Mineral resources. Population



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Mineral resources. Population



 

The Far East is rich in mineral resources, the cost of which is estimated at astronomic figures. Gold still remains to be the most promising of the natural resources tapped. Besides gold, much attention has been paid to prospecting and extraction of coal, oil and natural gas. Among the important and well-developed industries of the Far East are extraction and mining. Oil and natural gas are extracted in Sakhalin. Coal mining is developed in the southern part of Yakutiya, the Khabarovsky Krai (Verkhnebureinsky District), the south of Primorye. Copper is extracted in the Komsomolsky District, lead and zink – in the Primorsky Krai. 90% of tin in the Russian Federation is mined in the Far East: the Komsomolsky District, Kavalerovo (Primorye) and the northern part of Yakutiya. 60% of gold in the RF is mined in the Far East. The most important and largest gold extractions in Russia are in the Magadanskaya Oblast (Russian-American joint venture). Other deposits of gold are located in Yakutiya, Amurskaya Oblast, the Khabarovsky Krai. Platinium is extracted in the Khabarovsky Krai and Koryaksky Autonomous Territory. Almost 100% of diamond extractions in Russia are in Yakutiya.

The Russian Far East is a multiethnic community. The smallest peoples’ group of this country – the Negidals (about 500 people), live in the valleys of the Amgun and Amur rivers. Among other indigenous people there are the Yakuts, the Evenks, Evens, Chukchi, Yukaghirs, Aleuts, Ulchi, Udeges, Koryaks, Eskimos, Nanai, Orochi, Nivkhs. Their life improved dramatically in just one generation. There are problems and needs in the social, economic and cultural life of the indigenous people. That is true, written languages had been created, illiteracy was wiped out but at the same time they began to lose their national consciousness, their native language, their folklore, their traditions and tribal system.

The national problems differ in different parts of this country and eventually we’ll find a way to create a favourable social climate for all the ethnic groups of this area.

 

Ex. 4. Translate the following words and word combinations:

 

generally known, to be not exactly sure, coastal foothills, the Bering strait, climatic conditions, beyond the arctic Circle, the Northern lights, the forest tundra, sharply continental, softer monsoon, to be rich in, inimitable in its beauty, the real wonder, south-north wild life interfacing, side by side, “Green Gold”, ranging from … to, breeding-grounds, multiethnic community, written languages, find a way to create a favourable climate.

 

Ex. 5. Find English equivalents in the text:

 

азиатская часть России, тихоокеанское побережье, 40 процентов, граница с Китаем, Алеутские острова, чудо, единственное место в мире, здесь можно найти, склоны гор, запасы леса, гималайский (белогрудый) медведь, снежный барс (дальневосточный леопард), смешанные леса, широколиственные леса, лесотундра, хвойные леса, материк, достигать, беспозвоночные, креветки, водоросли, около 550 различных видов, зеркальный карп, долины, немногим больше, родной язык, тетерев, утка-мандаринка, северный олень, тюлень, Красная книга, песец, коршун, рыбный филин, беркут, большой баклан, щука, пихта, сосна.

 

Ex. 6. Insert prepositions where necessary:

 

1. Geographers divide Asian Russia …Eastern Siberia, Western Siberia and the Russian Far East.

2. The Russian Far East stretches … the Arctic Ocean … the sea … Japan.

3. It stretches … the border … China and Mongolia … the Aleutian Islands and the border … the USA.

4. Flora and fauna are known … the peculiar combination of the northern and southern nature.

5. The largest Federal Okrug is the Far-Eastern Federal Okrug … the capital city … Khabarovsk.

6. Inimitable … its beauty the Far Eastern taiga is the real wonder of this area.

7. One can find plants belonging … tundra and light coniferous forests growing side … side.

8. Magnolia vine, aralia and gin-seng grow next … huge cedars, a birch grows… a bamboo.

9. The northern part lies … the Arctic Circle.

10. The Northern lights can be observed … the shore of the Arctic Ocean, … the

polar night.

11. The sharply continental climate is changed … a softer monsoon climate.

12. In winter, winds are blowing … the mainland and in summer … the Pacific.

13. The Far Eastern fauna also displays … a great variety.

14. The humid southern forests are paradise … different species of frogs and

snakes.

