To be a vast source of energy.

4. What makes a satellite go around the Earth and stay in its orbit?

5. The air flowing over and under a wing causes the pressure to be

less than atmospheric on the upper side of the wing.

6. The Sun is known to have a 11-year cycle of activity.

7. The first Earth's satellites were expected to stay on their orbits

for a month or two.

8. Heat was thought to be a material substance.

9. The circle where the earth and the sky seem to meet is the horizon.

10.Stars appear to be made of the elements that have been found in

our Sun.

11. The neutron was shown to be a magnet by simple experiments.

12. The rocket may be said to work on the reaction principle.

13. 8 minutes are required for light to travel from the Sun to the


14. For ions to be formed, a considerable amount of energy must be

given to the parent atoms.

15.Certain conditions are necessary for the existence of life to be

possible on planets.

16. In order for a proton or neutron to leave the nucleus much

energy is required.

17. Four years are required for light to travel from the nearest star

to the Earth.

Завдання 8. Перекладіть рідною мовою подані нижче речення:

l.His being invited to take part in this conference is natural as

everybody knows of his having made interesting experiments

in physics.

2.I remember having seen this film.

3. The new device was put into mass production on having been

Carefully tested.

4. The engineer having constructed a new type of this device was

not known to us.

5. The workers succeeded in completing the construction of the

plant in time because of their having introduced new methods

of work.

6. Having received the necessary equipment we finished our


7. Having determined amperes and volts one can find the resistance

by using Ohm's law.

8. Having been tested on the stand the engine was put into operation.

9.Travelling into space has always been one of the greatest dreams

of man.

10. For ages mankind has dreamed of reaching the top of the world,

the North Pole.

11. After studying theory we can begin experimenting.

12. Before finishing the experiment we could not write the report.

13. An instrument for measuring current is called an ammeter, and

for measuring voltage г. voltmeter.

14. Think before speaking.

15. The engineers invited to our plant are well-known specialists.

16. The lecture followed by an experiment was interesting.

17. Having solved this important problem, the scientist made a report.


18. He likes reading such kinds of books.

19. After finishing the experiments the students left the laboratory.

20.1 succeeded in having finished my work in time.

21. The problems being discussed at this conference are of great importance for the development of chemistry.

22. The metals being used in our work possess many important


23. Technical and scientific problems being solved by our scientists

are of great importance for the development of world science

and technology.

24. Being heated to the proper temperature the metal will melt.

25. He is sorry to have been given so little time for this important


26. We are happy to have been included in the research group.

27. Our engineer has used the recommended method.

28. The report followed by the discussion showed the importance of

this problem.

29. The amount of the heat produced depended upon the quality of

the fuel used.

30. The two problems of the fuel usedwere widely discussed at the


31. If droppeddirectly above the target the bomb will never damage it.

32. When askedhe did not answer.

33. To knoweverything is to know nothing.

34. The machine was to be testedin our laboratory.

35. The machine to be testedin our laboratory was constructed by

our students.

36. The main task of Faraday's work was to findout the nature of

electricity and magnetism.

37. The power station to be builton this river is to supplythe town

with electric energy.

38. To achievebetter results we must repeat the experiment.

39. The protonis found to be 1840 times heavierthan the electron.

40. Billions of starsare assumed to existin the universe.

41. The electric rocketis likely to remaina low-thrust device.

42. Nearly a month is required for the Moon to circlethe Earth.

43. To observe the artificial satellite optically it is necessary for

him to be illuminated by the Sun.

Завдання 9.Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зрозуміти і запам'ятати його зміст.

Текст 6 What Is a System?

Many people don't know how the machines they commonly use work. Stereos, televisions, automobiles, and bicycles are examples of machines used by millions of people every day. We expect them to work perfectly. If they break, we often have no idea about what could be wrong or what to do about it. Something as simple as a dead battery can often make us frustrated with technology-related devices. Rather than try to learn something about how a machine works, some people say, «Well, I'm just not good with machines.»

The fact is, you don't have to be a rocket scientist to understand the basic operation of machines and devices. Even the most complicated machines can be broken down into smaller systems. A system is a combination of parts that work together as a whole.

