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Текст 9Б Designing Products for People
Have you ever tried on gloves and found the medium size was too big and the small size was too small? Have you ever wondered how designers decided on what a «medium» size is? Technology can make our lives more comfortable through ergonomics. Ergonomics is the study of how the human body relates to things around it. It is also called «human engineering». Places where you live, work, and play are safer, easier for you to use. and more comfortable if they are designed based on the actual human body size.
The actual measurements of your height, width, weight, reach (arms extended), and so on are recorded in books as anthropometric information or data. Designers and engineers use the size information to determine the dimensions of products such as clothing, furniture, sporting goods, car interiors, and even spacesuits. When designers made the chair you are sitting in, they used the anthropometric data from many people and found a size that would be comfortable for 90 percent of the people. Five percent of the people will probably be too large and another five percent will be too small for that particular chair. Because there is such a wide range in sizes of people, it is difficult to make one product that everyone would find comfortable. Is your chair really comfortable? Does it fit you? Not all products are made with ergonomics or anthropometry in mind. Simple everyday things like water faucets and door knobs can sometimes be hard to figure out because they weren't designed with people in mind. Many times they were designed just for looks. In the past, tradition rather than people's needs was also responsible for the way some things were designed. For instance, maybe the reason most automobile engines are located in the front of a car is that the engine replaced the horse. The horse, of course, was in front of the wagon.
You might think that designing products around people is just for appearance and isn't very important. That isn't so. Part of ergonomic design is to make products safe for you to use.
б) Поясніть дані поняття, про які йдеться в тексті:
ergonomics, human engineering, anthropometric data, ergonomic design.
в) Дайте відповіді на такі запитання до тексту:
1. What do we call the branch of technology which helps to make
our life easier, more comfortable and safe?
2. What information is used to determine the dimensions of
products and what do we call it?
3. Do you think it's impossible to combine comfort, safety and
good looks in product design?
4. Can you give some positive examples of product design?
5. Can you give some negative examples of product design?
г) Перекладіть Текст 9Б рідною мовою.
а) Якщо ви розташуйте слова в даних реченнях в потрібному порядку, то знайдете серію запитань щодо впливу технічного нововведення на вас та навколишнє середовище. Підмет та присудок (основне дієслово) виділені шрифтом:
1) the, require, or, technology, energy, existing, new, resources, does,
less, natural, than, technology, more, an, or?
2) not, it, the, biodegradable, will, for example, damage, environment,
3) to, it, use, is, easier?
4) save, does, time, it?
5) special, to, does, require, use, training, it?
6)put, does, people, out of, it, work?
7) a, this, need, technology, for, is there, real?
8) technology, is, safe, the?
9) an, of, appropriate, is, use, this, technology?
б) Проаналізуйте яке-небудь технічне відкриття, винахід, ново-введення за допомогою цих запитань.
Завдання 14.Перекладіть англійською мовою:
1. Людина не може стати винахідником, якщо вона не вміє творчо
2. Можливо, ми зможемо вирішити цю проблему в найближчо
3. Ми повинні більше уваги приділяти виріпіенню проблем, які
можуть спричинити забруднення навколишнього середовища.
4. Компанії повинні надавати перевагу екологічно чистій про
5. Іноді нам доводиться вибирати між красою та зручністю, але
цього не повинно бути. Ми повинні поєднувати те й інше.
6. Немає необхідності жертвувати красою заради комфорту.
7. Не могли б ви мені пояснити, що таке „ергономіка"?
Завдання 15.З усіх трьох текстів Уроку 7 виберіть ключові слова до теми „Innovations: why, what, how."
Завдання 16.Складіть план доповіді за названою темою.
Завдання 17.Зробіть доповідь на тему, використовуючи складе-ний план та ключові слова.
Завдання 1. Уважно прочитайте подані нижче слова та їх переклад. Запам'ятайте їх:
Завдання 2.Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрунтуючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:
company, sponsor, services, business, capital, invest, partner, manager, control, planning, strategy, marketing.
Завдання 3.Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення. По-дайте їх еквіваленти рідною мовою:
to provide services, to be in business, to make a profit, to get a company started, to start a company, to run a company, to manage a company, to have complete control over a company, to hold a share, a part owner of the company, a structured organization of a company, board of directors, to set company policies, to rent a
building, personnel, extra training, to slow production down, to plan ahead, consumer surveys.