15. … meadows and fields one can see hawk and golden eagle.

16. Much attention has been paid … prospecting and extraction of coal, oil and

natural gas.

17. The rivers are teeming … over 140 species of fish, including … sturgeon, black and mirror carps, salmon.

18. The seas are rich … invertebrates.

 

19. The largest eagle in the world inhabits … Kamchatka.

20. …birds of prey erne and black kite feeding … fish are staying near water.

Ex. 7. Complete the sentences:

 

1. The huge expanse of land known as Siberia lies … .

2. Geographers divide Asian Russia into … .

3. The Far- Eastern economic region includes … .

4. The Far- Eastern region covers … .

5. The Far- Eastern region stretches from … .

6. The tundra gradually becomes … .

7. The sharply continental climate is changed by … .

8. Flora and fauna of the Far East are known for … .

9. The Far East is the only place where … .

10. The stock of wood is … .

11. The Far Eastern flora also displays … .

12. Only here one can find plants belonging … .

13. Gold still remains to be … .

14. Much attention has been paid to … .

15. The seas are rich in … .

 

Ex. 8. Expand the statements:

 

1. Most people are not exactly sure what territory the Far East includes.

2. The Russian Far East occupies a large territory.

3. The Far East has a great variety of climatic conditions.

4. Plants belonging to tundra and light coniferous forests grow side by side.

5. The Far Eastern fauna displays a great variety.

6. The bird colonies are impressive too.

7. The Far East is rich in mineral resources.

8. The rivers are teeming with over 140 species of fish.

9. The seas are rich in invertebrates.

10. The Russian Far East is a multiethnic community.

 

Ex. 9. Answer the questions:

 

1. Can you define the geographical position of the Russian Far East?

2. How many territories does the Far- Eastern economic region include?

3. What types of forest are there in the Russian Far East?

4. How is the climate changed?

5. What does the term “Green Gold” mean?

6. What representatives of the northern and southern fauna can be seen in the Russian Far East?

7. What does the term “endangered animals” mean? Can you give any examples of them?

8. What species of animals can be met on the seashores?

9. What rare birds can be met in the Russian Far East?

10. What are the most promising natural resources?

11. How many species of fish are there in the Far Eastern rivers?

12. Are the seas rich in invertebrates?

13. What ethnic groups live in the Russian Far East?

14. How did the Russians influence the life of the indigenous people?

Ex. 10. a) combine the following sentences into one or change the construction, using “participle I”:

 

1. One can find plants which belong to tundra and light coniferous forests. They grow side by side.

2. The Far Eastern fauna displays a great variety. It ranges from peculiar butterflies to the Himalayan black bear and the Amur tiger.

3. It is impossible to imagine all species of animals and birds which live in the Far Eastern taiga.

4. The rivers are teeming with over 140 species of fish. They include sturgeons, black and mirror carps, breams, taimens, lenoks, salmons, kaluga.

 

b) find in the text other examples of using “participle I”.

Ex. 11. a) open the brackets. Use Passive Voice:

 

1. Forests (to call) a “Green Gold” and all measures (to take) to make the most efficient use of it.

2. The Northern lights (can observe) on the store of the Arctic Ocean.

3. The sharply continental climate (to change) by a softer monsoon climate.

4. Much attention (to have paid) to prospecting and extraction of hydrocarbons.

5. Written languages (to have created).

6. Illiteracy (to wipe out) among the indigenous people.

7. The highest volcanoes in the world (to locate) in Kamchatka.

8. Fish eagle owl (to list) into Red Data Book.

 

b) find in the text other examples of using “participle II”.

 

Ex. 12. Retell the text according to the plan:

 

1. Geographical position of the Russian Far East, its climate.

2. Peculiar combination of the northern and southern nature:

a) plants belonging to different types of forests; valuable plants;

b) the Far Eastern fauna:

- endangered and unique animals;

- fur-bearing animals;

- sea animals;

- birds;

- fish;

- invertebrates.