To make it easy for you, there is a general model that fits almost every system. The system model has only four parts: input, process, output, and feedback. Inputs are things that go into a system. It's easy to remember because you are putting things in. For example, in a computer system, you press keys to put instructions into the computer. The next step is to process the input instructions. In a computer system, the instructions are processed by the CPU. The process is what is done with your inputs. The final results of the process are called the output. Again, it's easy for you to remember this part because it is what comes out of the process. In our computer example, the output might be sound or graphics. If the system is working right, the output will be what you wanted from your input. Feedback is information about the output. It can be used to change the output so the result is what you want.The problem-solving strategy introduced in Text 4 is really just a system. You solve problems systematically. Systematically means simply that you are using a system. Even eating at a fast-food restaurant is systematic. For example, first you wait in line. Then you place your order, which is the input. Your order is processed by the workers. The output is your meal. Hopefully, it is what you ordered! If not, you might send it back. That's feedback!

The process of solving a problem is similar to the general system model.

Though there are many different kinds of systems, in technology you often use five basic energy systems to make a complete product. The energy systems are mechanical systems, electrical systems, fluid systems, thermal systems, and chemical systems. The five basic systems can be used independently or in combination to make something work.

Almost any machine has one or more of these systems that make it work. A car, for example, is a complex machine made up of all five systems. Here are some examples of how the five systems work together to make your car run:

- mechanical: door latches, fan belts, pulleys, gears;

- fluid: water pump, shock absorbers, hydraulic brakes;

- electrical: battery, lights, radio, ignition;

- thermal: radiator, air conditioner, heater;

- chemical: fuel, battery fluid, antifreeze.

These systems work independently and together to make a car run smoothly and safely. When a car isn't working right, the problem is found by carefully checking each system.

Engineers, designers, technicians, and architects must know how all five systems work alone and how they work together. People who understand technology can break these complicated systems down even further into smaller systems called subsystems. Subsystems make it even easier to understand how things work. For example, a bicycle is made mostly of parts in a mechanical system. You can divide that mechanical system into subsystems such as brakes, steering, chains, gears, and so on. If you understand how each bicycle subsystem works, it is easier to find and fix a problem.

Завдання 10. Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 6 речення.

Завдання 11. Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповіда-ють змісту тексту:

1. The system model has only three parts: the input, process, and


2. Every day a lot of people use the stereos, televisions, automobiles

and others things, which incorporate different kinds of systems.

3. If you want to understand the basic operation of machines and

devices you have to be an expert in this field.

4. A system is a combination of parts that work together as a whole.

5. The output is information about the input.

6. In technology, there are many different kinds of systems, but

four of them are basic energy systems to make a complete product.

7. A car is a complex machine, and all the basic systems work

together to make it run.

8. Engineers, designers and technicians do not have to know all the

systems and how they function alone or all together.

9. The process of solving a problem might serve as an example of

a general system model.

10. Complex systems can be broken down into subsystems.

Завдання 12. Дайте відповіді на запитання до тексту:

1. How many parts does the system model have?

2. What are these parts?

3. What do we call the things that go into a system?

4. What do we call the step that follows putting things in?

5. How do we call the information about the output?

6. How can we use feedback information?

7. What is given in the text as an example of a system model?

8. How many basic systems do you know?

9. What systems work together to make a car run?

10. Do you think all engineers should know how the five systems work alone and together?

Завдання 13.Розташуйте подані нижче речення в потрібній по-слідовності:

1. The result of the action is the output.

2. Something must be put in,

3. Feedback provides information about the results.

4. The general model of a system is simple to understand,

5. Then some action is taken.

6. A system is a combination of parts that work together as a whole.

7. This information can be used to change the output if it is not

wThat you want.

8. There is a general model that fits almost every system.

Завдання 14.Перекладіть англійською мовою подані нижче речення, використовуючи вивчену раніше лексику та граматич-ні конструкції:

1. Багато різноманітних приладів використовується кожним

із нас у повсякденному житті.

2. Кожен з цих приладів є системою.

