ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!
ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Computer-AIDED Architectural Design
Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) software programs are the repository of accurate and comprehensive records of buildings and are used by architects and civil engineers.
The first program was installed in the 1960's to help architects save time instead of drawing their blueprints. Computer-aided design also known as CAD was originally the type of program that architects used, but since CAD couldn't offer all the tools that architects needed to complete a project, CAAD developed as a distinct class of software.
All CAD and CAAD systems employ a database with geometric and other properties of objects; they all have some kind of graphic user interface to manipulate a visual representation rather than the database; and they are all more or less concerned with assembling designs from standard and non-standard pieces. Currently, the main distinction which causes one to speak of CAAD rather than CAD lies in the domain knowledge (architecture-specific objects, techniques, data, and process support) embedded in the system. A CAAD system differs from other CAD systems in two respects:
—It has an explicit object database of building parts and construction knowledge.
—It explicitly supports the creation of architectural objects.
In a more general sense, CAAD also refers to the use of any computational technique in the field of architectural design. For example, software which is specifically developed for the computer animation industry (e.g. Maya and 3DStudio Max) is also used in architectural design.
CAAD has two types of structures in its program. The first system is surface structure which provides a graphics medium to represent three dimensional objects using two dimensional representations. The second system is deep structure which means that the operations performed by the computer have natural limitations. Computer hardware and machine languages that are supported by these make it easy to perform arithmetical operations quickly and accurately.
186 I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей
Another advantage to CAAD is the two-way mapping of activities and functionalities. The two instances of mapping are indicated to be between the surface structures (TM1) and the deep structures (TM2). These mappings are abstractions that are introduced in order to discuss the process of design and deployment of CAAD systems. In designing the systems the system developers usually consider TM1. Here a one-to-one mapping is the typical statement which is to develop a computer-based functionality that maps as closely as possible into a corresponding manual design activity, for example, drafting of stairs, checking spatial conflict between building systems, and generating perspectives from orthogonal views. The architectural design processes tend to integrate models isolated so far. Many different kinds of expert knowledge, tools, visualization techniques, and media are to be combined. The design process covers the complete life cycle of the building. The areas that are covered are construction, operations, reorganization, as well as destruction. Considering the shared use of digital design tools and the exchange of information and knowledge between designers and across different projects, we speak of a design continuum.
An architect's work involves mostly visually represented data. Problems are often outlined and dealt with in a graphical approach. Only this form of expression serves as a basis for work and discussion. Therefore, the designer should have a maximum visual control over the processes taking place within the design continuum.
SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING
23. Listen to the Text "Structural Building Engineering".
a) Answer the questions that follow.
1. What does structural building engineering include?
2. What is structural building engineering driven by?
3. Does structural building engineering differ from architectural design?
UNIT 8. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING \187
4. What must the stavctural design ensure?
5. Why does the structural design require a team of experts to complete a project?
b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 8A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary.
c) Retell the Text about structural building engineering.
d) Tell your groupmates about structural building engineering
24. Listen to the Text "Structural Engineer".
a) As you listen, make notes under the following headings.
1. The work to be done by a structural engineer.______________
2. The structures a structural engineer designs._______________
3. The areas a structural engineer is involved in._______________
4.The experts a structural engineer works with.______________
5. The properties of the materials and structures to be taken into
188 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей
b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 8B of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary.
c) Retell the Text about a structural engineer's responsibilities and duties.
infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 126.96.36.199 (0.007 с.)