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Текст 8 Where Do We Get Resources?



Before you can make anything you will need resources. Resources can be anything that is used in the production of a product. What are some of the resources you can use, and where do you find them? Your resource list might include:

People: Technology has been created by people. People have used their ideas and knowledge to invent and build products that meet their needs. Some companies hire people for their ideas and skills just as other companies buy raw materials for their products. You might need to contact people skilled in a particular field who can help you with your ideas and designs. With the proper training and education, you can be a resource person for others, too.

Machines: Since the invention of the wheel and other simple machines, people have used their intelligence to create the many complex machines we rely on today. We rely on machines as a resource to help us do work, and through technology those machines often run automatically; we don't even have to think about them.

Information: You know already that the amount of information in the world is growing rapidly. Because there is so much information there are companies that gather, organize, and sell the information. People use this information to design, produce, and sell products.

Raw Materials: You probably know that natural resources include water, land, minerals, fossil fuels (remains of dead vege-tation and animals such as oil, coal, natural gas), and timber. But did you know that some of these resources are nonrenewable? Nonrenewable means that once the resource has been used up, it is gone forever! For example, the world's supply of oil will not last

forever.

Energy: Energy is used to make things and to transport products. It is also used to heat, cool, and light the buildings that we live and work in. Like raw materials, some sources of energy are limited. Renewable energy sources include solar energy, geothermal energy, and nuclear energy.

Money: Even if you had all the other resources available to you, it still takes money to start a business. Money to start a new business is often borrowed from banks. Loans must be paid back as well as any interest on the loan. The lender charges you additional money for letting you use its money. This charge is called interest. Even after a company is making a profit (money left over after all bills are paid), it continues to pay for the other resources it uses.

Time: Many people consider time a resource because it takes time to make a product. In many instances, however, time is a factor that determines which other resources you might use and how you might use them. If you have to produce a product in a short time, you might choose only materials that are readily available and people who are already trained for that job.

Завдання 7.Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту тексту:

1. Resources are important.

2. Money to start a new business is often borrowed from banks.

3. Natural resources include energy, machines, money, people, time

and information.

4. Proper training and education are important to invent new

products.

5. People created technology and raw materials.

6. You don't need to contact other people for professional assistance,

you must use only your own ideas.

7. If we want to produce high-quality machines, we should choose

intelligent people, skilled in the field.

8. People have used their knowledge to create a lot of clever

machines.

9. There is a lot of information in the world, and it is growing

rapidly.

10. Money and time do not influence the final product.

Завдання 8. Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 8 ре-чення.

Завдання 9.Дайте відповіді на подані нижче запитання:

1. What do we call resources?

2. How many items does the resource list include? Name them.

3. What qualities are important to consider a specialist "a resource

person"?

4. Why do people need information?

5. What is the most important thing you should know about natural

resources?

6. What kind of energy sources do you know?

7. Where can you get money to start a business?

8. In what way does time factor influence your business project?

Завдання 10. Дайте визначення таких понять:

1) resources;

2) renewable resources;

3) nonrenewable resources;

4) geothermal energy;

5) fossil fuels;

6) a resource person;

7) interest on loans.

Завдання 11. Виберіть з тексту всі слова, якими ми можемо охарактеризувати якості матеріалів.

Завдання 12. Прочитайте поданий нижче Текст 8А з метою найти відповіді на такі запитання:

1. Чому ми називаємо Землю „закритою системою"?

2. Яке значення мають терміни „disposable", „biodegradable" та

„recycling"?

3. Яким чином використання ресурсів може впливати на на

вколишнє середовище?

Текст 8А

Are we wasting our resources? Are companies producing products without thinking about the appropriate use of resources? These are hard questions for you to answer, but you need to ask them. We often forget the fact that we live in a world that has limits. Do you ever think about the fact that the air you breathe and the water you drink are recycled? The Earth is a closed system. There are no other sources of air or water, for example, than what has always been on earth. It might be unpleasant to think that the air you are breathing now or the water you drank for lunch may have been used by someone else before you. If air and water are polluted, they cannot be used safely again by anyone.