3. Існує загальна модель, яку ми використовуємо, щоб описати


4. Щоб ввести інформацію в комп'ютер, ви натискаєте клавішу

5. Введена інформація обробляється спеціальним пристроєм

6. Використовуючи екран монітора, ви одержуєте результат об

робки введеної інформації.

7. Працювати в групі більш цікаво, ніж самому.

8. Використовуючи ідеї кожного члена групи, ми маємо більпгЄ

шансів знайти кращу ідею.

9. З'ясувавши всі плюси та мінуси запропонованих ідей, ми

знаходимо потрібне рішення.

10. Щоб бути творчою людиною, вам потрібно розвивати свою уяву.

Завдання 15.Наведіть приклади різних систем, використовуй), чи схему:

Завдання 16.

а) Уважно прочитайте поданий нижче текст, намагаючись яко-, мога точніше зрозуміти його зміст.

Текст 6А

Problems are often easier to solve with the help of other people. Knowing how to work in a group is an important skill that will help you in school and later in a job. The old saying «Two heads are better than one» is really true. When you are working to solve a problem you need as many different ideas as possible. Having people with different experiences and backgrounds in your group gives you more information to explore. As you move through the problem - solving strategy, you can put each person's talents to good use. Some of us are better at tossing out new ideas. Others are better at putting ideas into action. You will have a chance to do both as part of a group.

Many people judge an idea as soon as they hear it. Many good ideas are lost because someone puts the idea down before it has a chance to be discussed. When you brainstorm ideas, you list as many ideas as possible without people saying anything good or bad about any of them. Everyone in the group has a chance to contribute to the idea bank. From that idea bank your group selects the best idea. The ability to work both independently and as part of a group is important to you in solving problems.

Sometimes people make excuses for not doing things by saying «I'm just not creative». But everyone can be creative. You just have to learn how. First, to be a creative thinker you need to use facts, feelings, experiences, knowledge, and some basic concepts.

You're much more likely to find something original if you try different things in different ways. Many good ideas were discovered when someone looked in unusual places, found some ideas, and then applied the ideas to their own field. For example, military designers in World War I borrowed from the style used by Pablo Picasso, a famous artist, to make more effective camouflage patterns for guns and tanks. In another case, an «unbreakable code» used by World War II military leaders was based on the Navajo language.

You might have to break your usual rules for thinking or create some new ones when trying to make an idea work. You need to ask «what if» questions. By doing this, you allow yourself to question the possible, the impractical, and even the impossible. For example, what if there were a pill that would make anyone smarter? Who would take it? How many would you have to take to be really smart? Would you want everyone to have the same degree of «smartness»?

To improve your creativity even more, take a closer look at things you usually take for granted. For example, who says a wheel has to be round? Part of being creative is changing patterns, looking at things differently, and experimenting.

б) За допомогою словника перекладіть виділені слова, слово

сполучення та частини речень.

в) Розбийте текст на смислові фрагменти та коротко визначте

їх зміст.

г) Виберіть з тексту якомога більше дієслів та словосполучень

з дієсловами, які стосуються теми „Problem-solving strategy".

д) Дайте письмовий переклад трьох останніх абзаців тексту.

є) Знайдіть у тексті речення, в яких є неособові форми дієслова.

Який відсоток від кількості речень тексту становлять ці ре-чення? Перекладіть їх рідною мовою.

ж) Дайте свої відповіді на запитання „what if" з п'ятого абзацу тексту.



Завдання 1. Перекладіть рідною мовою:

a) to expect, to break, to choose, to guess, to investigate, to prove, to

process, to check, to gather, to fix, to explore, to give up, to predict,

to restrict.

b) definition, requirement, output, input, feedback, amount, source,

circuit, accident, trap, key.

c) whole, even, common, exact, particular, pure, strict, willing.

Завдання 2.