Завдання 4.Зверніть увагу на утворення скорочених варіантів даних слів, перекладіть їх рідною мовою:
confer = compare - cf advertisement - ad mathematics - math(s) technology - tech dormitory - dorm television - TV refrigerator - fridge examination - exam for example - e. g. that is - i. e.
Завдання 5.Перекладіть дані слова, використовуючи їх синоніми:
huge = big
to involve = to include
to control = to operate
to control = to manage
annual = yearly
goals = aims
to raise money = to make money
accurate = precise
downtime == decrease
to promote = to advertise
marketing plan = strategy
to invest = to put in
human resources = workers = employees = personnel
over and over = again and again
to eliminate = to get rid of
to ship = to send
a great deal of = many/much
Завдання 6.Використовуючи значення відомих вам слів та правила словотворення, перекладіть подані нижче групи слів. Визначте, до якої частини мови вони належать (пам'ятайте, що іноді різні частини мови збігаються за формою):
property - proprietor - proprietorship
part - partner - partnershi p
to manage - manager — management
to serve - services - servant
to invest - investor - investment
to sponsor - sponsor - sponsorship
to advertise -advertisement - advertising
to consume - consumer - consumption
to own - owner - ownership
to share - a share - shareholders
Завдання 7.Перекладіть англійською мовою подані нижче умовні речення різного типу:
1. Якщо компанія хоче бути успішною, вона повинна постійно
займатися маркетинговими дослідженнями.
2. Якщо б Японія не приділяла стільки уваги розвитку науки
та технічної творчості, вона б не досягла таких успіхів у ви
3. Якщо б усі підприємства використовували екологічно чисті
технології, ми б зберегли навколишнє середовище для майбут
4. Якщо б ви використовували інші джерела енергії, ваша про
дукція була б більш популярною.
5. Якщо ви дуже хочете знайти рішення проблеми, то воно при
ходить неначе саме по собі.
6. Якщо б ми не просто викидали промислові та побутові від
ходи, а переробляли їх, ми б змогли вирішити частину еколо
гічних та соціальних проблем.
7. Якщо б ми були більш уважними та технічно грамотними, то
помітили б, що світ навколо нас сповнений технічних ново
Завдання 8. Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зрозуміти і запам'ятати його зміст.
Текст 10 What Is a Company?
You've probably seen ads in magazines and on television sponsored by names such as Xerox, IBM, General Motors, and Exxon. These are huge companies that hire thousands of workers to produce goods or services for you, the consumer. Thousands of companies make products or provide services for you. A company is an organized group of people doing business.
Every company is in business to sell products and to make a profit. Remember that one resource needed to make things is money, or capital. In order to get a company started, someone has to invest (put in) money to start the company. Then, once the company is organized, you have to have some way to run it. There are different ways to manage (run) a company.
Proprietorship: A proprietorship is a business owned by just one person. It is the easiest type of business to form because you as the owner have complete control over everything. Besides that у you get to keep all the profits.
Partnership: A business owned by two or more people is a part-nership. It is also easy to form. The partners share the profits. An advantage to being in a partnership is that you can share the workload and responsibilities.
Corporation: A corporation is a company organized and owned by stockholders. A stockholder is anyone who buys a share in a company. While you own the stock, you will also receive what's called a dividend. A dividend is a payment you get as part owner of the company. Sometimes corporations start out as proprietorships or partnerships. They have a very structured organization because there are so many people involved. The corporate structure includes the following:
Stockholders: People who have bought shares in the company. Stockholders hold an annual meeting. At the annual meeting, they elect the board of directors for the next year. Board of Directors: Board members are elected. They set company policies and determine the main company goals. They report how the company is doing to the stockholders. The board also hires a company manager or president to run the company. Management: These people run the company. They have to be good leaders and hard workers to make the company successful. Management people have to pick the products the company will make, decide how to raise money to buy or rent buildings, where to get raw materials, and how much to pay workers. Administration: The people in administration carry out the decisions made by the management department. There are many other workers in a company, too. As you learn what each department does, think about what jobs you would like to do or would feel most qualified to do. These are some of the main departments in most companies.