You are surrounded by products that companies claim are «disposable». Think about all the paper and plastic cups, food containers, and packaging materials that your family throws in the garbage each week. What do you think happens to them?

Many of the products and materials you throw away end up in landfills (garbage dumps) where they are buried or burned, or sometimes the used materials are dumped directly into the oceans. Disposing of materials in these ways can eventually cause air or water pollution. The best thing for you to do is to use, whenever possible, materials that are biodegradable. Biodegradable materials break down or decompose naturally like paper and go back into the earth. Other materials that take a long time to decompose, such as aluminum, plastic, and glass, should be recycled.

Today, you must use resources carefully and be aware of how they will affect the environment after they are no longer in use. You can do things that will really make a difference.

Завдання 13.

а) Розташуйте речення в потрібному порядку, щоб одержати зв'я-

зний тексі

1. The materials you choose for a product can make it either useful

and long-lasting" or dangerous and short-lived.

2. Basically, materials can be divided into two major groups,

synthetic and natural.

3.For example, a television has a picture tube made of glass, a cabinet made of plastic or wood, and wires made of copper.

4. When you are completing design briefs, you should consider

using more than one kind of material in your solution.

5. Not only it is important to design products writh people in mind,

but it is also important to choose the right material for your

product.

6. People have been researching new materials and new uses for

old materials since the Stone Age.

7. Synthetic means that people made the materials, and they cannot

be found in nature.

8. You know already that materials were so important that entire

periods of history, such as the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, were

named after them.

9. A bicycle has rubber tires, steel frames, and a plastic seat.

10.The many kinds of plastics are examples of synthetics.

11.Natural materials, such as copper and wood, can be found in

nature.

12.Products often are combinations of many kinds of materials.

б) Прочитайте та усно перекладіть текст, який ви отримали, виконуючи попередні завдання.

Завдання 14.Перекладіть письмово текст рідною мовою.

Текст 8Б

Most materials can be further divided into groups. The grouping of materials is based on their properties or their origin. Here is the way to classify some materials.

Woods: There are two types of wood, hardwood and softwood. Sounds simple, but the words hard and soft have nothing to do with the hardness of the wood. The difference is in the tree that the wood came from. Hardwoods come from trees that have broad leaves, for example, walnut and maple. Softwoods come from trees that have needles, such as pine and fir.

Metals: There are two types of metals also, ferrous and nonferrous. Ferrous is a Latin word for iron. The difference between ferrous and nonferrous is that ferrous metals contain iron and nonferrous metals do not. Ferrous metals include iron and the many types of steel. Nonferrous metals include copper, tin, lead, aluminum, gold, and silver.

Plastics: There are also two types of plastics: thermoplastic and thermoset. The difference is very simple. Thermoplastics can be melted and remelted many times using heat. Thermosetting plastics change chemically when they set (твердіти). They cannot be remelted. Acrylic plastic is an example of thermoplastic. It can be reheated many times to change its shape. Bakelite is a common plastic used for electrical plugs and cooking-pot handles.

Composite materials: By combining different materials, new and often better properties can be obtained. Composite materials such as fiberglass and carbon graphite or graphite-epoxy are very lightweight and strong. They are used to make high-performance aircraft wings and lightweight sporting goods such as tennis

racquets.

Materials are chosen by their characteristics. The characteristics of a material are called its properties. Each material has special properties that make it useful for certain products.

Завдання 15.Зробіть доповідь на тему „Classifying materials", використовуючи подану схему:

Завдання 16.Перекладіть англійською мовою подані нижче речення:

1. Люди використовують інформацію для того, щоб виробляти,

створювати та продавати продукцію.

2. Природні копалини, такі, як залізо та мідь, видобуваються з

надр землі.

3. Джерела енергії містять сонячну, геотермальну та ядерну ене

ргію.

4. Існують компанії, які збирають, обробляють та продають ін

формацію.

5. Ми завжди забуваємо, що живемо у світі, який не можна вва

жати невичерпним.

в. Існує два типи пластику: термопластичні та термореактивні матеріали.

