Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the forms and functions of the Gerund.



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Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the forms and functions of the Gerund.



a) Subject

Example

Smoking is not allowed here. — Курить {курение) здесь не

разрешается.

1. Knowing English is helpful for any building engineer. 2. Cutting stones and timbers became possible with the invention of tools. 3. Learning to use a computer is important for every civil engineer. 4. Adding heat to a substance does not always cause a rise of its temperature. 5. Maintaining the equipment in good condition helps students to make experiments well.

b) Part of a Predicate

Example

His greatest pleasure is reading books. — Самое большое удо­вольствие для него — это чтение {читать) книг(и).

1. In Russia, most of the houses built after World War II were big, usually 5—10 stories high, with small apartments. In these boroughs, the goal was saving space and creating as many apartments


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as possible. 2. Seeing is believing. 3. The most common floo finish is carpeting, most of which is now made of synthetic fibres 4. Our aim is finding new ways of using this material in the buildin industry. 5. The problem to be discussed is making a new program for a computer.

c) Direct Object

Example

I like readingbooks. — Мне нравится читать {чтение) книга. Tom likes being read such books. — Том любит, когда ему читают такие книги.

I remember having seen this film. — Я помню, что я смотрел этот фильм.

I remember having been told'about this film. — Я помню, что мне рассказывали об этом фильме.

1. At the building site, precast members are joined together by a number of methods, including welding together metal connectors cast into them or pouring a layer of in situ concrete on top of floor members, bonding them together. 2. If you like wearing high heels and beautiful clothes, you may not be happy on a building site. 3. They expected being given further assistance. 4. Most local authorities started providing social housing, mainly for elderly people with low incomes. 5. He remembers having been shown this project.

d) Indirect Object

Example

I am pleased with his learning English. — Я доволен тем, что он изучает английский язык.

We are interested in being invited to the first night. — Мы за­интересованы в том, чтобы нас пригласили на премьеру.

Не reproached himselffor having said it. — Он упрекал себя за то, что сказал это.

Не was surprised at having been asked about it. — Он был удивлен, что его спросили об этом.


1. The municipal engineer serves local or state government directly in planning and supervising the construction and management of water-supply and sewage-disposal systems, roads and bridges, public-transport systems, public buildings, and many other significant features of modern life. 2. My friend is good at speaking English and German. 3. When I was at school, I thought of working in construction. 4. These decisions are connected with planning, organizing, directing and controlling the work to be done. 5. The investors insisted on being informed about the financial position of the project they supported.

E) Attribute

Example

I don't like his manner of reading. — Мне не нравится его манера чтения.

1. It is seen as an easier installation and a better solution for supporting roofs as opposed to the use of lumber struts and purlins as bracing. 2. There are three historically common methods of framing a house. 3. The task of building the project is the responsibility of a firm of contractors. 4. Civil engineering is the profession of designing and executing structural works that serve the general public. 5. Mathematical methods for determining the beam forces include the moment distribution method, the force or flexibility method and the direct stiffness method.

F) Adverbial Modifier

Example

We enrich our knowledge by reading books. — Мы обогаща­ем свои знания, читая {чтением) книги.

Не entered the room without being noticed. — Он вошел в ком­нату незамеченным.

1. Glued laminated beams are created by glueing the faces together to create beams. 2. The energy effectiveness of stone is


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considered a big draw-back, as stone is hard to keep warm without using large amounts of heating resources. 3. For moving smaller volumes of people and freight, hydraulic elevators are used. 4. After hardening, the floor surface is machine polished to expose the marble chips. 5. The lightest and most efficient structural shape is the bar joist, a standard truss made with angles for the top and bottom chords, joined by welding to a web made of a continuous bent rod. 6. The concept of a statically determinate structure — that is, a structure whose forces could be determined from Newton's laws of motion alone — was set forth by Otto Mohr in 1874, after having been used intuitively for perhaps 40 years.