Human Resources: In some companies, this department is called Personnel. This department makes sure that the people who have the skills needed for certain jobs are hired. If extra training is needed, the Personnel department makes sure workers get the training. The Human Resources department also makes sure you are rewarded if you are a good worker. Usually you are advanced to a position with higher pay.
Research and Development Department (R&D): The research and development department improves existing products or designs new products that people really want. Companies depend on R&D departments to find efficient ways to make products so that they can save money and make a profit.
Production Department: The production department is in charge of actually making the products for the company. The production workers must turn materials into parts for products and then assemble the products. The production department usually plans a production system to make sure each job is done as accurately, quickly, and safely as possible. A mistake in production caused by poor planning can cost a company a lot of money or slow production down. The production department has to plan ahead so there is no downtime, or stop in production.
Marketing Department: The job of the marketing department is to sell the company products. Sometimes they conduct consumer surveys to find out what people want, how much they are willing to pay for a product, and who would probably buy that product. The marketing department must also have a marketing plan for promoting and selling the product.
Завдання 9.Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту тексту:
1. Companies are organized to produce products but it is not their
aim to sell them.
2. Providing services has nothing to do with business.
3. Investments are necessary to start a business.
4. All companies are managed in the same way.
5. Partnerships are the most complicated of all different ways to
run a company.
6. Corporations never start out as proprietorships.
7. Board of directors are hired to manage a company.
8. The departments a company includes are never the same in
9. Marketing research is very important for successful operation
of any company.
Завдання 10. Дайте відповіді на запитання до тексту:
1. What is a company?
2. What are companies organized for?
3. What is the resource you need to start a company?
4. What is the difference between a proprietorship and a
5. What do we call a company which is organized and owned by
6. What are the main components of a corporation?
7. What do we call a share?
8. Whom do we call a stockholder?
9. What is a dividend?
10. How is a board of directors formed?
11. Do they elect managers of a company?
12. What are the main departments in most companies called?
13. How can you define the main tasks of each department?
Завдання 11. Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 10 речення.
а) Прочитайте Текст 10А, намагаючись якомога точніше зрозу-
міти його ЗМІСТ.
Before a company begins to sell a product, the marketing department makes a special plan called a marketing plan or strategy. There are all kinds of ways to market products. The plan might include a sales forecast, or prediction of how many sales the company will make. If the market research is not accurate, the company could lose a lot of money. Can you imagine making thousands of a product but selling only a few hundred?
Sometimes companies will do test marketing. To do this, they produce just a small number of products and sell them in maybe just one city. If sales are good in the test market, then the company expects the product to sell in other places, too.
Advertising tells people about your product. The main goal of advertising is to convince customers that they need your product. Many companies have a public relations division. Its job is to make the product name familiar to the public. Have you ever bought something just because an ad caught your attention? Companies count on that happening. Lots of companies try different ways of advertising such as television commercials, billboards, and ads in magazines, newspapers, and on the radio. Sometimes a company will sponsor a contest or give away a free prize to get people to try their product for the first time.
Brand names like McDonald's, Disney, Honda, and Hershey also make it easier to sell products. People already know the name so if something new comes out from that company you are quick notice it.
Actually selling and getting the products to the buyers are also part of the marketing strategy. If a company can't sell its products, then it will not be successful
б) Дайте переклад виділених слів та словосполучень.
в) Дайте відповіді на, такі запитання стосовно інформації Текс
1. What are the duties of the marketing department?
2. What do we call a marketing plan?
3. What do they mean by 'test marketing'?
4. What is the main; goal of advertising?
5. How do they advertise products?
6. What do we mean by "brand names"?
7. What "brand names" do you know? '
8. What for do they organize Public relations division?
а) Уважно прочитайте поданий нижче Текст 10Б, намагаючись якомога точніше зрозуміти ЙОГО зміст.
Текст 10Б Mass production
Mass production enables companies to produce large quantities of parts and products Within a short time. To do this, each worker on a factory assembly line is assigned only one job. Each person does the same job over and over. Mass production works only if all the same parts of components are standardized, i.e. the same size and shape. The parts must be interchangeable. Any one of several hundred pieces of one part mus1t fit with any of several hundred pieces of a joining part. Today's automobiles are n.ade mostly with standardized, or interchangeable, parts.
