ТОП 10:

Pay attention to phrasal verbs, guess their meaning from the context of the sentence.



1.We’ll buy a smaller house when the children have grown up and left home. 2.Who’s going to look after the cats when we go away on holiday? 3.The computer isn’t working – it broke down this morning 4.I found out where he lived by checking in the local library. 5.It was no problem: we looked up his number in the telephone book. 6.My headaches have been much better since I gave up drinking coffee. 7.What’s going on here? What are you doing? 8.He promised to play in the match, but he didn’t come. He let down the whole team. 9.What time does the plane take off?

 

6.16If –clauses.

I. If you go to London, you will improve your English.

II. If you went to London, you would improve your English.

III. If you had gone to London, you would have improved your English.

 

6.17 Translate the following sentences.

1.If the weather is fine, we’ll go to the park. 2.If you don’t revise, you won’t pass exams.3.If I knew her address, I would write to her. 4.I’m sure, he will give me some money. I would be surprised if he didn’t. 5.If we didn’t have air, there would be no sound. 6.If you had gone to the concert with us, you would have enjoyed it.7.If I had known that you were ill last week, I’d have gone to see you. 8.If she had been hungry, she would have eaten something.

 

6.18Exam task.Read the text and make up your own one about your future profession.

I study at the Faculty of Designing Marine Devices. My future profession will be Automation and Control Systems. I am interested in my future profession and I hope I will be a good specialist.

Computer industry is developing fast and comprises almost all spheres of professional life. Electronic engineering deals with the research, design, integration and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. Computer engineers deal with all aspects of electronic communication. In designing communication systems, engineers rely on various branches of higher mathematics. They work on control systems which are used extensively in automated manufacturing and robotics.

One of the main tasks is the creation of artificial intelligence through development of higher level machine languages. The other task is microminiaturization. Engineers continue to work to fit greater and greater number of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips. Another trend is increasing the speed of computer operations through the use of parallel processors and superconducting materials.

Computer engineers have a lot of employment opportunities as each new generation of computers opens up new possibilities for basic and applied research.

6.19 Answer the questions:

1. What is the role of science in people’s lives? Give examples.

2. Would you like to work in the field of science?

 

6.20 Try to match the discoveries 1-4with how they were discovered a-d.

1) the equation e = mc2 a) scientists worked together as a team

2) Hubble’s law b) there was a lucky accident

3) penicillin c) a scientist observed something very carefully

4) the first computer d) a scientist had a moment of inspiration

 

6.21 Read the text and check your guesses from exercise 6.20.

LANDMARKS OF SCIENCE

In the summer of 1905, a young man was sitting at home after a day’s work. While playing with his baby, he thought something over. Suddenly, it came to him! The equation e = mc2 was born, the equation which would change our understanding of the universe but would help to create the nuclear bomb. Albert Einstein knew about the recent developments, such as Marie Curie’s research into radioactivity, but he had been working on his own. His equation showed how a small piece of mass could produce an unbelievable amount of energy.

By the time Einstein had become world-famous, a young ex-lawyer returning from the First World War started to work at the Mount Wilson Observatory in California. Using the most high-powered telescope of its time, he began a slow observation of nebulae, small patches of light that appeared outside the galaxy. Edwin Hubble was on the brink of making the greatest astronomical breakthrough of the century. He discovered that these nebulae were in fact galaxies like our own, millions of light years away from us, which proved that the universe was much larger than had previously been thought.

Just before Hubble’s Law was published in 1929, another remarkable finding was made by the son of a Scottish shepherd. Before going on holiday, he left a dish with bacteria near the window of his laboratory. When he came back, he was going to throw the dish away when he noticed something out of the ordinary. He saw a blue mould in the dish around which the bacteria was destroyed. It was the natural form of penicillin which Fleming realized was an effective way of killing bacteria. A few years later, penicillin became mass-produced and helped to save the lives of millions.