9. Use the Gerund of the verbs in brackets. Define the functions
of the Gerund and translate their sentences.

1. The government created companies that employed people in (to build) dams and roads, houses and parks. 2. We knew nothing about his (to have been sent) to New York. 3. There is a big difference between (build) a house and (design) a computer system. 4. Building is the process of (construct) buildings as distinct from the art or science of (design) buildings, which is architecture.

5. Some or all the joints between the beams and columns are rigidly joined together by (weld) the steel or (pour) the concrete in situ.

6. They began (talk) about the state of the building market.

7. (Load) heavy weights requires great skill. 8. He is proud of (have won) in the chess tournament. 9. In (proportion) the mix, the aggregates are graded in size. 10. Asbestos is capable of (withstand) very high temperatures, and at the same time (deflect) heat. 11. The lightest and most efficient structural shape is the bar joist, a standard truss made with angles on the top and bottom chords, joined by (weld) to a web of a continuous bent rod.

10. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention
to the verbal noun.

Example

There are three turnings to the right.


My sister does thecooking in the house. Themaking of concreteis difficult. The meat will be fine with slowcooking. Thiswriting is hard to read. I have done someshopping this morning.

1. In industrialized countries the mixing and delivery of liquid concrete to building sites have been mechanized. If the span is larger, the increasing load requires a local thickening of the slab around the columns. 2. The program focuses on the understanding of construction technology, construction management and production management processes. 3. If the span is larger, the increasing load requires some thickening of the slab around the columns. 4. It is now very difficult to find cheap housing for rent. 5. Wall sheathing, usually a plywood or other laminate, is usually applied to the framing prior to erection, thus eliminating the need to scaffold. 6. This eccentric loading creates an internal moment, and, in turn, increases the moment carrying capacity of the beam. 7. Lintels are the horizontal members placed over window, door and other openings to carry loads to the adjoining studs. 8. The coming of the industrial age marked a major change in the role of the building engineer.

11. Find the sentences in which the -ing form is a) a verbal noun or b) a gerund. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. The piles are put in place by driving them into the ground with large mechanical hammers. 2. The development of bronze, and later iron, technology in this period led to the making of metal tools for working wood, such as axes and saws. 3. The drawings were erased during the final finishing of the wall surfaces. 4. Portland cement is easily manufactured by burning shale and limestone.

5. Openings were cut through the framing and sheathing as required.

6. The average waiting time for an elevator between pressing the call button and arrival must be less than 30 seconds in an office


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building and less than 60 seconds in an apartment building. 7. Adding sound-absorbent material to a hall improves it for speech but detracts from its musical qualities. 8. In buildings with fully controlled atmospheres, double glazing is common to reduce heat transfer and both interior and exterior condensation on the glass. 9. Exterior wall studs are the vertical members to which the wall sheathing and cladding are attached. 10. Trusses are hollowed-out in which the stresses are channeled into slender linear members made of rolled shapes that are joined by welding or bolting into stable triangular configurations.

12. Compare the -ing forms — the Gerund, the Verbal Noun and the Present Participle in the following sentences. In every case state the subject and the predicate. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Members that span floors and roofs are usually pretensioned, another prestressing technique, which is similar in principle to post-tensioning. 2. A beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. 3. The making of clear plate glass was perfected in the late 19th century. 4. Under gravity loads, the original length of the beam is slightly reduced to enclose a smaller radius arc at the top of the beam, resulting in compression. 5. With the coming of building science, there was a further division of labour in the design process. 6. Balloon framing using a technique suspending floors from the walls was common until the late 1940s. 7. Framing is a building technique based around structural members which provide a stable frame to which interior and exterior wall coverings are attached and covered by a roof comprising horizontal ceiling joists and sloping rafters (together forming a truss structure). 8. A precise theoretical understanding of the truss, and major use of it in buildings, did not come until the 19th century. 9. The standard rolled shapes are frequently used as beams and columns, the wide flange, or W shape, being the most common. 10. Platform framing often forms wall sections


horizontally on the sub-floor prior to erection, easing positioning of studs and increasing accuracy while cutting the necessary manpower. 11. In Egypt the extracting, moving, and working of stone were costly processes, and the quarrying of stone was a state monopoly.