Through mass production and the assembly line, a greater number of products can be made in a given amount of time. Mass production also makes products less expensive to produce and therefore less expensive to buy.
Where do companies put materials and purchased parts until they are needed on the production line? Many companies have to order large amounts of materials ahead of time. They then must pay for storage space in a warehouse. The company must also hire people (or buy robots) to move the materials to the production line. Once the finished product is made, it often spends time in a warehouse, waiting to be shipped. One way to cut down on inventory (things in storage) and costs is to use a computer to schedule deliveries just in time.
Just-in-time manufacturing (JIT) is a method that many companies are turning to because it eliminates the need for storage space and extra people to manage the inventory. All the materials and ordered parts get to the factory just in time to be used in production. When the product is finished it is immediately shipped to the customer. Just-in-time manufacturing enables companies to cut back inventory as much as possible.
You can see that good management and teamwork are important to just-in-time manufacturing, or synchronized production. If one part is not there on time, then the rest of the product must wait. To be successful, production workers, managers, suppliers, and workers who transport materials must work closely together. Computers play a large part in linking all those people together so thai they all know what they are supposed to do and when they are supposed to do it.
б) Дайте переклад таких слів та словосполучень:
mass production, within a short time, assembly line, standardized parts, interchangeable, in a given amount of tine, production line, storage space, warehouse, finished product, to ship, inventory, to schedule deliveries, just-in-time manufacturing, to eliminate, synchronized production.
в) Дайте відповіді на поставлені запитання, використовуючи ін
формацію, яка є в Тексті 8Б:
1 When do we call machine parts standardized and interchangeable?
2 What is the aim of nuass production and assembly lines?
3 What is meant by inventory?
4 What are the advantages of just-in-time manufacturing?
5 Can you explain whait 'synchronized production: means?
а) Прочитайте Текст 1OB та дайте його письмошй переклад рідною мовою, користуючись словником та звертаючи увагу на підкреслені терміни.
There are three main ways to sell your product.
Direct Sales: A manufacturer sells its product directly to the customer. Usually a company will have salespeople who make a commission (certain percentage) on the amount they sell. The more the salespeople sell, the more money they make. The commission is an incentive (encouragement) for them to sell more products. If an area is large and the company does not have enough salespeople, they might hire a sales representative to sell their product.
Wholesale Sales: Wholesalers are people or companies that buy large quantities of products from manufacturers. Then they sell the products to other businesses in large quantities.
Retail Sales: Retailers buy products either from wholesalers or directly from the manufacturer. Then they sell them to you. If you've been to a shopping mall, you've seen many retail stores from discount stores to large department stores.
In addition to selling their products, companies must have ways to get their goods to the buyers. This is called distribution. Sometimes the distribution path for a product can be short, as in direct sales. Sometimes products must be temporarily stored in warehouses until the right time for distribution.
At some point, transportation is involved in distributing the products. Depending on the product or the need, different kinds of transporation such as air freight,trucks,trains,or ships might be used. Most of the «18-wheelers» you see on the highways are carrying products to wholesalers or retail stores. Getting the product distributed on time is very important to the success of your company!
б) Перекладіть письмово виділені терміни.
Завдання 15. Висловіть свої міркування з приводу висловлювання відомого англійського письменника, якщо віднести його до сфери бізнесу: „Success is just failure postponed" (Graham Greene).
to the success of your company"! б) Перекладіть письмово виділені терміни
КОНТРОЛЬНІ ЗАВДАННЯ ДО УРОКІВ 8-10
Завдання 1. Складіть якомога більше дво- чи трислівних словосполучень з даних слів:
muscle, government, quality, strategy, power, energy, manu-facturing, goal, survey, automation, company, market, department, test, product, resources, technology, agency, process.
Завдання 2.Перекладіть такі дієслова, для нестандартних дайте три форми:
to save, to reduce, to design, to fit, to fix, to use, to waste, to increase, to require, to happen, to include, to create, to protect, to spend, to sell, to maintain, to deliver, to involve, to prove, to determine, to store, to measure.
