ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Основные правила чтения гласных



Английский язык

Учебное пособие для организации самостоятельной

работы студентов

Заочного отделения

 

Пермь

ПГГПУ

Английский язык: учеб. пособие для организации самостоятельной работы студентов-заочников неязыковых факультетов.

Авторы составители: И.М. Некрасова, Н.П. Зонина Перм. гос. гум.-пед. ун-т. – Пермь, 2015. – 54 стр.

Учебное пособие «Английский язык» составлено в соответствии с требованиями ФГОС по направлению 050100 «Педагогическое образование» (все профили), 050400 «Психолого-педагогическое образование» и др. направлений и профилей неязыковых факультетов.

Данное пособие является частью учебно-методического комплекта по английскому языку наряду с «Кратким курсом грамматики английского языка» и контрольно-измерительными материалами. Издание включает интерактивные задания по грамматике, тексты по специальности для самостоятельного чтения и материалы устных разговорных тем по английскому языку, предусмотренные программой. К каждой теме приводится словарь и вопросы; тексты снабжены заданиями по проверке полученной информации. Пособие призвано помочь студентам в подготовке к экзамену по английскому языку в конце курса обучения.

Издание предназначено для аудиторной и внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы студентов-бакалавров I курса.

 

 

Печатается по решению учебно-методического Совета

ФГБОУ «Пермский государственный гуманитарно-педагогический университет»

 

 

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

 

Требования к зачету по английскому языку

1. Внеаудиторная самостоятельная работа в межсессионный период, которая предусматривает выполнение всех заданий соответствующего семестра. Задания включают 3 аспекта: 1) грамматика (изучение теоретического материала и выполнение упражнений); 2) чтение (не менее трех текстов с предлагаемыми заданиями); 3) устная речь (подготовка монологических высказываний по заданным темам).

2. Выполнение контрольной работы (аудиторная самостоятельная работа во время сессии). Контрольная работа требует знания лексики по пройденным темам, знание основных форм наиболее частотных неправильных глаголов. Умение находить в текстах и объяснять изученные грамматические явления, умение читать текст с извлечением необходимой информации.

3. Посещение занятий. Студент должен быть готов с домашним заданием соответствующего семестра к первому занятию по иностранному языку, указанному в расписании.

 

Требования к экзамену по английскому языку

 

1. Прочитать текст по специальности (600-700 печатных знаков за 45 минут) и выполнить задания, предложенные в соответствии со стратегией чтения: изучающее чтение (перевод) или поисковое чтение (задания типа «верно/неверно», ответы на вопросы, поиск перефразированных высказываний и т.п.).

2. Высказаться по предложенной разговорной теме (15-20 предложений) и ответить на вопросы преподавателя.

 

Список экзаменационных тем

1. Рассказ о себе и своем рабочем дне.

2. Наш университет, студенческая жизнь.

3. Великобритания.

 

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

 

Phonetics ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

Elementary Grammar.................................................................................................................................... 5

Communication ........................................................................................................................................... 11

HOME TASK.................................................................................................................................................... 12

I. Grammar................................................................................................................................................... 12

II. Communication ....................................................................................................................................... 18

III. Reading................................................................................................................................................... 19

SESSION TWO.................................................................................................................................................. 25

Advanced Grammar..................................................................................................................................... 25

HOME TASK..................................................................................................................................................... 28

I. Grammar................................................................................................................................................... 28

II. Communication ....................................................................................................................................... 31

III. Reading................................................................................................................................................... 32

3.1. Математический факультет..................................................................................................... 38

3.2. Филологический факультет......................................................................................................... 39

3.3. Факультет физической культуры............................................................................................... 40

3.4. Факультет педагогики и методики начального образования................................................ 43

3.5. Факультет педагогики и психологии детства ......................................................................... 44

3.6. Биологический факультет ........................................................................................................... 46

3.9. Исторический факультет............................................................................................................ 48

3.10. Факультет музыки...................................................................................................................... 49

3.11. Факультет психологии ............................................................................................................... 50

3.12. Факультет информатики и экономики ................................................................................... 51

3.13. Факультет социально‐педагогического образования............................................................ 53

СПИСОК ИСТОЧНИКОВ.................................................................................................................................. 54

SESSION ONE

Phonetics

Основные правила чтения гласных

 

Тип слога a e i / y o u
I [ei] name [i:] Pete [ai] nine, my [əu] nose [ju:] use
II [æ] cat [e] реt [i] six, gym [ɔ] hot [ʌ] bus
III [a:] car [ə:] her [ə:] girl [ɔ:] port [ə:] turn
IV [еə] care [iə] here [аiə] fire [ɔ:] more [juə] cure

 

Чтение некоторых согласных

 

c   g   th   w
[s] face city bicycle [k] cut cool class [ʤ] fridge origin gym [g] game got glad [ʘ] thick think Thursday [ð] this they father [w] window white warm [-] write wrong who

 

Прочитайте следующие слова, объясняя, правила чтения:

take, main, see, fine, eve, cap, cell, kind, close, fork, soon, tube, year, watch, wrong, knit, thick, then, singer, age, god, fair, fire, pure, burn, quarter, exact, new, hall, night, chess, yeast, mind, warm, who, glove, noise, grass, July, row, party, cake, stamp, mean, dear, tie, give, find, brown, fog, took, food, floor, cheese, which, wrist, knee, quit, lace, lack, clay, shirt, nurse, endure, hire, hare, mere, world, want, few, sight, expect, exist, grow, down, boil, mild, sugar, social, official.