а) Складіть якомога більше словосполучень з поданими нижче


design, mistakes, statement, development, research, problem, input, cycle, engineer, system, rocket, data, model, scientist, modem, strategy, definition, information, achievements, sources, solution, output, correction, age, necessity, computer, services, science, identification, production.

research strategies development; design information sources;

б) Проаналізуйте та перекладіть подані нижче словосполучення,

які складаються з трьох іменників, за такою схемою:


information analysis stage; problem input cycle; information mistake analysis; design strategy definition; research data analysis.

Завдання 3.Перекладіть подані нижче речення рідною мовою:

1. Always use the guards on each machine. Keep hands and fingers

away from all moving parts.

2. Technology is growing at an exponential rate. It is doubling

every few years. To make it even faster, the time it takes to

double is getting even shorter.

3. Three - dimensional graphs can make it easier to understand


4. Solar panels help to solve the problem of using fossil fuels like


5. The energy produced by the sun can charge batteries to power

electric vehicles.

6. Saving our world is a problem we all need to work on.

7. Solar - powered vehicles can help to save our environment.

8. The steps of the problem-solving strategy can be used to help

you solve problems by learning from past experiences and


9. This knowledge can then be used to change or improve technology

that already exists.


10. You are not forced to "re-invent the wheel" each time you want

to begin a project.

11. Only a few hundred of the thousands of human - made objects

in space today are considered wTorking spacecraft.

12. Liquid crystal battery testers change color to show if the battery

is strong or weak.

13. About a century ago skyscraper construction was made possible

through the use of steel framing.

14. The world's tallest self-supporting structure of any kind,

anywhere, is a TV and radio transmission tower in Toronto,

Ontario, Canada.

15. Asking "what-if" questions helps open your mind.

16. Now anyone can use calculators without special training, and

anyone can afford to buy one.

17. Some technologies have changed to better meet our needs.

18. It is easy to see how the speed of technology has increased when

you chart it on a type of graph called a timeline.

19. Being able to communicate with others is a very important skill

that you work with in all your subjects.

20. You also must know how to enter the information correctly

into the calculator or computer.

21. The fast food industry has used technology to help make food as

efficiently as possible.

22. Every fast-food restaurant must try to keep costs down to be


23. It is important to exercise both your muscles and your brain.

24. The study area should include a place to write, a light, and a place

for a computer.

25. One of the most important abilities for you to develop is being


26. Being adaptable means you can change your work skills without


27. You learn the main skills needed to do a specific job as you are

doing the job.

28. The special chocolate bars are supposed to hold their shape at

temperatures of up to 140 F.

29. Tying all the subjects that are learned in school together makes

learning fun for students.

30. Part of your job as a member of society is to evaluate technology's

effects on you and on your environment.

31. Geographic Information System can be used to predict and to

visualize millions of pieces of information that would otherwise

be impossible to understand.

32. Silicon,the best ingredient for making computer chips today,also

turns out to be a great material for making mechanical parts.

33. Researchers can build micromachines using the technology

developed to make computer chips.

34. Micromachines are being used today to monitor automobile


Завдання 4.Прочитайте поданий нижче текст, намагаючись якомога точніше зрозуміти його зміст.

Текст 7А

You live in an information age. You've already learned how fast the knowledge base is growing. You also know it is impossible for any one person to know everything. An educated person isn't necessarily someone who knows everything. An educated person knows where to find the information he or she needs!


A computer can be used to access (find) information on many topics. You can access information in several ways. Personal computers can be interfaced, or attached to, a CD-ROM (compact disk-read only memory) drive. An entire electronic encyclopedia, for example, can be accessed through a compact disk (CD). A compact disk can hold 1,300 times as much information as a floppy disk. Besides that, it accesses information in a matter of seconds. If you needed information on crash testing of cars, by the time you pulled the encyclopedia from the shelf, the computer would have that information for you. In addition, the computer lists cross-references that allow you to tie the information with other subjects. Sometimes not all the information is available on CDs but many electronic encylopedias also include a bibliography (list of resources) so you can explore further.

Another way to access information from the outside world is by hooking the computer to a modem and a telephone line. A modem is an electronic device that lets computers share information. Attaching a modem to your computer lets you communicate with any other computer that has a modem. Modem is another acronym. It stands for modulator- demodulator.