During the Second World War when penicillin was first being used, the US Navy were looking for ways of improving the accuracy of their artillery shells. They turned to Eckert, an engineer, and Mauchly, a physicist to produce a machine to do these complex calculations. Although they did not finish the machine until after the war, in February 1946, it did not matter. They had produced the world’s first computer. It was named Eniac.

Notes: nebulae – туманности a shepherd –- пастух

a patch – небольшой участок a shell – снаряд

mould – плесень

6.22 Are these statements true (T) or false (F) according to the text or is there no information (NI)?

1. Einstein was at work when he thought of the formula e = mc2.

2. Einstein took part in the programme that developed the nuclear bomb.

3. Hubble studied the nebulae for over twenty years.

4. Hubble discovered that our galaxy is bigger than we thought it was.

5. Fleming was studying bacteria in his laboratory when the discovery

happened.

6. There was a blue mould around the bacteria in the dish.

7. Fleming developed the process for manufacturing penicillin.

8. The Eniac project failed to fulfil its original purposes.

6.23 Exam Task. Reading Comprehension. Read the text and do tasks A and B after it.

STEVE JOBS

Steve Jobs (1955-2011), an American computer-industry executive, best-known as the co-founder and mastermind of Apple computers, was born in San-Francisco, California, USA. Jobs was given up for adoption after birth and raised by his adoptive parents in Silicon Valley. He attended Reed College in Portland, Oregon for one semester before dropping out.

Being a college dropout, Steve Jobs teamed up with Steve Wozniak in 1976 to sell personal computers assembled in Job’s garage. That was the beginning of Apple Company, which launched the personal-computer revolution by introducing its first product, the Apple II computer in 1977, and made Steve Jobs a multimillionaire before he was 30 years old. As a result of buying Pixar Animation Studios in 1986, he became a billionaire in 2006.

The Apple computers were attractive, user-friendly, graphically oriented alternative to the IBM-Microsoft personal computers. Some famous Apple Company products are the colourful iMac computer and the iPod music player. S. Jobs oversaw the development of elegantly designed music players, smartphones, and computer tablets whose enormous success also led Apple to become a significant music and software seller.

Jobs was diagnosed with cancer in 2003. Though he refused to speak publicly about his health, he survived several surgeries, and had to take a long medical leave of absence from Apple twice, in June of 2009 and in January of 2011. He remained with the company as Chairman of the Board until he died in the autumn of 2011.

Notes: to oversee – возглавлять, отвечать за…

an executive –руководитель a mastermind – вдохновитель

to adopt – усыновлять to launch – начинать

to drop out – бросать учебу surgery – операция

A. Are the sentences below true, false or the information is not stated?

1. Steve Jobs grew up in San Francisco.

2. He got higher education.

3. The Apple Company started making their first computers in the garage.

4. S. Jobs was the inventor of a personal computer.

5. He left the Apple Company several times only because of his health problems.

6. S. Jobs was an important figure in the computing industry for many years.

B. Choose the statement that gives the main idea of the text.

1. Steve Jobs was successful all his life.

2. He completely changed the computer industry.

3. The Apple competed with the IBM Microsoft Company.

6.24 Exam task. Read the dialogue, then act out a similar one about your plans for the future with a partner. Learn the dialogue by heart.

A: Do you ever think about the future?

B: Sometimes. It’s fun to picture myself in 10 years’ time.

A: Would you like to have a family?

B: Yes. As soon as I get a good job, I’ll get married.

A: And what job would you like to do?

B: I’m not sure yet. Perhaps I’ll be a naval architect like my uncle.

A: I think you’ll make an excellent engineer. You’re good at

applied sciences.

B: I hope so. What about you?

A: I’m going to be a designer.

B: Really? What sort of things are you going to design?

A: Mmm, the interiors of houses, maybe. Or maybe the interiors of

cabins. Then we can work for the same company.

B: That’s a good idea!

6.25 Complete the questions below with the words in the box:

boss enjoy people travel do studying weekends

1. Are you working or .......... or what?

  1. So what do you ..........?
  2. Do you have to work at .........?
  3. Do you ........... it?
  4. And do you have to ........... far to work?
  5. What are the........... you work with like?
  6. What's your ........... like?