3. Mineral resources.

4. Indigenous people.

 

Ex. 13. a) read and translate the dialogue:

 

- Hi, Boris. Let me introduce my cousin Victor. He comes from the Far East, the town of Amursk.

- Nice to meet you. Were you born in Amursk?

- Yes. But my parents are from Vitebsk. They came to the Far East after the graduating from the institute. You see, a lot of young specialists and working people from different parts of the former Soviet Union came to settle in the Far East. So, I can say, we have a mixture of different nationalities in the Far East, including the indigenous people.

- It’s very interesting. How can you explain the origin of the term “Far East”? I heard the Russian Far East is a part of Siberia, isn’t it?

- From the historical point of view, it is. But I don’t advise you to say it to the real Far-Easterners. They prefer to distinguish the region they live in into the independent geographic area. You see, up to the late 19th century the entire Asian part of Russia, from the Urals to the Pacific, had been called Siberia. But economic development of the eastern regions demanded that those regions become independent economic and geographic entities, so that Siberia was divided into Western and Eastern Siberia and the Far East. In addition to geographic and economic divisions the Russian Federation was divided into the Federal Okrugs.

- I know there is the Far-Eastern Federal Okrug. I guess it is a large territory.

- It’s huge. It includes 9 territories with area of 6 215 900 sq.km.

- I see. There must be a large population in the Russian Far East.

- I wouldn’t say so. In comparison with the huge territory the size of the population is small. It’s about 7 million. It is very hard to live in the severe natural conditions.

- I think the distribution of the population is very uneven.

- Right you are. The population density is the highest along the valley of the river Amur and in the southern part of the Far East.

- We are having such an interesting talk. Oh, it’s 1.45 p.m. Don’t you think it’s time to have a snack? I can recommend you a really good “bistro” where we can continue our talk, if you don’t mind, of course.

- I’d love to …

Vocabulary:

 

entity – (единая) сущность

uneven – неравномерный

population density – плотность населения

severe – (зд.) суровый

 

b) act out the dialogue or continue the boys’ talk about the Russian Far East.

Ex. 14. Do you know that:

 

1. The Far Eastern yew-tree is the first representative of the coniferous trees in the world. Its life duration is about 4 000 years.

2. Minks were brought to the Far East in the 30-s from America. They got easily acclimatized and now are successfully raised on the fur farms.

3. Ginseng is called the “root of life”. Its Latin name “Panax Gingseng” means panacea. It grows only in the Far Eastern forests.

4. Eleutherococcus is called “Devil’s tree” or “Wild Pepper” because of bitter black berries. It’s widely used in medicine and can be found only in the Russian Far East, China, Korea and Japan.

5. Ripe berries of the Far Eastern magnolia vine taste sour, sweet, bitter and salty. Chinese people call the magnolia vine “the plant of five tastes” and Japanese people gave it the name “the tree of seven tastes”.

6. There are about 60 fruit-bearing plants in the Far Eastern taiga.

7. In 70-s one can meet a leopard in the Far Eastern forest. Nowadays the Far Eastern leopards are nearly extinct.

8. During the Pre-Ice-Age glacier did not reach the central and southern parts of the Far East. That was why some heat loving representatives of flora and fauna had survived. The climate had changed greatly and heat loving plants and animals had to adopt themselves.

9. Kaluga may reach five metres in length and weight up to one ton.

10. The biggest shake in the RF is the Amur runner – about 6 feet long. Its bite

is not fatal but painful.

11. The oldest city of the Russian Far East is Yakutsk (1632).

12. A rare type of tortoise can be found in fresh water. It is a good swimmer and

runner and has very sharp teeth.

 

a) ask questions to the points above.

b) find out any other interesting facts about the geography of your native region.

