer walls of buildings can be given a rough or textured surface, or they may be glazed to add to their attractiveness.

Sand-lime bricks are naturally white, off-white, or pink, depending on the sand used to make them. By adding pigments, any colours from pale pastels to dark tones can be produced.

Blocks are essentially oversize bricks — commonly about the size of six bricks. They may be made of clay or concrete. Clay blocks are hollow; concrete blocks may be solid or hollow. The advantage of blocks over bricks is that building can be carried out faster with them.

*

SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING

23. Listen to the Text "Roman Concrete".

Study the following commentary:

The Baths of Caracalla — термы римского императора Кара-калла (186-217 гг.)

The Pantheon — Пантеон, в Риме памятник древнеримской архитектуры (ок. 125 г. н.э.)


a) Answer the questions that follow.

1. What components was Roman concrete made from?

2. Why was concrete regarded as a revolutionary material?

3. What is the difference between Roman concrete and modern structural concrete?

4. Why have many Roman structures survived to the present

day?

5. What technique did the Romans use in their structures?

6. When was the secret of Roman concrete lost?

7. Who pioneered the re-use of concrete?

8. What aggregates are used in modern concrete?

 

b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 5A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary.

c) Retell the Text about the use and production of concrete.

d) Tell your groupmates about the modern use of concrete
based on the information to be collected.

24. Listen to the Text "From the History of Brickmaking".

a) As you listen, fill in the chart to describe the periods of the development of brickmaking.

 

Sun-dried bricks  
The invention of a brick kiln  
The spread of the ancient craft of brickmaking  
The loss of brickmaking art  

118 Английский язык для студентов


Строительных специальностей


 


The revival of brickmaking art


UNIT



 


The replacement of timber framework for brick-built walls


BUILDING SCIENCE


 


Ьом1ГтГГГТГ8 1?УОиГ W"** and Tapescript dLl*еХ*' UOk UP the W°rds *°»d0 not ^ow in the

c) Retell the Text about brickmaking.


SECTION 1 VOCABULARY AND WORD STUDY


1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text "Strength of Materials" and translate the given sentences.

1. strength of materials— сопротивление материалов
compressive strength[kam'presiv] — прочность на сжатие
fatigue strength[fs'tkg] — усталостная прочность
impact strength['impaekt] — работа деформации при удар­
ном изломе, ударная вязкость

static strength['staetik] — статическая прочность, проч­ность при статической нагрузке yield strength[ji:ld] — условный предел текучести

This book covers requirements for an engineering undergraduate course on strength of materials and structures. One of the essential properties of concrete is its compressive strength. The process is applied to high performance equipment where it is not possible to increase the fatigue strength by adding more material. Impact strength on reinforced concrete structures was estimated by this method. We investigated the resistance to fracture in relation to the static strength and structure of two beams. Prior to the yield strength the material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape.

2. damage['daemidj] n v — повреждение, разрушение, де-

фект; повреждать, разрушать, наносить ущерб

This will do a lot of damage to the beam. Fires damage parts of buildings and whole buildings.


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UNIT 6. BUILDING SCIENCE | 121


 


3. fail['feil] v — повреждать, разрушать, выходить из
строя

failure['feiljg] n — разрушение, авария, сбой, неисп­равность

brittle failure[bntl] — хрупкое разрушение compressive (compression) failure— разрушение при сжа­тии

ductile failure['dAktail] — вязкое (пластическое) разру­шение tensile failure— разрушение при растяжении

The roof joint failed because of the roof heating up. Frost action causes serious failures of concrete. One of the most important characteristics of the structural strength of steels is the resistance to brittle failure. The complexities of compressive failure become apparent when a solid block of material is squeezed between parallel plates. Damage models can be used to predict ductile failure in metal forming processes. The standard way to measure tensile strength is to use a small bar with uniform width and to pull at each end until the hav fails.

4. prevent (from)[pn'vent] v — предотвращать, предохра­
нять

Temporary end stops should be used to prevent concrete from flowing along the bottom of the shutters and segregating.

5. dimension[dai'menjn] n — размер, объем

A room has three spatial dimensions: length, height and width.

6. strain[strein] n v — деформация, напряжение, натя­
жение

The change of dimensions in a material due to a stress is called strain.


7. withstand[wiS'stasnd] v - противостоять, выдерживать
Reinforced concrete can usefully withstand bending load.

8. bear['Ьеэ] (bore, borne)v -поддерживать, служить
опорой

bearingn — опора

bearing reactions— опорное давление

The bridge must bear the weight of the cars and trucks. The experiment was an investigation into the practicability of fixing precast units directly on to their beam bearings. An experimental technique is described for the measurement of bearing reactions in bridge slabs.

9. enable[1'neibl] v — давать (создавать) возможность All floors must be constructed before the roof is put on and waterproofed to enable finishing work to begin.

10. implementv — выполнять, осуществлять, реализовы-
вать

The construction committee's suggestions will be implemented immediately.

11. be subjected to[sab'cfeektid] - подвергаться

Abeam is a structural element that is subjected to forces acting perpendicular to it.

12. deflection[di'flekjn] n - прогиб, упругая деформация
The deflection of a beam depends on its length, its cross-sectional

shape, the material, where the deflecting force is applied, and how the beam is supported.


122 I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей

13. shearstress ['Jis] — касательное напряжение

tensilestress — растягивающее напряжение Shear stress is calculated based on the principle of conservation of momentum. There are some kinds of materials which cannot withstand tensile stress.

14. tension['tenfn] n — растяжение, натяжение

Concrete has a much higher strength when it is under compression than it has when it is subjected to tension.

15. assess[a'ses] v — оценивать
assessment[a'sesmantj n — оценка

They tried to assess the damage to the building. This organization provides the assessment and control of construction products.

16. capable (of)['kerpablj adj — способный

capability^keipa'bilati] n — способность, возможность, мощность, производительность

A new sports hall capable (/accommodating 6,000 people has recently been completed. The engineer explained the technical capabilities of the building structure.

17. fulfil[ful'fil] v — выполнять, исполнять
fulfilment[ful'filmantj n — выполнение

This type of finishes fulfils different functions.

18. increase['irjkri:sj [m'kri:s] n v — возрастание, увеличе­
ние; возрастать, увеличивать

decrease['dirkrirs] [,di:'kri:s] n v — уменьшение, сниже­ние, падение; уменьшать, снижать, падать, убывать

An increase in the volume of building can only be achieved by greater productivity. By using industrial methods of construction


UNIT 6.BUILDING SCIENCE 123

Ihe speed of construction may be considerably increased. It is possible to considerably decrease the building costs by using prefabrication.

19. expand[iks'paend] v — расширять, увеличиваться в
объеме

expansion[ik'spsenfn] n — расширение, растягивание

Thousands of country towns expanded into great industrial or commercial centres. The site allows for further expansion to double the present size of the factory.

20. displace[dis'pleis] v — выдавливать, вытеснять
displacementn — перемещение, сдвиг, смещение

The denser cold water sinks to displace the heated water, which is forced to rise. We can describe quantitatively the amount of lateral displacement of the beam.

2. Read and translate the following international words. Look
up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the
part of speech.

Collection n, focus n v, phenomena n, optimize v, prevent v, specific, hyperstatic adj, permanent adj, service n, esthetics n, reaction n, neutralize v, equilibrium n, gravitational adj, term n, trend n, stress n, express v, compressive adj, oppose v, limit n, manner n, thermal adj.





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