7. Важливо не тільки те, чи буде ваша продукція такою, як ви її

собі уявляєте, але й те, з якого матеріалу вона буде вироблена.

8. Матеріали поділяються на групи залежно від їх властивос

тей та походження.

9. Тверду деревину виробляють із дерев, які мають широке листя, наприклад, горіх чи клен.

10. Відмінність між кольоровими та некольоровими металами

полягає в тому, що кольорові метали містять залізо, а неко-

льорові - ні.

11.Матеріали вибираються завдяки їхнім характеристикам.

 

 

Урок 9

approach наближатися приближаться
valuable цінний ценный
to stick приклеювати(ся) приклеивать(ся)
cereal крупа крупа
corn кукурудза кукуруза
flakes пластівці хлопья
goal мета цель
crank рукоятка рукоятка
to notice помічати замечать
rust іржа ржавчина
rivet заклепка заклепка
trend тенденція тенденция
permission дозвіл разрешение
to prove доводити доказывать
to apply for звертатися за обращаться за
cell комірка ячейка
to relate to належати до относиться к
faucet водопровідний кран Водопроводный кран
knob набалдашник   набалдашник
resposible for glue відповідальний за клей ответственный за клей

Завдання 2.Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрунтуючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:

adhesive, patent, innovation, license, to protect, file, sketch,

prototype, model, project, tradition.

Завдання 3.Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення. По-дайте їх еквіваленти рідною мовою:

creative thinking, by accident=by chance, a nonstick surface, safety glass, a car windshield, corn flakes, something else, to work toward a goal ,exercise equi pment, waste products ,nuclear waste products, to crank the engine, patent office, water faucet, door knobs, current needs.

Завдання 4.Використовуючи значення відомих вам слів та правила словотворення, перекладіть подані нижче групи слів. Визначте, до якої частини мови належить кожне слово (зверніть увагу на те, що іноді різні частини мови збігаються за формою):

accident - accidentally

approach - to approach

safe - a safe - safely - safety

valuable - value - to value - evaluation - to evaluate

combination - to combine

new - innovation - innovator

benefit - to benefit (from)

to notice - unnoticed - a notice- noticeable

rust - to rust - rusting

permission - to permit

patent - to patent

high - height

wide - width

long - length

to weigh - weight

Завдання 5.

а) Уважно вивчіть таблицю різних типів умовних речень, їх утворення та значення.

 

б) Перекладіть подані нижче речення рідною мовою:

1. If he is here, he will help me.

2. If he were here, he would help me.

3. If he had been here, he would have helped me.

4. If you get tickets, I shall go to the cinema with you.

5. If you got tickets, I would go to the cinema with you.

6. If you had got tickets, I would have gone to the cinema.

7. He would come to see us if he had time.

8. If it were his own book, he would give it to you.

9. If he had seen this film, he would have told us about it.

10. If they were here, he would speak to them.

11.1 would have prepared the report in case I had got all the necessary materials.

12. They would not stay in town unless the weather were bad.

13. If you intensify the process by heating the materials, you will

save a great deal of time.

14. The accident might have not occurred, if you had been more

attentive.

15. Had he come in time, nothing would have occurred.

16. Would you bring the dictionary, we could translate the text.

17. Had you been more attentive, nothing would have occurred.

18. If all of you prepared well, the discussion would be interesting.

Завдання 6.Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зрозуміти і запам'ятати його зміст.

Текст 9 What Is Innovation?

Innovation is the creation of new ideas or devices or different approaches to doing something. Innovation happens in many ways. Most innovations are a result of creative thinking. Sometimes valuable innovations happen by accident. Some examples of innovations include Teflon (a nonstick surface), safety glass for car windshields, and even the process for making breakfast cereals like corn flakes! In those cases, inventors were looking for something else and accidentally came up with a different idea or product. At other times innovation happens because people or companies work toward a goal using a combination of skill, creativity, and knowledge. Because innovation makes you think about «new» things, it is usually tied closely to change.

Change is happening all around us all the time. People who are innovators are excited about making changes. In business, change might be a different way to make the same product, or it could be an entirely new product. Trends, or current needs that people have, also determine what changes companies will make in their products. Many companies have R&D (research and development) departments whose job is to find out what people want now and what they will want in the future. By studying trends, R&D departments can provide the products you want to make your life better. Why do engineers need to continually make changes?