Elementary Grammar

 

1. Прочитайте следующие предложения и выполните несколько заданий.

 

1) I am an external student.   2) He has (got) a brother and sisters.   3) This (That) is a textbook. These (Those) are textbooks.   4) Give me the dictionary, please. Let’s (Let us) begin the lesson.   5) There is a bookcase at the wall. There are some books in it. a) Объясните, какие базовые структуры лежат в основе предложений. Переведите их.   б) Поставьте предложения в отрицательную форму.   в) Задайте общий вопрос.   г) Составьте предложения по образцу.

2. Проверьте свое знание временных форм Simple глагола be.

  лицо Present Past Future
ед
.
число
 

I he, she, it am is was   will be
мн
.
ч
.

we you they are were

2.1.Определите, в каком предложении глагол be употребляется как а) вспомогательный; б) полнозначный; в) связочный.

1) He was in the library yesterday. 2) They are British.

3) We are reading and translating now.

 

2.2. Дайте краткие ответы, используя глагол beв Present Simple. Model: Are you from Perm? → Yes, I am. / No, I am not.

1. Are you a student of Technical University? 2. Is your girl-friend seventeen? 3. Is your boy-friend a student of Philology? 4. Are your parents from Perm? 5. Is this book a dictionary? 6. Are you good at English?

 

2.3. Используйте глагол beв соответствующей временной форме, обращая внимание на обстоятельства времени.

1. I … at home yesterday. 2. Where ... they from? 3. We … in the south of Perm region last year. 4. My friends ... in the north of Russia now. 5. Ann … a good teacher in the future. 6. It ... the way to my house. 7. They … real friends in the past. 8. There … a traffic jam two hours ago. 9. It … warm next week.

10. … your sister a student too? 11. Kate … here in two days.

 

2.4. Найдите и исправьте ошибки в предложениях с глаголом have.

1. They has dinner together every Sunday. 2. We had much free time tomorrow morning. 3. He haven’t got a brother but two younger sisters. 4. Have you got a new computer? - Yes, I do. 5. Can I have got a look at that photo? 6. I’ve got an appointment with the doctor. 7. Do you have got a driving license? 8. I hasn’t got any pet at home.

 

2.5. Обратитесь с предложением к другу, используя “Let’s …” или “Let’s not …” и слова: tell, stay, hurry, make.

1. We don’t want to be late. _________ .

2. We want to keep this a secret. ________ anyone.

3. We want to be careful. _________ any mistakes.

4. We don’t want to go out now. ________ at home.

2.6. Закончите предложения. Используйте “there”, “it” или “they” и соответствующую форму глагола “be”.

Example: There’s an old castle on the hill. It’s over 500 years old.

1. ___ a film on TV tonight. ___ called “The Deer Hunter”.

2. ___ five senses. ___ sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch.

3. “___ a computer shop in the town centre?” “Yes, ___ in West Street.”

4. “___ any books about Hitchcock in the library?” “Yes, ___ on the shelf.”

 

3. Сопоставьте формы местоимений в таблице.

 

Личные местоимения Объектная форма Притяжательные местоимения Притяжател. (абсолютн.) Возвратные  
I me my mine myself
he him his his himself
she her her hers herself
it it its its itself
we us our ours ourselves
you you your yours yourselves
they them their theirs themselves

 

3.1. Проанализируйте, каким членом предложения являются выделенные местоимения.

1. We are students. This is our classroom. 2. Is it your cell phone? – Yes, it’s mine. 3. They are our guests. Show them around the house. 4. Can you explain him the problem? 5. If you need a dictionary, take it! 6. The task is very easy, do it yourselves! 7. Don’t take these seats, they are ours.

 

3.2. Выберите соответствующее местоимение.

 

1. … house is in Spain. а) their b) them c) us2. Tell … about this country. a) our b) us c) she 3. Can I take a glass? – Yes, help... a) you b) them c) yourself 4. They are … children. a) hers b) its c) his 5. Take the book. Give … to Jane. a) her b) them c) it 6. I want to tell … the story. a) them b) its c) me 7. She enjoyed … very much. a) hers b) myself c) herself 8. John is a friend of … . a) us b) mine c) my

 

3.3. Используйте соответствующую форму местоимения.

1. Could (you)lend (I)some money? 2. Why didn’t (she)ask (we) to help she)?3. Do (you) ever talk to (you)when(you)’re on (you)own? 4. (They) house is much bigger than (we). 5. Is this book (you) or (I) ? 6. Read the new words and classify (they) into 2 groups: verbs and nouns.