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LJ"!II READING AND SPEAKING

13. Before you read Text 7A "Structural Systems", discuss the
following questions with your groupmates or teacher.

a) Do you know what structural systems are?

b) What parts of a building can be made from wood?

c) How does laminated veneer lumber function?

d) What are I-joists used for?

e) What advantages do manufactured trusses have?

f) Why is steel one of the major structural materials?

g) What structural shapes do you know?

h) How are steel frames erected at the building site?

i) What is in situ concrete used for?

j) What is the oldest framing system?

k) What is pretensioning?

1) What methods are used to join precast elements together?

m) What is the dominant form of construction in Russia?

14. Read Text 7A to find out if your answers are right or
wrong.

• TEXT 7A

Structural Systems

The structures of buildings are mostly skeleton frames of various types. New domestic housing in many parts of the world today is



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commonly made from timber-framed construction. Wood products are becoming a bigger part of the construction industry. They may be used in both residential and commercial buildings as structural and aesthetic materials. In buildings made of other materials, wood is still found as a supporting material, especially in roof construction, in interior doors and their frames, and as exterior cladding.

Laminated veneer lumber functions as beams to provide support over large spans, such as removed support walls and places where dimensional lumber is not sufficient, and also in areas where a heavy load is bearing from a floor, wall or roof above on a short span. Wood I-joists are used for floor joists on upper floors. They are engineered for long spans and are doubled up in places where a wall will be aligned over them. Glued laminated beams are created by glueing the faces together to create beams. By glueing multiple, common sized pieces of lumber together act as one larger piece of lumber. Manufactured trasses are used in home construction as a pre-fabricated replacement for roof rafters and ceiling joists. It is seen as an easier installation and a better solution for supporting roofs as opposed to the use of lumber struts and purlins as bracing.

Steel is one of the major structural materials in buildings. It is a strong and stiff material. It can be quickly fabricated and erected. The lightest and most efficient structural shape is the bar (or open web) joist, a standard truss made with angles for

the top and bottom chords,

A steel I-beam, in this case used to support wood beams in a house.

joined by welding to a web made of a continuous bent rod. It is used almost exclusively to support roofs and can span up to 45 metres. The standard rolled shapes are frequently used as beams and columns, the wide flange, or W shape, being the most common. Where steel


beams support concrete floor slabs poured onto a metal deck, they can be made to act compositely with the concrete.

Steel columns are joined to foundations with base plates welded to the columns and held by anchor bolts embedded in the concrete. The erection of steel frames at the building site can proceed very rapidly, because all the pieces can be handled by cranes and all the bolted connections can be made swiftly by workers with hand-held wrenches.

Reinforced concrete is also a major structural material in buildings. In situ concrete is used for foundations and for struc­tural skeleton frames. The oldest framing system is the beam and girder system, whose form was derived from wood and steel construction: slabs rest on beams, beams rest on girders, and girders rest on columns in a regular pattern. This system needs much handmade timber formwork, and in economies where labour is expensive other systems are employed. One is the pan joist system, a standardized beam and girder system of constant depth formed with prefabricated sheet-metal forms. The simplest and most economical floor system is the flat plate where a plain floor slab rests on columns spaced apart. If the span is larger, the increasing load requires a local thickening of the slab around the columns. Concrete columns are of rectangular or circular profile and are cast in plywood or metal forms. The reinforcing steel never exceeds 8 percent of the cross-sectional area to guard against catastrophic brittle failure in case of accidental overloading.

Precast concrete structural members are fabricated under controlled conditions in a factory. Members that span floors and roofs are usually pretensioned, another prestressing technique, which is similar in principle to post-tensioning. Precast prestressed floor elements are made in a number of configurations. These include beams of rectangular cross section, hollow floor slabs, and single- and double-stem T shapes. Precast concrete columns are not usually prestressed and have projecting shelves to receive floor members. At the building site, precast members are joined together by a number of methods, including welding together


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metal connectors cast into them or pouring a layer of in situ concrete on top of floor members, bonding them together. Precast prestressed construction is widely used, and it is the dominant form of construction in Russia and Eastern Europe.



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