Vocabulary:

 

expanse – простор, пространство

to include – включать

to divide – разделять, делить

foothills – предгорья

strait – пролив

to stretch – простираться, растянуться

border (with) – граница

to border on – граничить

monsoon [ ] – муссон

coniferous [ ] – хвойный

conifer [ ] – хвойное дерево

broadleaf – широколиственный

peculiar – своеобразный

peculiarity [ ] – особенность

shrub – куст

to mingle – смешиваться

valuable [ ] – ценный

stock – запас

variety [ ] – разнообразие

endangered species – вымирающие виды

fur-bearing – пушной

tapped – использованный

prospecting – разведка

extraction – добыча

mining – добыча; горное дело

deposit [ ] – месторождение

to teem – кишeть

relict [ ] – реликтовый

waterfowl [ ] – водоплавающая птица, дичь

indigenous [ ] – коренной

breeding – разведение

illiteracy [ ] – неграмотность

to be wiped – быть ликвидированным

consciousness [ ] – сознание

tribal от tribe – племя

flora:

yew-tree –тисовое дерево

cedar – кедр

birch – береза

cork tree – пробковое дерево

spruce – ель

ash – ясень

oak – дуб

larch – лиственница

maple – клен

fir-tree – пихта

pine - сосна

cranberry – клюква

bilberry – черника

cowberry – брусника

herbs – травы, в том числе лекарственные

honeysuckle – жимолость

fauna:

ermine – горностай

sable – соболь

deer – олень

roe-deer – косуля

Manchurian deer – изюбр (благородный олень)

musk-deer – кабарга

bighorn sheep – снежный баран

elk – лось

boar – кабан

marten – куница

lynx – рысь

beaver – бобр

racoon dog – енотовидная собака

badger – барсук

arctic fox - песец

weasel – ласка

wolverine – росомаха

sea lion – морской лев

seal (common) – тюлень (обычный)

ribbon seal – полосатый тюлень

whale – кит

walrus – морж

sea otter – морская выдра

stork – аист

crane – журавль

grouse - куропатка

black grouse – тетерев

hazel grouse – рябчик

golden eagle – беркут

heron – цапля

great cormorant – большой баклан

pheasant – фазан

hawk – сокол, ястреб

polar owl – полярная сова

fish eagle owl – рыбный филин

Amur pike – амурская щука

Aucha fish – ауха (китайский окунь)

sturgeon – осётр

bream – лещ

invertebrate – беспозвоночные

scallop – морской гребешок

mussel – мидия

shrimp – мелкая креветка

prawn – креветка

oyster – устрица

algae – водоросли

mineral resources:

coal – уголь

oil – нефть

natural gas – природный газ

non-ferrous metals – цветные металлы

copper- медь

zinc - цинк

platinum - платина

diamond - алмаз

lead – свинец

 

II. THE KHABAROVSKY KRAI

 

Ex. 1. Learn the pronunciation:

advantageous [ ]

humidity [ ]

alluring [ ]

tributary [ ]

estuary [ ]

precious [ ]

outward [ ]

centigrade [ ]

average [ ]

vicinity [ ]

relief [ ]

ore [ ]

 

 

Ex. 2. Read and translate the text:

 

The Khabarovsky Krai

 

The distance from Moscow to Khabarovsk by rail is 8,533 km., while by air it is 6,075 km. The people of Khabarovsk are sure that clearly advantageous geographic location of Khabarovsk has, from the very start, determined the importance of the city as the centre of the Russian Far East. The Khabarovsky Krai (organized in October, 1938) extends from south to north for 1,780 km and from west to east from 125 to 750 km. Our closest neighbours on the russian side are the Primorsky Krai, the Amurskaya Oblast and Magadanskaya Oblast, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya), while the Nevelskoy and Tatar Straits separate us from Sakhalin Island. Our southern foreign neighbour is China. The area of the Khabarovsky Krai is 787,600 sq. k.m., while the total length of the coastline of the Sea of Okhotsk and that of the Sea of Japan is 2,500 km, i. e. 4,5 % of Russia's entire territory. It includes 17 administrative districts (rayons).

The Khabarovsky Krai lies in the continental climatic zone and is characterized by winter and summer monsoons. This means winters tend to be quite mild with a lot of snow and average temperatures of about 22-25 degrees Centigrade below zero. This is not as cold as Siberia, where -30 is a general average temperature. The summer is characterized by high humidity and heavy rainfalls. The July average is + 24 degrees. Climate conditions vary significantly from the north to the south and depend on the land relief and sea vicinity. Most of the Khabarovsk area is mountainous. The mountains form extensive ranges, the names of which are both enigmatic and alluring: Sikhote-Alin, Badzhal, Khingan, and the like. They are rather high (the maximum height is 2,933 metres), impressive, and are cut by watercourses.

