General Economic Profile of the Russian Far East



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General Economic Profile of the Russian Far East



 

The Far East is Russia’s largest region and occupies 36.4% of the entire Russian territory, while its population accounts for only 5% of the national total. In social and economic terms, the region plays a minor role on the national scene generating slightly over 6% of GDP. The percentages of the regional industrial and agricultural output in the national total are 4.3% and 5%. These figures indicate that the percentage of the tertiary sector in the region is comparatively high.

The RFE territory may be subdivided into three zones by degree of economic development: southern, central and northern. The southern zone includes the Primorsky Krai and the southern areas of the Khabarovsky Krai, Amurskaya Oblast and Sakhalin. This is the best developed part of the Russian Far East generating more than 60% of the region’s GDP. The mainstays of its economy are fishing, forest and mining sectors as well as the communication sector. The middle zone includes the northern areas of the Khabarovsky Krai, Amurskaya Oblast, Sakhalin and the south of Sakha (Yakutia). In the second half of 1990s, this zone was characterized by a certain stability of industrial production largely dependent on the raw-material specialization of industrial branches. In the northern zone, occupying more than 40% of the region’s territory, the bulk of industrial output is generated by extractive branches. This zone accounts for 15% of the regional GDP.

The largest percentage of the regional GDP is produced by Sakha (24%). It is followed by Primorye (22%) and the Khabarovsky Krai (21%). The rest regions play a less significant role in the RFE economy: the Amurskaya and Sakhalinskaya Oblasts - 11% each, Kamchatka and Magadan - 5% each, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast and Chukotsky Okrug - 1% each.

The social indicators of the RFE economy reflect difficulties typical of Russia as a whole. Thus, unemployment rate is 9.3%, varying from 4.4% in the Magadanskaya Oblast to 15.7% on Sakhalin.

The percentage of economically active population is 9% of Russia’s total. The structure of employment reflects the general trend toward de-industrialization of economy: employment in industry and construction dropped to 30% from 40% . Employment in the farming sector is about 5% compared with 7% in 2000 which shows little change and is explained by adverse climatic conditions. Correspondingly, the percentage of employed in the tertiary sector (services) has grown and exceeded 60%.

 

Ex. 1.Find English equivalents in the text:

 

крупнейший регион России, его население составляет, по социальным и экономическим показателям, чуть больше, сравнительно высокий, разделять, степень экономического развития, во второй половине 90-х, определенная стабильность, занимать больше 40%, добывающая отрасль, остальные регионы, играть менее значительную роль, для России в целом, общее направление.

 

Ex. 2. Insert prepositions:

1. Its population accounts … only 5% of the national total.

2. The RFE territory may be subdivided … three zones … degree of economic

development: southern, central and northern.

3. In the second half … 1990s, this zone was characterized … a certain stability … industrial production.

4. The rest regions play a less significant role … the RFE economy.

5. The social indicators … the RFE economy reflect difficulties typical … Russia as a whole.

6. It is explained … adverse climatic conditions.

 

Ex. 3. Expand the following:

1. The Far East is Russia’s largest region.

2. The RFE territory may be subdivided into three zones.

3. The social indicators of the RFE economy reflect difficulties typical of Russia as a whole.

 

Vocabulary:

 

entire – общий

output – объем производства

GDP – gross domestic product – валовой внутренний продукт

mainstays – основа

the tertiary sector – обслуживающий сектор

raw material – сырье

extractive branches - добывающие отрасли

significant – значительный

to reflect – отражать

unemployment rate – уровень безработицы

to drop – падать, снижаться

to compare – сравнивать

to exceed – превышать



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