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Read and memorize the prepositions of two or more words. Translate the given sentences.
According to the timetable, the train leaves at 8.15 a.m.
Father was the only one who knew you
thoroughly, apart from me.
Mr. Pike inquired as to the exchange price.
This article is interesting as well as useful.
I couldn't get to work because of my illness.
Thoughts are expressed by means of 'words.
Our success was due to luck.
/// addition to giving a general introduction to
computers, the course also provides practical
I will wait for you in front of the. shop. He stood on the chair in order to reach the top sheif.
In spite of the threat of war, he says he remains confident that peace is possible.
UNIT 8.STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING I 177
Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the prepositions of two or more words.
1. This document forms an agreement between the client and the design team as to the expected building size and performance. 2. Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) refers to the use of any computational technique in the field of architectural design other than by means of architecture-specific software. 3. There was a tax on bricks in England. From 1784 to 1850 you were taxed according to the number of bricks you used in a building. 4. In Egypt, in spite of the heavy loads that stone structures created, foundations were of a surprisingly improvised character, made of small blocks of poor quality stone. 5. Bricks were very popular as a building material from 1700 to 1900s. This was probably due to the fact that it was much more flame retardant than wood in the ever crowding cities, and cheap to produce. 6. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. 7. The complexity of modern structures often requires a great deal of creativity from the engineer in order to ensure the structures support and resist the loads they are subjected to. 8. The design of a building begins with its future user or owner, who has in mind a perceived need for the structure, as well as a specific site and a general idea of its projected cost. 9. In addition to general knowledge of building science, the design
178 Английский языкдля студентов строительных специальностей
UNIT 8.STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING I 179
team collects specific data related to the proposed building site. 10. Made from clays, and easier to use than stone because of their size and standardization, bricks made possible the construction of the arches, vaults, and domes that were popular in Europe from the Roman era on.
Supply the missing prepositions of two or more words from exercise 10. One or more answers may be correct.
1. In the 15th century brick remained quite expensive the cost of the fuel needed to fire it, and it was used mainly where there was no readily available stone. 2. The company has had a successful year, the improvement in export sales. 3. These mappings are abstractions that are introduced discuss the process of design and deployment of CAAD systems. 4. There is a separate garden each house. 5. Now, the financial cut-backs, the plants have been closed. 6. The first program was installed in the 1960's to help architects save time drawing their blueprints. 7. the fact that all the other members of the group are going, I think you should go too. 8. He couldn't go to work in Africa his poor health. 9. construction equipment, foreign orders saw a net decrease by 19 per cent. 10. Architects direct the work of engineers, many other consultants in such specialized areas as lighting, acoustics, and vertical transportation.
SECTION 3 READING AND SPEAKING
What do you know about structural engineering? Read the statements given below and say if they are true or false. If the statements are not true, make the necessary corrections.
a) Structural engineering can only be studied on its own right.
b) Structural engineers are involved in the design of structures.
c) Structural engineering design uses a large number of basic structural elements.
d) Pyramids are regarded as the most common major structures because their forms are stable and scaled.
e) The theory of structures existed and was widely used throughout ancient and medieval history.
f) The profession of a structural engineer took shape in the
g) The architect and the structural engineer were different
h) A structural engineer is considered to be fully qualified after completing a three-year course of study at college or university.
14. Read Text 8A "Engineering for Buildings" and say if you are right or wrong. Discuss your answers with your groupmates.
• TEXT 8A
Engineering for Buildings
Structural engineering is a field of engineering dealing with the analysis and design of structures that support or resist loads. Structural engineering is usually considered a specialty within civil engineering, but it can also be studied in its own right.
Structural engineers are most commonly involved in the design of buildings and large nonbuilding structures but they can also be involved in the design of machinery, medical equipment, vehicles or any item where structural integrity affects function or safety of the item. Structural engineers must ensure their designs satisfy given design criteria, predicated on safety (e.g. structures must not collapse without due warning) or serviceability and performance (e.g. building sway must not cause discomfort to the occupants).
Structural engineering theory is based upon physical laws and empirical knowledge of the structural performance of different landscapes and materials. Structural engineering design utilises a relatively small number of basic structural elements to build up
180 J Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей
UNIT 8.STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 181
structural systems that can be very complex. Structural engineers are responsible for making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and materials to achieve these goals.
Structural engineering has existed since humans first started to constaict their own structures. It dates back to at least 2700 ВС when the step pyramid for Pharaoh Djoser was built by Imhotep, the first engineer in history known by name. Pyramids were the most common major structures built by ancient civilizations because the structural form of a pyramid is inherently stable and can be almost infinitely scaled (as opposed to most other structural forms which cannot be linearly increased in size in proportion to increased loads).
Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction were carried out by artisans, such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. No theory of structures existed, and the understanding of how structures stood up was extremely limited and based almost entirely on empirical evidence of "what had worked before". Knowledge was retained by guilds and seldom supplanted by advances. Structures were repetitive, and increases in scale were incremental.
No record exists of the first
calculations of the strength of structural
members or the behaviour of structural
material, but the profession of a
structural engineer only really took
shape with the industrial revolution and
the re-invention of concrete. The
physical sciences underlying structural
engineering began to be understood in
the Renaissance and have been
developing ever since.
Structural engineering became a
......... more defined profession with the
Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the emergence of the architecture world's tallest building. profession as distinct from the
engineering profession during the industrial revolution in the late 19th century. Until then, the architect and the staictural engineer were often one and the same — the master builder. Only with the understanding of structural theories that emerged during the 19th and 20th centuries the professional structural engineer came into existence.
The role of a structural engineer today involves a significant understanding of both static and dynamic loading, and the structures that are available to resist them. The complexity of modern structures often requires a great deal of creativity from the engineer in order to ensure the structures support and resist the loads they are subjected to. A structural engineer will typically have a four or five year undergraduate degree followed by a minimum of three years of professional practice before being considered fully qualified.
Structural engineers are licensed or accredited by different learned societies and regulatory bodies around the world (for example, the Institution of Structural Engineers in the UK).
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