The pride of this is the Amur-river that flows across 6 districts – the Khabarovsk, Nanay, Amur, Komsomolsk, Ulchsky, and Nikolayevsk Districts. The Ussuri River flows through the Bikin, Vyazemsky, and Lazo Districts. Other major rivers include the Tunguska (Khabarovsky District), the Gur (Komsomolsky District), the Bureya (Verkhnebureyinsky District), the Okhota (Okhotsky District), the Uchur (Ayano-Maisky District), and the Amgun (Polina Osipenko District).

“Amur” – is the world’s 8th longest river with headwaters in Mongolia and China with its tributary streams the total length of the river is 4, 444 km. Near Khabarovsk the Amur river is over 1 mile wide.

The distance from Khabarovsk to the Pacific Ocean is about 600 miles, and it takes 44 hours to reach the estuary of the Amur by ship. In its estuary the Amur river is about 30 miles wide and almost 300 feet deep. But anyway only the 15 hundred miles of the Amur river are navigable for approximately 6 months a year. The Amur river carries cargo to the numerous sea ports of this country and abroad. The Amur Shipping Company has recently expanded the geography of its outward voyages. A few river ports have been additionally opened to be visited by the Chinese ships.

The administrative centre of the Khabarovsky Krai is the city of Khabarovsk that covers almost 400 sq km and stretches along the right bank of the Amur-river for 45 km.

The population of the Khabarovsky Krai is under 2 million, and about 620 thousand people live in Khabarovsk (in other words – slightly more than in Washington D.C.). Khabarovsk is an important point on the Trans-Siberian Railway (it takes 6,5 days to get to Moscow). It also has Russia’s third largest airport, offering direct flights to Harbin, Guanchzou, Seoul, Niigata, and other international destinations. It is also the Head-quarters of the Russian Far Eastern Military Region.

The Khabarovsky Krai holds an important place in the Russian Far Eastern economic region and even in Russia because of such natural resources as timber, precious species of fish and fur animals, ores of ferrous, non-ferrous and precious metals, water resources and others.

 

Ex. 3. Translate the following words and word combinations:

 

clearly advantageous, from the very start, closest neighbours, tend to be quite mild, coastline, headwaters, cargo, slightly more, Far Eastern Military Region, to be visited by, outward voyages, fur animals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals.

 

Ex. 4. Match the adjectives on the left with the nouns on the right:

 

Advantageous average high heavy mountainous enigmatic impressive major tributary numerous natural precious non-ferrous stream area resources rivers mountains temperature metals species names rainfalls humidity location sea ports

Ex. 5. Insert prepositions where necessary:

 

1. The distance from Moscow to Khabarovsk … rail is 8, 533 km.

2. The Khabarovsky Krai extends from south to north … 1, 780 km and from west to east … 125 … 750 km.

3. Our closest neighbour … the Russian side are the Primorsky Krai, the Amurskaya and Magadanskaya Oblasts, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, the Republic of Sakha, while the Nevelskoy and Tatar Straits seperates us … Sakhalin Island.

4. The summer is characterized … high humidity and heavy rainfalls.

5. Climate conditions depend … the land relief and sea vicinity.

6. Amur is the world’s 8th longest river … headwaters in Mongolia and China.

7. The Khabarovsky Krai holds … an important place in the Far Eastern Economic region.

 

Ex. 6. Insert the words from the text:

 

1. The people of Khabarovsk are sure that clearly … geographic location of Khabarovsk has determined the importance of the city as the centre of the Russian Far East.

2. The Khabarovsky Krai … from south to north for 1,780 Km.

3. Our closest … are the Primorsky Krai, the Amurskaya and Magadanskaya Oblasts, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, the Republic of Sakha.

4. The Tatar Strait … us from … Island.

5. Our southern … neighbours is China.

6. The Khabarovsky Krai lies in … climatic zone and is characterized by winter and summer … .

7. The summer is characterized by high … and heavy … .

8. In winters … temperatures are – 22 - 25 degrees … .

9. Most of Khabarovsk area is … .

10. The Amur river … across 6 districts.

11. “Amur” is the 8th longest river with … in Mongolia and China.