Завдання 3.Утворіть якомога більше нових слів, використовуючи відомі вам словотвірні моделі:
4) to renew;
7) to interact;
8) to place;
9) to use;
Завдання 4.Перекладіть рідною мовою:
1. Companies get started so that people can make money.
2. A product or a service is made available for sale to consumers.
3. If the product is successful, the company may expand production.
4. Companies often sell stock to raise money to buy equipment or
5. When proper planning and automation technology are used, the
cost of production can be kept down, and the rate of production
can be kept high.
6. As you know, computers play an important part in any efficient
7. There are different kinds of jobs in a company.
8. In a successful company, everyone works to meet the company
9. Companies may have the right people and equipment to
manufacture a product but it takes even more than that to
10. You also need to have a good production plan to produce a good
product at the lowest cost.
11. That means people must know what they are doing, and the right
technology and machines must be used at the right time.
12. You will have to fill out an application for any job you have in
13. Applications give the employer information about your experience
14. The quality of a product is very important for the consumer and
15. Some companies do some interesting advertising to get their
16. Partners can form a type of company called a partnership.
17. There are different ways to start a company or a corporation.
18. A company is an organized group of people in business to make
19. We often forget about the factories and companies behind the
product we use every day.
20. People buy stock in a company in the hope that its value will go
21. The stockholders can then sell the stock and make a profit.
22. Research and development departments try to perfect existing
products and design new products.
23. Technology can be applied to help solve problems related to
energy use, medicine, and many other fields.
24. The production department actually makes the product.
25. Downtime for companies can be very costly, and when it happens,
many people must work quickly to get the production line back
26. Marketing departments promote the product and conduct
27. The results of surveys provide feedback for the company so that
managers can make decisions about the future of the product.
28. Every day millions of people go to work to manufacture the
products we depend on.
29. Businesses are started to make a profit.
30. Large companies need managers to make decisions that keep the
31. Employers are hired to do a specific job in manufacturing.
32. No matter what product is being manufactured, the quality of
the finished product is in the hands of the employees.
33. If you wanted to start a corporation along with some people,
you would first have to make out an application that must be
approved by a government agency.
34. If people don't know about the product, they will not buy it.
35. You would make your report more interesting if you used these
36. The student would have answered better had he studied hard
during the year.
37.1 should be very glad if the device worked well. 38. Had you studied English hard at school, you would have been able to read any book without using a dictionary.
Завдання 5.Прочитайте та перекладіть рідною мовою такі тексти, звертаючи увагу на яереклад виділених слів, словосполучень та частин речень.
Text A Using Resources
Early people relied on muscle power to survive and to make everything. As technology grew and changed, people were able to extend their muscle resources by using machines. The energy of moving water, steam, oil, and the atom have been added to the list of resources that people can use to make things.
Whether you choose a resource often depends on its availability. For example, if you were going to start a company that needed a great deal of electricity, you would try to find an area in the country where electricity is available and inexpensive.
As you design your product you should pick material resources that best fit your product. Paper clips made of pure silver sound great, but they would be too heavy and too expensive.
You also want to use resources wisely and not waste them. The cost of energy used to make and transport products is increasing. If energy can be conserved (saved) in the manufacturing process, we can save energy and reduce the cost of products.
Some nonrenewable resources such as aluminum can be used appropriately through recycling. Aluminum requires a great deal of electricity to produce the first time, by recycling, you can save not only the mineral resource but energy as well.
Text В Ecology of a Product
Ecology is the study of how things interact with the environment. Part of designing a product is planning ahead for what will happen to it after it is used. Products might include anything from a newspaper to a jet airplane. Do you ever stop to think what happens to the things you throw away? Most of us don't very often, In fact, we live in a «throwaway» world. When we're finished with a product, we throw it away instead of fixing it or recycling it. Did you know some of these facts?
- On the average, every man, woman, and child in the United States
creates 5 pounds of garbage a day. That's 230 million tons of
garbage every year!
- Some products that we throw away could easily be replaced with
different products that would last longer or that could be reused.
For example, every year we throw away the following disposable
- 2,000,000,000 razors
- 16,000,000,000 plastic diapers
- 1,600,000,000 ballpoint pens
- The cost of throwing away our trash is going up fast because
of new regulations to protect the environment and because of
lack of space. It can cost $50 per ton to throw away trash. If
you multiply the 230,000,000 tons of garbage we throw away
each year by $50, we spend $11,500,000,000 just on garbage!
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