6.26 Complete the proverbs with the words from the box. Choose and memorize three of them.

1. No, ….. nо gain. a) yourself
2. Business before ….. . b) pain
3. То work with the left ….. . c) hour
4. If you want a thing well done, do it ….. . d) trees
5. Money doesn't grow on ….. . e) hand
6. If a ….. is worth doing it is worth doing well. f) pleasure
7. An ….. in the morning is worth two in the evening. g) job

 

TEST

Choose the correct response.

1 Do you think you’ll be the boss of a big company one day?

a) No, l don’t think so. b) I can’t stand working shifts.

 

2 I’m going to a job interview tomorrow at the bank.

a) Yes, l think you are. b) Good luck!

 

3 Are you going to become a doctor like your father?

a) I hope so. b) That’s great!

 

4 I’ve lost my job!

a) Oh, how nice! b) Oh, dear!

 

5 I got the job at the florist’s!

a) That’s great! Well done! b) Definitely!

 


APPENDIX 1

IRREGULAR VERBS

 

be become begin break bring build buy can catch choose come cost cut do drink drive eat fall feel fight find fly forget get give go grow have hear hit hold keep know learn leave let light lose make meet pay put read ride ring rise run say see sell send shut sing sit sleep speak spend stand steal swim take tell think throw understand wake wear win write was / were became began broke brought built bought could caught chose came cost cut did drank drove ate fell felt fought found flew forgot got gave went grew had heard hit held kept knew learnt left let lit lost made met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent shut sang sat slept spoke spent stood stole swam took told thought threw understood woke wore won wrote been become begun broken brought built bought been able caught chosen come cost cut done drunk driven eaten fallen felt fought found flown forgotten got given gone / been grown had heard hit held kept known learnt left let lit lost made met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent shut sung sat slept spoken spent stood stolen swum taken told thought thrown understood woken worn won written быть становиться начинать ломать приносить, приводить строить покупать мочь ловить выбирать приходить стоить резать делать пить вести (транспорт) есть, кушать падать чувствовать драться, бороться находить летать забывать получать давать идти, уходить расти иметь слышать ударять держать держать, хранить знать учить, узнать покидать позволять зажигать терять делать, изготовлять встречать, знакомиться платить ставить, класть читать ехать верхом звонить подниматься бежать говорить, сказать видеть продавать посылать закрывать петь сидеть спать говорить тратить стоять украсть плавать брать, взять сказать, рассказать думать, полагать бросать понимать просыпаться носить (одежду) выигрывать писать

 

 

APPENDIX 2

ACTIVE VOICE

 

Tenses Simple Continuous Perfect*
Present   regularly   I write Я пишу   now   I am writing Я пишу   by now   I have written Я написал  
Past yesterday   I wrote/-ed Я писал   yesterday + at   I was writing Я писал   yesterday + by   I had written Я написал  
Future tomorrow   I will write Я буду писать   tomorrow + at   I will be writing Я буду писать   tomorrow + by   I will have written Я напишу  
Future-in -the-Past   She said she would write Она сказала, что она будет писать.   She said she would be writing Она сказала, что она будет писать.   She said she would have written Она сказала, что она напишет.

PASSIVE VOICE

Be+V3 Simple Continuous Perfect*
Present regularly I am invited (меня приглашают) now I am being invited (меня приглашают) by now I have been invited (меня пригласили)
Past yesterday I was invited (меня пригласили / я был приглашен) yesterday + at I was being invited (меня приглашали) yesterday + by I had been invited (меня пригласили)
Future tomorrow I will be invited (меня пригласят)     tomorrow + by   I will have been invited (меня пригласят)
Future-in -the-Past She said I would be invited (она сказала, что я буду приглашен / меня пригласят)   She said I would have been invited (она сказала, что я буду приглашен / меня пригласят)

 

APPENDIX 3

WORD-BUILDING

 







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