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23. Listen to the Text "Foundations of Low-Rise Buildings".

a) Answer the questions that follow.

1. What are the criteria for foundation stability?

2. Why is it important that the foundation bottom be below the maximum winter frost level?

3. What is the maximum frost depth?

4. What are foundations of low-rise buildings characterized by?

5. What materials can foundation walls be built of?

6. What are the differences between bricks and concrete blocks?


b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 10A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary.

c) Retell the Text about some specific features of the foundations of low-rise buildings.

d) Tell your groupmates about foundations based on the
information to be collected.

24. Listen to the Text "Pipe Piles".

a) As you listen, fill in the chart.

The driving of pipe piles

The construction of pipe piles

The protection of pipe piles

232 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей

The calculation of the structural

capacity of pipe piles_____________________________

The areas in which pipe piles are


b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 10B of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary.

c) Retell the Text about a steel driven pile foundation.



r—-i| SECTION 1



1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text "Bricklaying and Concrete Blocks" and translate the given sentences.

1. lay (laid) bricks['lei] — класть кирпич
bricklaying['bnk,lein] n — кладка кирпича
bricklayer['brikjeia] n — каменщик по кладке кирпича
brickwork['bnkws:k] n —


кирпичная кладка (соору­

gauged brickwork[geicftd] — кладка с узкими швами

The bricks should be laid on a full bed of mortar. When you come to actual bricklaying, you will note that your bricks have an indent on one face. During weeks 13, 14 and 15 the steel erectors work simultaneously with the bricklayers who build the brickwork. That gives the desired illusion of tight joints in quality gauged brickwork.

2. joint['o^omt] — шов кирпичной кладки; соединение,

mortar joint— шов с заполнением строительным раст­вором point mortar joints— расшивать швы (кладки)



234 I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей


I 235


The fewer the joints to be made between members, the speedier the erection will be. Mortar joints have an effect on the appearance of brickwork. The time to point mortar joints is when the mortar is hard.

3. course[ka:s] n — ряд (кирпичной кладки)

lay a course— класть ряд (кирпичной кладки) All the courses should be laid truly horizontal.

4. plumbfpLvm] n adj v — отвес, грузило; вертикальный
Bricklayer uses a plumb to check verticality. Is this wall plumb?

5. cavity wallfkaevsti] — пустотелая (полая) стена, стена
с воздушной прослойкой

solid wall— сплошная стена

Cavity walls are made of two layers with a small gap or cavity between them. Solid walls have no such a gap and this allows more heat to pass through them than through cavity walls.

6. fitv — пригонять, приспосабливать, собирать, монти­

fit together— пригонять части

Lay a row of dry bricks first to see that they Jit in the designated space. Brickwork is usually made of bricks whose measurements are 1 • 2 • 4, so that they can fit together in many positions.

7. rubv — натирать, притирать, затирать

rubbersn — специальный легкорежущийся кирпич; сла-бообожженный кирпич из кремнеземистой глины

An alternate method is to simply rub the mortar over the surface. Rubbers are relatively soft bricks that historically have been used to create fine cut and rubbed, and carved brickwork.

8. veneer [va'nia] и v — кирпичная облицовка стены;
шпон, однослойная фанера; облицовывать; обшивать

veneered brick masonry— облицованная кирпичная кладка

Because the masonry veneer is non-structural, it must be tied back to the building structure to prevent movement under wind and earthquake loads. Brick veneers are produced as a thinner brick product which is usually less then half the size of normal brick sizes.

9. absorb[ab'so:b] v — поглощать, абсорбировать, впиты­

absorption[ab'so:pfn] n — поглощение, абсорбция

The power of a brick to absorb water is measured by the initial
rate of absorption. «

1 10. pattern['paetn] n — образец, модель, узор, рисунок, форма brick(work) pattern— система кирпичной кладки

Most towns today have a characteristic functional pattern. A brickwork pattern simply requires you to lay out straight courses.

11. stucco['stXksu] n — наружная штукатурка
Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid.

12. impart[im'pcut] v — передавать, давать, придавать
impart strength— придавать прочность

Mortar not only acts as a cementing material but also impart strength to the work by holding the individual bricks together.

13. appear[a'pia] v— показываться; появляться
appearance[a'piarans] п — внешний вид; появление

The town of the future is already appearing among us today. Russian cities are growing and their appearance is changing.

236 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей



The appearance of new materials resulted in great buildings erected during the following centuries.

14. voidn — пустота, пора, полость

Voids cause a serious loss in strength of concrete.

15. bondn v — перевязка кирпичной кладки, связь; соеди­
нять, связывать

Flemish (Dutch) bond— фламандская перевязка

header bond['heda] — тычковая перевязка

English bond— английская (цепная) перевязка

rat-trap bond— кладка в один кирпич (кирпичи на


stretcher bondf'stretja] — ложковая перевязка

The bricks can be arranged in a variety of patterns giving rise to different types of bonds. The bricks were strongly bonded together. Flemish bond renders the appearance of the face work more attractive and pleasing. Header bond permits better alignment and as such it is used for walls curved on plan. In English bond ont course consists of bricks with their ends toward the face of the wall, and the next course consists of bricks with their lengths parallel to the face of the wall. In the rat-trap bondhxicks, are placed on edge in 1:6 cement mortar.

16. metal tie[tai] — металлический анкер

Structural bonding of masonry walls may be accomplished by the use of metal ties embedded in connecting joints.

17. durable['djuarabl] adj — долговечный, прочный
durabilityLdjusra'bilati] n — долговечность, прочность

The fundamental object in proportioning this material is the production of a durable material. The major characteristics of aluminum in which the architect is interested are its durability and light weight.

18. splitadj v — расколотый, разрезанный, разделенный,
разъемный; раскалывать, разделять

It is much more difficult to split masonry units than it is to cut them to length. Split bricks and blocks look bad.

19. proper['ргорэ] adj — правильный, соответствующий
properlyadv — должным образом, как следует, пра­

In building structures special attention must be paid to the proper use of materials. The town must work properly but it should also give pleasure to those who look at it.

20. moisture['moist/a] n — влага, влажность
This soil needs moisture.

evaporate[I'vsepareit] v — испаряться, выпариваться The small pool of water evaporated in the sunshine.

2. Read and translate the following international words. Look
up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the
part of speech.

Interval n, absorption w, garage n, granite n, ideal adj, industrialize v, travertine n, individual adj, potential adj, degradation n, practical adj, circulate v, progress n v, complex adj, artistic adj, block n, select v, qualify v, utilitarian adj, visual adj, finish v n, extensive adj, alternately adv, perpendicular n adj, base n v, oppose v, protective adj, initial adj.

3. Match the pairs of antonyms from A and В and translate


1.disconnection a. solid

2. disappearance b. bond

238 J Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей




c. appearance d. split e. plumb f. durable g. joint h. absorb i. proper J. fit

3. inappropriate

4. horizontal

5. exude

6. mismatch

7. penetrable

8. fragile

9. whole 10. untie

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