12. The total … is 4, 444 km with its … streams.

13. It takes 44 hours to reach … of the Amur by … .

14. Only 15 hundred miles of the Amur are … .

15. The Amur Shipping Company has recently expanded the geography of its …

voyages.

16. The city of Khabarovsk … along the right bank of the Amur-river for 28 miles.

17. Khabarovsk has Russia’s third largest … .

18. It is also … of the Russian Far Eastern Military Region.

19. Khabarovsk is an important … on the Trans-Siberian Railway.

20. The Khabarovsk airport offers flights to international destination.

Ex. 7. Prove the statements:

 

1. The Khabarovsky Krai has advantageous geographic location.

2. Climate conditions vary significantly.

3. The Khabarovsky Krai lies in the mountainous area.

4. The Amur-river is one of the important rivers of the Russian Federation.

5. Rich natural resources attract attention to the Khabarovsky Krai.

 

Ex. 8. Answer the questions:

 

1. What is the distance from Moscow to Khabarovsk by rail/by air?

2. When was the Khabarovsky Krai as the administrative unit organized?

3. What are the neighbours of the Khabarovsky Krai?

4. Is the territory of the Khabarovsky Krai large?

5. Why is the climate of the Khabarovsky Krai peculiar?

6. Does the Amur-river play an important role for the Khabarovsky Krai?

7. What are the advantages of the geographical position of the Khabarovsky Krai? What role do they play for the development of the Khabarovsky Krai?

8. Is the Khabarovsky Krai rich in natural resources?

 

Ex. 9. Make up your own topic according to the plan:

 

1. Advantageous geographic location

2. Neighbours

3. Climate conditions

4. The major rivers and mountainous ranges

5. Rich natural resources

 

Ex. 10. a) read and translate the dialogue:

 

- Now we are going down the street of T.Shevchenko, leading to Lenin Stadium, the central stadium of the city.

- I see the Fine Art Museum and Concert Hall and what’s this?

- This is the State Museum of the Far East.

- The building seems to be old.

- Right. The Local Lore Museum was founded in April, 19, 1894 on the initiative of the Russian Geographic Society.

- The museum is named after N.I. Grodekov. What was he?

- N.I. Grodekov was the governor-general of the Far East. He worked and lived in Khabarovsk. Grodekov was honoured citizen of Khabarovsk who took part in the foundation of the museum.

- I heard that a well-known scientist and writer V.K. Arsenyev lived here. Was his activity also connected with the museum?

- Of course, it was. V.K. Arsenyev was the director of the museum from 1910-1918 and 1925-1926. He took part in the organization of the museum and in collecting of its exhibits.

- How many departments are there in the museum?

- Let’s see. First of all, nature department which features geography of the Khabarovsky Krai, its mineral resources, unique flora and fauna. On the second floor there are etnography department dating back to the turn of the 20th century and tracing the natural and cultural history of the indigenous people; the department of the political movements including the exposition "The Civil war and military conflicts" with its panorama of Volochaevskaya battle; the department devoted to the Russian pioneers and the history of settlement of the Russian Far East. Besides, we have different temporary displays on the second and third floors. Would you like to listen to one of the lectures offered by the museum to its quests?

- With pleasure. Can we do it right now?

- Sure. Let’s go.

 

b) Continue the talk between the citizen of the city and its quest or act out the above dialogue.

Vocabulary:

 

Advantageous [ ] – выгодный

to extend – простираться

humidity – влажность

average – среднее (ий)

vicinity [ ] – окрестности

range – (горная) цепь

enigmatic – загадочный

alluring [ ] – соблазнительный

watercource – река, ручей, поток

headquarters [ ] – главное управление, штаб

tributary stream – приток

estuary – устье

approximately – приблизительно

destination – место назначения

headwater – истоки

precious [ ]– ценный, драгоценный (металл)

timber – древесина

ore [ ] – руда

centigrade [ ] – по Цельсию

outward – внешний



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