ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Put the sentences in the past as shown. Use the rules of the sequence of tenses.



Example

He says he likes this job. — He said he liked that job.

1. I am sure that trusses may be made of wood, metal, or reinforced concrete. 2. He doesn't know that concrete is generally reinforced using steel rods or bars. 3. He says there were few specialist builders in early times. 4. He says she is earning a lot of money now. 5. I want to ask you who will win money on the lottery. 6. He says he has just changed his job because he wants to earn more money. 7. She wants to know how much money she may need to buy this cottage. 8. She asks me when the building industries of most Western countries took the form in which we find them today. 9. She says she paid $2,000 for her computer, but it isn't worth very much now. 10. The article says that new building materials will be used and engineers will be trained to use them.


 


200 J Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей


UNIT 9. SURVEYING | 201


 


Change the following sentences into indirect speech.

a) Statements

Example

Bob said, "Iknow this rule." — Bob saidthat he knew that rule. Bob said to us, "Iknow this rule." — Bob told us that he knew that rule.

1. He said, "My grandfather was a surveyor." 2. Mary said to us, "The simplest method for measuring height is with an altimeter." 3. They said, "This job will be done in steps." 4. John said to his father, "I want to go to a restaurant but I don't have enough money." 5. He said to Nick, "I didn't understand the difference between a theodolite and a level instrument."

b) Requests and orders

Example

He said to me, "Switch the computer on, please." — He asked me to switch the computer on.

She said to me, "Don't waste money." — She told me not to waste money.

1. The teacher said to his students, "Give two examples of the basic tools used in surveying and building to transfer, measure, or set horizontal levels." 2.1 asked my friend, "Help me to solve this problem, please." 3. He said, "Don't buy these books, Tom." 4. He said to us, "Read articles on building construction in any English or American journal or newspaper to improve your construction engineering vocabulary." 5. The teacher said to us, "Don't make so many mistakes in your English test papers."


1.He asked, "Did you live in a detached house outside Birmingham?" 2. She asked her friend, "Is your house small?" 3. We asked him, "Have you moved into a two-bedroomed municipal house?" 4. She wanted to know, "Can you afford to go on holiday this year?" 5. My friend asked me, "Will you buy an apartment next year?"

d) Special (wh~) questions

Example

She asked, " What did you discuss at the seminar on Surveying?" — She asked me what we had discussed at the seminar on Surveying.

1. The teacher asked us, "What surveying equipment is used in Russia?" 2. He asked me, "How much did you pay for your English-Russian dictionary?" 3. He asked his friend, "When can you invite me round to see your mobile house?" 4. She asked me, "What is the difference between an automatic level and a self-levelling level?" 5. He asked me, "When will you have your field training?"

12. Ask for the information using Could you tell me ?/ Do you to know ?

1. What house would you rather live in? 2. Is your house detached? What sort is it if not? 3. What floor do you live on? 4. Is your house in a quiet residential area? 5. In what style is the architecture of the local cathedral? 6. What is special about the building of the university you go to?


 


c) General (Yes/No) questionsExample

Alan asked me, "Do you go to university?" ■ {whether) I went to university.


Alan asked me //


j 203

UNIT 9.SURVEYING

202 j Английский язык длястудентов строительных специальностей

SECTION 3

READING AND SPEAKING

13 Before you read Text 9A "Surveying Techniques", discuss the following questions with your groupmates or teacher.

a) What surveying instruments do you know?

b) What scientific knowledge do surveyors use for surveying?

c) What associated services does land surveying include?

d) Why has surveying always been important in the development

of human environment?

e) What modern uses of surveying do you know?

f) How can a surveyor measure a slope?

g) How was a compass improved? h) Why are levels calibrated?

i) How is the height of a mountain determined?

Read Text 9A to find out if your answers are right or wrong. Discuss your answers in pairs.

• TEXT 9A

Surveying Techniques

Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and are often used to establish and maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes In order to accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics and law.

Furthermore, a particular type of surveying known as land surveying is the detailed study or inspection by gathering information through observations, measurements in the field, questionnaires


 

or research of legal instruments,

and data analysis in the support

of planning, designing, and

establishing of property boundaries.

It involves the re-establishment of

cadastral surveys and land

boundaries based on documents of

Surveyor at work with a levelling instrument.

record and historical evidence, as

well as certifying surveys of

subdivision plats/maps, registered

land surveys, judicial surveys, and space delineation. Land surveying

can include associated services, such as mapping and related data

accumulation, construction layout surveys, precision measurements

of length, angle, elevation, area, and volume, as well as

horizontal and vertical control surveys, and the analysis and

utilization of land survey data.

Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (5000 years ago) and it is a requirement in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Its most familiar modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.

Historically, distances were measured using a variety of means, such as chains with links of a known length, for instance a Gunter's chain or measuring tapes made of steel. In order to measure horizontal distances, these chains or tapes would be pulled according to temperature to reduce sagging and slack. Additionally, attempts to hold the measuring instrument level would be made. In instances of measuring up a slope, the surveyor might have to "break" the measurement — that is, raise the rear part of the tape upward, plumb from where the last measurement ended.

Horizontal angles were measured using a compass which would provide a magnetic bearing from which deflections could be measured. This type of instrument was later improved with more


204 I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей


UNIT 9.SURVEYING 205


 


carefully scribed discs providing better angular resolution, as well as through mounting telescopes with reticles for more precise sighting atop the disc. Additionally, levels and calibrated circles allowing measurement of vertical angles were added.

The simplest method for measuring height is with an altimeter — basically a barometer — using air pressure as an indication of height, but surveying requires greater precision. A variety of means, such as precise levels, have been developed to do this. Levels are calibrated to provide a precise plane from which differentials in height between the instrument and the point in question can be measured, typically through the use of a vertical measuring rod.

With the triangulation method, one first needs to know the horizontal distance to the object. The height of an object can be determined by measuring the angle between the horizontal plane and the line through that point at a known distance and the top of the object. In order to determine the height of a mountain, one should do this from the sea level, but here the distances can be too great and the mountain may not be visible. So it is done in steps, first determining the position of one point, then moving to that point and doing a relative measurement, and so on until the mountain top is reached.





Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-06-26; Нарушение авторского права страницы

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 3.216.79.60 (0.01 с.)