One reason is that what worked for us yesterday might not work for us today. That's where innovation and creativity are important. Sometimes we simply want different things such as new car styles, different exercise equipment, or new foods. At other times we need change for a specific rertson. For example, today we don't know what to do with our nuclear waste products. Up to now, we haven't found a way to store the materials safely for long periods of time. // someone like you could think of an innovative way to use or recycle the materials, it would really benefit our society.

It's easy to see how some innovations have made our lives easier. You've probably seen old movies where people had to crank the engine to get a car started. Thanks to innovation, all you have to do today is turn the key. Maybe some day all you'll do is talk to the car's computer!

Many innovative ideas go unnoticed by most people. For example, today many parts of cars are made of plastics to reduce weight and to prevent rusting. Many of your clothes are made of new kinds of plastics that don't feel or look any different from the materials that were used before. In the aerospace industry, adhesives (glues) are used instead of rivets to hold airplane wings together.

Other innovative ideas, such as the development of laser, had to wait until people found a practical way to make and use them. Innovation needs some knowledge combined.wTith creativity. There are lots of people out there with knowledge, but they don't know how to use it creatively. Being innovative means you can do something new with your knowledge and experience. It also means you can recognize when something happens accidentally, even if you're not exactly sure what it is!

Завдання 7.Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту тексту:

1. Most innovations happen accidentally, like Teflon or corn flakes.

2. Most innovations make our life harder.

3. To become an inventor you must be excited about making

changes.

4. Being innovative means you can do something new with your

knowledge and experience.

5. If you could think of an innovative way to use nuclear waste

products, there might be less environmental problems.

6. Not a single innovation goes unnoticed.

7. Innovations need a combination of knowledge and creativity.

8. Innovations are important when we want some new things or

processes for a specific reason.

9. Engineers need to continually make changes.

10. Companies must know what people want now and what they will want in future.

Завдання 8. Дайте відповіді на запитання до тексту:

1. What do we call an innovation?

2. How do innovations appear?

3. What are the main reasons for innovations?

4. Can every person come up with a new idea or design, or do you

need special characteristics to produce innovations?

5. Can you give some examples of innovations?

Завдання 9.Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 9 речення.

Завдання 10. Знайдіть в Тексті 9 речення з модальними дієсловами та перекладіть їх, звертаючи увагу на значення модальних дієслів.

Завдання 11. Дайте письмовий переклад Тексту 9А.

Текст 9А Getting a Patent

A patent is a special government license that protects your idea or invention. When you patent your invention, anyone who wants to use your idea must get your permission or pay you. Anyone can patent an invention, but getting a patent takes time and money. You must first prove your invention is new or the first of its kind. This means going back through the thousands of patents filed at the Patent Office to be sure no one else has an existing patent for the same invention. Then you have to provide written plans and sketches that show how your invention works. Often you have to make a prototype, or model. The government keeps these plans on file while your patent is current.

There are five types of patents that you can apply for: 1. Design patent: A drawing and protection of the general appearance and how an invention looks to the eye. An example of a design patent might be the outside package for an invention.

2. Structure patent: A mechanical patent that shows how

the idea works, its history, and detailed plans.

3. Process/method/system patent: Protects the way a group of

materials or parts work together. These usually have specific

drawings and flowcharts.

4. Combination of materials patent: Descriptions of materials and

how they are mixed and used.

5. Living cell patent: Covers new developments in biotechnology

and biochemistry.

Every patented product will have a patent number on it. If you see the words «patent applied for» or «patentpending» on a product, it means the inventor has applied for a patent. Sometimes companies will start making a product before they have their patent. Because there are so many inventions all the time, it is important to protect inventions with a patent. You can imagine how disappointed you would be if you spent a great deal of time and money on an invention idea only to find out someone else already had a patent on a similar project. Getting a patent is an important protection step for anyone with an invention.

Завдання 12.

а) Прочитайте поданий нижче текст.





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