Визначте функції інфінітиву. Перекладіть речення на українську мову.

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Визначте функції інфінітиву. Перекладіть речення на українську мову.

1. To complete the reaction at low temperatures it takes more time.

2. It may be useful to give a general definition of the word “refrigeration”

3. To refrigerate a substance means to reduce its heat content.

4. When the arm is to absorb heat the plant is called a heat pump

5. Gas can be liquefied.

6. It is possible to hasten the process of evaporation by the constant application of heat.

7. The heat supplied causes the liquid to vaporize

8. When vapour is cooled it begins to condense

9. To reduce the pressure is to make a liquid boil.


10. To cool a substance we must remove its heat.

11. The water to be frozen was placed into a container.

12. To cool water is possible by adding ice into it.

13. Special pits to store ice and snow were constructed by ancient Greeks and Romans

14. They knew a mixture of ice and salt to have been used for cooling purpose before our era.

15. Low temperature in mechanical refrigeration can be obtained by expanding compressed gas.

16. The attempts to construct a machine to be used for production of artificial ice were made at that time.

17. To find a better substance for refrigerant was a problem to be solved.

18. The task of a compressor is to pump heat from a lower to a higher temperature level.

19. The engineer watched the machine to have been running for a time

20. A new refrigerating machine is reported to have gone into operation.

Перекладіть на українську мову речення з об’єктним інфінітивним зворотом.

1. We know such reactions to occur under extremely high as well as low temperatures.

2. At that time scientists believed heat to be a kind of substance flowing from one body to another.

3. The disadvantages of such cooling means as ice stimulated the scientists to find other methods of refrigeration.

4. The engineers supposed a new cooling device to be reliable.

5. Everybody considers refrigeration to play a great role in many branches of industry.

6. We find the viscosity of lubrication oil to be higher than that of alcohol.

7. They heard the natural ice to have been imported in ships for sale in Europe.

8. The engineer considers these insulation materials to be very suitable for a cold-storage warehouse.

9. The engineer wants the new methods to be used in the production process.


10. We know her to be a talented scientist.

11. The designer expected the electronic computer to perform over ten thousand operations every second.

12. We found the subject to be difficult.

13. They expected us to win the contest.

14. We heard the mixture of ice and salt to have been used up to the 1930s.

15. We know such plants to be called heat pumps.

16. They knew a mixture of ice and salt to have been used for cooling purposes before our era.

17. Heat causes most materials to become slightly bigger.


Перекладіть на українську мову речення із суб’єктним інфінітивним зворотом.

1. Substances are said to be warm, hot, cool, or cold as regards to their temperatures.

2. This substance was believed to produce better temperature conditions.

3. Lomonosov's ideas of heat and cold appeared to be a great discovery of the 19-th century.

4. The introduction of inert gases is considered to have enabled a progress of commercial refrigerators.

5. The capacity of an absorbtion machine was assumed to be governed by the weight of a refrigerant

6. The experimental data on a mixture of those freons proved to have been much better than other components.

7. The machine seems to perform all the calculations with great speed.

8. The results obtained are considered to be satisfactory.

9. The new device is reported to have been put into mass production.

10. The capacity of this device proves to be increasing by and by from its

11. These experiments are likely to have been made in suitable conditions.

12. The application of this device is unlikely to give better results.

13. This chemical changes appear to have been caused by health.

14. These laser beam seems to have almost unlimited industrial possibilities

15. The neutrons and protons of an atom are known to be linked together to form a compact nucleus.

16. Digital computers are likely to be wider used than logic ones.

17. Plastics are supported to be used instead of metals in many cases.

18. A wide introduction of computers and robots is said to cause unemployment.

19. English is known to be a language of international communication.

20. Certain properties of matter are considered to be always the same under definite conditions.

21. Absorption refrigerating system is known to be applied to present day air-conditioning.

22. Mechanical refrigeration is known to have been used at first only for the production of artificial ice.

23. Designers of refrigeration equipment are expected to be experimenting with the multicomponent mixtures of refrigerants.


5. Розподіліть речення на дві групи:

а) з суб’єктним інфінітивним зворотом

б) з об’єктним інфінітивним зворотом

Вкажіть на час та стан інфінітиву.

Перекладіть речення на українську мову.