Two computers can communicate with each other only if one computer can decode (understand) the information received from the other computer. When you receive a file over a modem it is called downloading. When you send a file over the modem to another computer it is called uploading. Communications software on each computer sets up a protocol (special settings) to allow information transfer. One important protocol is how fast information is sent on the telephone line. This is called the baud rate. Most common modems operate from 1,200 to 9,600 baud. The faster the baud rate, the less time you have to spend using the telephone line. The baud rate is important because if you're communicating long-distance the cost can increase quickly!

Using your computer and modem, you can access information stored in huge mainframe computers. Information services are companies that sell information to you. Did you ever think about paying for information like you would for another product such as a hamburger? A rapidly growing use of computers is for accessing information. Whenever a topic needs to be researched, an information service can save valuable time. It gives you bibliographies and abstracts (brief summaries) of articles in magazines as well as books. Abstracts let you see whether that resource will be useful to you.

Завдання 5.Перекладіть подані нижче слова та словосполучення з Тексту 7А:

a) knowledge base, information age, compact disc drive, crash testing,

telephone line, communications software, information transfer,

mainframe computers, information services, cross references;

b) to access information, to interface a computer, to tie the

information with other subjects, to hook the computer to a modem,

to share information, to decode information, to receive information,

to communicate long-distance, to store information, to save time;

c) ROM (read only memory), CD (compact disc), bibliography, modem,

downloading, uploading, baud rate, abstract.

Завдання 6.Дайте відповіді на запитання до Тексту 7:

1. Should an educated person know everything? What is important

for an educated person?

2. In what way can a personal computer be used to access


3. Why is bibliography important?

4. What do we call "an abstract"?

5. What do we use a modem for?

6. How can you explain the terms "downloading", "uploading", "baud


7. What is the baud rate of modern modems?

Завдання 7.Прочитайте вголос Текст 7 та перекладіть його рідною мовою.

Завдання 8. Прочитайте та письмово перекладіть рідною мовою поданий нижче текст.

Текст 7Б

Einstein believed that «The whole of science is nothing more than an improvement of everyday thinking». The way this improvement has been achieved has been through the discovery and perfection of the experimental method - possibly the greatest contribution science has made to human progress. Indeed, several writers considered that science is no more than this method - the scientific method as it is sometimes called. Karl Pearson, the founder of the twentieth century science of statistics, thought that «the unity of all science consists alone in its method, not in its material». This method is good for all the sciences and the technologies also, and is of course widely applied in other disciplines.


The first step a scientist (or technologist) takes towards solving a problem is to collect all the information that may relate to the question: this is the observation stage. He then formulates a theory as to how such facts are to be interpreted: this is the hypothesis stage. He then designs and makes a series of controlled tests to try to confirm his working hypothesis: this is the experimental stage. If results of the experiments prove his theory correct he formulates his answer to the problem: this is the conclusion stage. Of course, it often happens that the working hypothesis does not stand up under experiment. Т.Н. Huxley called this «the great tragedy of science". When this occurs the scientist must go back as often as necessary until he achieves a hypothesis that not only explains all the observed facts but can be confirmed by controlled experiment. This is the classic inductive theory of scientific method «still taught to every generation of students».

Завдання 9.Складіть 7 запитань до Тексту 7Б. Завдання 10. Дайте свій варіант назви до Тексту 7Б.

Завдання 11. Перекладіть англійською мовою, використовуючи відому вам лексику та граматичні структури:

1. Комп'ютери - важливий інструмент для вирішення техніч

них проблем.

2. Комп'ютери часто використовуються для пошуку та органі

зації інформації, проведення розрахунків, письма, малювання

та розв'язання інших завдань.

3. Перші комп'ютери були більш громіздкими й дорогими, ніж


4. Закодована інформація, що керує комп'ютером, має назву «про

грамне забезпечення».

5. Іноді комп'ютери використовуються як потужні електронні

друкарські машинки.

6. Спеціальні комп'ютерні програми використовуються, щоб

проектувати нові технічні пристрої.

7. Використовуючи комп'ютерну графіку, ми можемо створю

вати сучасну рекламну продукцію.

