ТОП 10:

Symmetric Key Encryption Algorithms. Public Key Algorithms. Cryptographic Hash Algorithms.



The use, export, and/or import of implementations of encryption algorithms are restricted in many countries, and the laws can change quite rapidly. Find out what the rules are before trying to build applications using cryptography.

For secret key (bulk data) encryption algorithms, use only encryption algorithms that have been openly published and withstood years of attack, and check on their patent status. We would recommend using the new Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndahl -- a number of cryptographers have analyzed it and not found any serious weakness in it, and we believe it has been through enough analysis to be trustworthy now. However, in August 2002 researchers Fuller and Millar discovered a mathematical property of the cipher that, while not an attack, might be exploitable into an attack (the approach may actually has serious consequences for some other algorithms, too). A good alternative to AES is the Serpent algorithm, which is slightly slower but is very resistant to attack. For many applications triple-DES is a very good encryption algorithm; it has a reasonably lengthy key (112 bits), no patent issues, and a very long history of withstanding attacks (it's withstood attacks far longer than any other encryption algorithm with reasonable key length in the public literature, so it's probably the safest publicly-available symmetric encryption algorithm when properly implemented). However, triple-DES is very slow when implemented in software, so triple-DES can be considered ``safest but slowest.'' Twofish appears to be a good encryption algorithm, but there are some lingering questions - Sean Murphy and Fauzan Mirza showed that Twofish has properties that cause many academics to be concerned (though as of yet no one has managed to exploit these properties). MARS is highly resistent to ``new and novel'' attacks, but it's more complex and is impractical on small-ability smartcards. Your protocol should support multiple encryption algorithms, anyway; that way, when an encryption algorithm is broken, users can switch to another one.

For symmetric-key encryption (e.g., for bulk encryption), don't use a key length less than 90 bits if you want the information to stay secret through 2016 (add another bit for every additional 18 months of security) [Blaze 1996]. For encrypting worthless data, the old DES algorithm has some value, but with modern hardware it's too easy to break DES's 56-bit key using brute force. If you're using DES, don't just use the ASCII text key as the key - parity is in the least (not most) significant bit, so most DES algorithms will encrypt using a key value well-known to adversaries; instead, create a hash of the key and set the parity bits correctly (and pay attention to error reports from your encryption routine). So-called ``exportable'' encryption algorithms only have effective key lengths of 40 bits, and are essentially worthless; in 1996 an attacker could spend $10,000 to break such keys in twelve minutes or use idle computer time to break them in a few days, with the time-to-break halving every 18 months in either case.

Block encryption algorithms can be used in a number of different modes, such as ``electronic code book'' (ECB) and ``cipher block chaining'' (CBC). In nearly all cases, use CBC, and do not use ECB mode - in ECB mode, the same block of data always returns the same result inside a stream, and this is often enough to reveal what's encrypted. Many modes, including CBC mode, require an ``initialization vector'' (IV). The IV doesn't need to be secret, but it does need to be unpredictable by an attacker. Don't reuse IV's across sessions - use a new IV each time you start a session.

There are a number of different streaming encryption algorithms, but many of them have patent restrictions. I know of no patent or technical issues with WAKE. RC4 was a trade secret of RSA Data Security Inc; it's been leaked since, and we know of no real legal impediment to its use, but RSA Data Security has often threatened court action against users of it (it's not at all clear what RSA Data Security could do, but no doubt they could tie up users in worthless court cases). If you use RC4, use it as intended - in particular, always discard the first 256 bytes it generates, or you'll be vulnerable to attack. SEAL is patented by IBM - so don't use it. SOBER is patented; the patent owner has claimed that it will allow many uses for free if permission is requested, but this creates an impediment for later use. Even more interestingly, block encryption algorithms can be used in modes that turn them into stream ciphers, and users who want stream ciphers should consider this approach.

For public key cryptography (used, among other things, for signing and sending secret keys), there are only a few widely-deployed algorithms. One of the most widely-used algorithms is RSA; RSA's algorithm was patented, but only in the U.S., and that patent expired in September 2000, so RSA can be freely used. Never decrypt or sign a raw value that an attacker gives you directly using RSA and expose the result, because that could expose the private key (this isn't a problem in practice, because most protocols involve signing a hash computed by the user - not the raw value - or don't expose the result). Never decrypt or sign the exact same raw value multiple times (the original can be exposed). Both of these can be solved by always adding random padding (PGP does this) - the usual approach is called Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP).

The Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm is widely used to permit two parties to agree on a session key. By itself it doesn't guarantee that the parties are who they say they are, or that there is no middleman, but it does strongly help defend against passive listeners; its patent expired in 1997. If you use Diffie-Hellman to create a shared secret, be sure to hash it first.

NIST developed the digital signature standard (DSS) (it's a modification of the ElGamal cryptosystem) for digital signature generation and verification; one of the conditions for its development was for it to be patent-free.

RSA, Diffie-Hellman, and El Gamal's techniques require more bits for the keys for equivalent security compared to typical symmetric keys; a 1024-bit key in these systems is supposed to be roughly equivalent to an 80-bit symmetric key. A 512-bit RSA key is considered completely unsafe; Nicko van Someren has demonstrated that such small RSA keys can be factored in 6 weeks using only already-available office hardware (never mind equipment designed for the job). In the past, a 1024-bit RSA key was considered reasonably secure, but recent advancements in factorization algorithms (e.g., by D. J. Bernstein) have raised concerns that perhaps even 1024 bits is not enough for an RSA key. Certainly, if your application needs to be highly secure or last beyond 2015, you should use a 2048 bit keys.

If you need a public key that requires far fewer bits (e.g., for a smartcard), then you might use elliptic curve cryptography (IEEE P1363 has some suggested curves; finding curves is hard). However, be careful - elliptic curve cryptography isn't patented, but certain speedup techniques are patented.

Some programs need a one-way cryptographic hash algorithm, that is, a function that takes an ``arbitrary'' amount of data and generates a fixed-length number that hard for an attacker to invert (e.g., it's difficult for an attacker to create a different set of data to generate that same value). For a number of years MD5 has been a favorite, but recent efforts have shown that its 128-bit length may not be enough [van Oorschot 1994] and that certain attacks weaken MD5's protection [Dobbertin 1996]. Indeed, there are rumors that a top industry cryptographer has broken MD5, but is bound by employee agreement to keep silent (see the Bugtraq 22 August 2000 posting by John Viega). Anyone can create a rumor, but enough weaknesses have been found that the idea of completing the break is plausible. If you're writing new code, use SHA-1 instead of MD5. Don't use the original SHA (now called ``SHA-0''); SHA-0 had the same weakness that MD5 does. If you need more bits in your hash algorithm, use SHA-256, SHA-384, or SHA-512; you can get the specifications in NIST FIPS PUB 180-2.

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