1. We know such plants to be called heat pumps.

2. Convection is known to be one of three possible ways to transfer heat from one part of a substance to another part.

3. They believe the application of artificial cold to have transformed the quality of our life.

4. Nowadays the low temperature research seems to be speeding up the introduction of mechanical refrigeration into many different fields of technology.

5. Such machines are said to have been constructed by Europeans by the end of the last century.

6. We heard their invention to have played a significant role in the history of refrigeration.

7. In Lomonosov's time heat was considered to be a substance which was neither created nor destroyed.

8. Lomonosov is known to have rejected the existing 'caloric' theory of heat.

9. The designers of refrigerating machines considered ammonia to be the most suitable refrigerant.


10. The refrigerant is supposed to be a substance to be evaporated rapidly at low pressures.

11. He watched the ice to be melting.

12. Ice and ice-salt refrigeration is said to have played an important role in food industry.

13. The expansion of a compressed gas is known to cause refrigeration.

14. Such solution were supposed to produce low temperatures necessary for cooling.

15. They heard artificial ice to be a major source of cooling until the 2-nd decade of the 20-th century.

16. We know preservation of food products by means of cold storage to remain an actual problem of nowadays.

17. All matter is believed to be made up of particles called molecules.

18. Molecules are known to be in constant motion.

19. We know the process of cooling to be connected with the transference of heat.

20. By such an action a machine makes the compressed gas to expand.

21. Mechanical refrigeration proved to have bettered cold storage of foods.


Замість складних речень напишіть речення з Subjunctive Infinitive


Зразок: It is said that they are good students. → They are said to be good students.


1. It seems these engineers examine the high-voltage line every week.

2. It is known that they left for Cambridge.

3. It is said that teachers have their vacation only in summer.

4. It seems that the town is old.

5. It seems that the equipment is new.

6. It is said that the first step is difficult.

7. It is said that this magazine contains many interesting materials.

8. It is thought that the new trains are comfortable.

9. It was thought that the new engineer had graduated from the University.


10. It was said that they liked their new work.

11. It is said that the scientist made a very interesting discovery.

12. It appears my watch is slow.

13. It seemed the tuitor knew everybody in the University.

14. It is said that he knows all the rules.

15. It was thought that this scientist had obtained negative results.

16. It is said that the body is a good conductor of heat.

17. It is known that all kinds of coal are derived from vegetable substances.

18. It is known that compressor is a device to compress vapour.

19. It is believed that she knows several foreign languages.

20. It is said that she has been teaching mathematics for thirty years.


7. Переробіть прості речення з суб’єктним інфінітивним зворотом на складні за зразком:

3paзок: He is said to have several good maps. → It is said that he has several good maps.

1. This scientist is said to have been in Africa.

2. He seems to do his work well.

3. He appeared to be very busy.

4. The lecture appeared to be very interesting.

5. They seem to be ready for any task.

6. They seem to have promised to show the visitors the laboratory.

7. These words are thought to have appeared in our language about a century ago.

8. This machine in thought to have been tested by the new engineer.

9. You seem to know all the Ukrainian proverbs.


10. Your laboratory seems to have been white-washed not long ago.

11. This work seems to be difficult.

12. They appear to know the subject.

13. These magazines are known to be printed abroad.

14. These magazines are known to have been printed abroad.

15. The radio seems to be the only invention which has won such universal recognition and application in a comparatively short time.

16. They are reported to understand spoken English.

17. He is known to be interested in chemistry.

18. He is supposed to be a great scientist.

19. They are expected to solve this problem.

20. He is believed to write a new computer program.

8. А. З’єднайте речення у пари, використовуючи “enough” a6o “ too”

Зразок: The student was clever. He could solve the problem. → The student was clever enough to solve the problem.

You 're weak. You can't do this task. → You are too weak to do this task.

1. You are too young. You can't know about such serious things.

2. He is old. He can't drive a car.

3. It wasn't interested. I didn't watch the film.

4.The boy is not strong. He can't lift it.

5.The text was not difficult. It was translated without a dictionary.

6. You're sick. You can't go to work.

7. You're young enough. You can go in for sports.

8. The job was difficult. It couldn't be completed in a day.

9. He had a map. He could take it on the journey.

10. The text is too difficult. The students can't translate it without a dictionary.

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