8. Майбутні комп'ютери будуть більш швидкодіючими та менш


9. Для того щоб працювати з текстовою інформацією, ми вико

ристовуємо спеціально розроблений текстовий процесор.

10. Використання автоматичного проектування - одна з найне-обхідніших умов розвитку виробництва сьогодні.

Завдання 12. Як ви розумієте вислів: „Science is built of facts, the way a house is built of bricks; but an accumulation of facts is no more a science than a pile of bricks is a house" (J. H. Poincare).

Завдання 13.Підготуйте невелике письмове оповідання (200-250 слів), яке б розкривало зміст висловлення: „Science would not be science without communication."

Урок 8

Завдання І. Уважно прочитайте та запам'ятайте подані нижче слова та їх переклад:

to include включати включать
to hire наймати нанимать
raw необроблений необработанный
just as так само, як точно так, как
proper відповідний соответствующий
since з того часу як с тех пор как
to rely on покладатися на полагаться на
fuel паливо топливо
fossil копалина ископаемое
to remain залишатися оставаться
coal вугілля уголь
timber лісоматеріали лесоматериалы
once якщо вже если уж
supply постачання снабжение
to borrow запозичати заимствовать
loan позика заём
to bend згинатися, гнутися сгибаться, гнуться
to charge доручати; заряджати поручать; заряжать
profit користь, прибуток польза, выгода
bill рахунок счет
to waste витрачати даремно тратить зря
appropriate придатний, соответствующий,
  відповідний подходящий


to pollute забруднювати загрязнять
claim вимога требование (от)
to dispose (of) позбавлятися (чогось) избавляться
garbage сміття мусор, отбросы
to bury Ховати, закопувати прятать, закапывать
to burn спалювати сжигать
to dump скидати сбрасывать

Завдання 2.Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрунтуючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:

resources, production, material, contact, natural, training, intelligence, mineral, vegetation, oil, gas, energy, transport, factor! cycle.

Завдання 3.Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення. Дайте їх еквіваленти рідною мовою:

resource list, to meet the needs, raw materials, people skilled in a particular field, proper training and education, complex machines, remains of dead vegetation and animals, natural gas, the world's supply of oil, to last forever, solar energy, interest on the loan, food container, packaging materials.

Завдання 4.Використовуючи значення відомих вам слів та правила словотворення, перекладіть подані нижче групи слів. Визначте, до якої частини мови кожне з них належить (майте на увазі, що іноді різні частини мови, дві чи три, збігаються за формою):

product - produce - producer - production

train - retrain - training

intellect ~ intellectual - intelligent - intelligence - intelligent

transport - transport - transportation

hot - heat(l,2) - heating

light (1,2,3) -lightening

place (1,2) - replace - placement

nucleus - nuclear

lend - lender

ever - forever

thermal - geothermal

safe (1,2) - safely

pollute - pollution - polluted - pollutant

round - around - surround


Завдання 5.

а) Уважно вивчіть таблицю вживання модальних дієслів:


may (1) ввічливе прохання (2) формальний дозвіл (3) менш ніж 50% ймовірності May I borrow your pen? You may leave the room. -Where's John? - He may be at the library. - - He may have been at the library.
can (1) наявність чи відсутність вміння/ можливості (2) неформальний дозвіл (3) неформальне ввічливе прохання (4) неможливість (тільки негативне) I can run fast. You can use my car. Can I borrow your pen? That can't be true! I could run fast when I was a child, but now I can't. That can't have been true!
could (1) вміння в минулому (2) ввічливе прохання (3) припущення (4) менш ніж 50% ймовірності (5) неможливість (тільки заперечення) Could I borrow your pen? Could you help me? -1 need help in math. - You could talk to your teacher. -Where's John? - He could be at home. That couldn't be true! I could run fast when I was a child. _ You could have talked to your teacher. He could have been at home. That couldn't have been true!
be able to (1) уміння, здібність I am able to help you. I wiil be able to help you. I was able to help him.
must (1) велика необхідність (2)заборона (негативне) (3) 95% ймовірності I must go to class today. You must not open that door. Mary isn't in class. She must be sick. (present only) I had to go to class yesterday. Mary must have been sick yesterday.



have to   (1) необхідність (2) відсутність необхідності (негативне)   I don't have to go to class today. І have to go to class today.   І had to go to class today.   I didn't have to go to class yesterday.  
be to (1)висока ймовірність, домовленість You are to be here at 9:00. You were to be here at 9:00.
shall (1) ввічливий спосіб запропонувати якусь дію Shall I open the window?

б) Перекладіть подані нижче речення та прокоментуйте значення модальних дієслів:


1. Practice can do a lot of good.

2. You cannot see atoms even with a powerful microscope.

3. You could not see him yesterday.

4. He cannot make such a serious mistake.

5. You can become an expert in the field only if you work seriously

and creatively, and try to advance a little bit every day.

6. May I come in?

7. You may use my dictionary.

8. We may discuss the problem at the meeting.

9. May I have a smoke in this room?

10. You must have all the necessary books at the lesson.

11. One and all, we must devotedly work for the good of our country.

12. We badly needed the dictionary.

13. He does not need your book any longer.

14. Every student should read this article.

15. He should help his friend.

16. You should not do such things in future.

17. You should know this material perfectly well.

18.I do not need your book any longer.

19.He will need your advice.

20.The students must work better to pass their examinations well.


1. You are to read this paper before the conference.

2. He is to make a report at the conference.

3. She is to come here at five o'clock.

4. As I was to be at the Academy at 9 sharp I had to take a taxi.

5. Will you have to get up early tomorrow?

6. No, I did not have to come to the Academy early.

7. Devices in the rocket have to operate under very difficult


8. At the speed of seven miles per second the rocket will have to

travel over a million years to reach Sirius, one of the nearest


9. The rocket is able to travel in a vacuum even better than it can

through the air.

10.She is able to do this.

11.In some years we shall be able to solve this problem.


1. He must have translated that article yesterday.

2. They must have forgotten all about it.

3.The discussion must have been very interesting. It's a pity I could not stay.

4. The students may have translated these articles last month.

5. They may have returned home already.

6. My friend may have left two days ago.

7. They could have taken their exam in English yesterday.

8. She could have arrived some days ago.

9. He might have left his book in some other place.

10. She might have come if you had asked her.

11.1 should have done it before.

12.You should have translated those articles long ago.

13.You could have informed me in time.

14.The moving parts of the machine must have been lubricated not

to damage the machine at work.

15.A specially designed computer should have been used in the

equipment of the meteo probe.

16.You might have known that to stop the flow of electricity you

have to use a switch.

17.The article should have been translated long ago, where is the



1. We can't always predict accurately how a change will affect us or our world. We can only be sure that everything changes eventually.

2. Advances in technology can have a great impact on the world if

they are made available to all people.

3. If medical equipment and people could be put in an airplane,

people all over the world might be helped.

4. If you wanted to design a bycicle, for example, you would not

have to invent the wheel. But you might just want to change the

shape of the wheel.

5. New knowledge can then be used to change or improve technology

that already exists.

6. The saying «you don't have to reinvent the wheel» means that

you do not have to start from the beginning to solve a problem.

7. You will see that even though you don't have to reinvent the

wheel, that doesn't mean you shouldn't try.

8. Researchers might try many ideas until the problem is solved.

9. The energy produced by the sun can charge batteries to powrer

electric vehicles.

10.Computers can be used to make 3-D graphics colourful and


11.Life science and technology can be combined to produce food in

a fish farm.

12.Being able to communicate with others is a very important skill

that you work with in all your subjects.

13.In all your courses you need to be able to let your teachers and

others know what your ideas are.

14.Using calculators you have to know what math operations

(addition, substraction, multiplication, and division) to use in

solving a problem. You must also know how to enter the

information correctly into the calculator or computer.

15.Every fast-food restaurant must try to keep costs down to be


16.As business manager you will have to solve a lot of problems.

Завдання 6.Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зрозуміти і запам'ятати його зміст.

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