3.4. Соотнесите вопросительные местоимения и члены предложения, которые они замещают.

 

Член предложения Вопросительное слово Перевод
Подлежащее Who? What? Кто? Что?
Дополнение What? Whom? Что? Кого /Кому?
Обстоятельство (времени, места, образа действия и т.д.) Where (to / from)? When? How? Why? Где? (Куда? Откуда?) Когда? Как? Почему?
  Определение What (kind of) + сущ. Whose + существител. How many /much+ сущ. Какой? Чей? Сколько?

 

3.5. Выберите соответствующее местоимение для постановки вопроса к предложению: My sister is going to the cinema tonight.

1) ______ is going to the cinema tonight?

2) ______ is my sister going tonight?

3) ______ is my sister going to the cinema?

4) ______ sister is going to the cinema tonight?

 

4. Проанализируйте порядок слов в предложении:

 

1 2 3a 3b 4

Communication

1. Изучите содержание резюме и заполните пропуски в предложениях под таблицей.

HOME TASK

 

Подготовка к сессии 2 включает три аспекта:

I. Задания по грамматике; II. Устная речь; III. Чтение.

I. Grammar

Используя «Краткий курс грамматики английского языка», изучите следующие темы (после названия грамматической темы указан соответствующий параграф), ответьте на вопросы и выполните упражнения. Выполняйте задания в тетради.

 

1. Множественное число имен существительных § 1.1.

1.1. Как образуется множественное число имен существительных в английском языке?

1.2. Составьте таблицу особых случаев образования множественного числа существительных.

 

Exercise 1. Запишите существительные в форме множественного числа. A farmer, a country, a city, a day, a leaf, an address, a lemon, an apple, a child, a man, a house, a mouse, a tooth, a photo, hair, a potato, a box, a hobby, an exercise-book, a piano, a son-in-law, a wife, a gallery, а woman, a toy, a roof, a foot, money.

 

Exercise 2. Запишите предложения в форме мн. числа.

1) I am a student. 2) He is a hero. 3) This is a book. 4) That is my life. 5) This woman has a large family. 6) That person has an idea.

 

2. Употребление артикля § 1.5.

2.1. Что такое артикль и перед какой частью речи он употребляется?

2.2. Какие артикли используются в английском языке?

2.3. Составьте таблицу на основные случаи их употребления (по 5 примеров на каждый вид артикля и его отсутствие).

Exercise 3. Вставьте артикль (a, an, the) там, где необходимо.

1. This is … camera. 2. This is … David. 3. I’d like to change … money. 4. … Martin is from … Italy. 5. This is … cinema. … cinema is new. 6. I’d like to buy … orange. 7. I am … student. My brothers are … farmers. 8. I want to buy … this stamp. 9. This is my … Smartphone. 10. … Smiths live in … London. 11. These are … students of our group. 12. …man entered the room. 13. She has … aunt and two … uncles. 14. Would you like …cup of tea? – Yes, I usually drink … tea in the morning.

 

3. Имя числительное § 4.

3.1. По каким суффиксам можно определить вид числительного в английском языке?

3.2. Выпишите числительные, образование которых не подчиняется общему правилу.

 

Exercise 4. Запишите числительные словами и прочитайте вслух.

1) 5, 18, 12, 19, 10, 20, 38, 43, 157, 587, 908, 1600, 4765, 22 215. 2) 1-й, 2-й, 3-й, 4-й, 5-й, 21-й, 33-й, 13-й, 50-й.

Exercise 5. Ответьте на вопросы.

1) When do the British celebrate Christmas Day and Halloween?

2) When do people in Russia celebrate Christmas and Victory Day?

3) When is the International Students’ Day held?

4) When do you celebrate your birthday?

 

4. Количественные местоимения § 5.9.

4.1. В чем различие в употреблении количественных местоимений «many и few» – «much и little»? Как они переводятся?

4.2. Запишите в 2 столбика 10 исчисляемых и 10 неисчисляемых существительных.

4.3. В чем различие в употреблении количественных местоимений «few – a few», «little – a little»? Как они переводятся? Напишите по одному примеру на каждое местоимение.

Exercise 6. Заполните пропуски местоимениями “much / many”. Переведите предложения.

1. I don’t eat … oranges. 2. He eats … fish. 3. Mary mustn’t eat too … salt because she has problems with her blood pressure. 4. There is not … space in my flat. 5. There are … students in the gym. 6. Please don’t put … pepper on the meat. 7. There were … plates on the table. 8. She doesn’t eat … bread, she is on a slimming diet. 9. … people learn English. 10. There is … light in the room, it has … windows. 11. … of their conversation was about the university.

 

Exercise 7. Заполните пропуски местоимениями “little, a little, few, a few”. Переведите предложения.

1. I am busy now, I have … time. 2. Would you like … salad? – Yes, thank you. 3. Mother gave us … apples, and we were glad. 4. He didn’t like it in the camp: he had very … friends there. 5. I have … money, so we can go to the cinema. 6. I have … money, so we cannot go to the cinema. 7. She left and returned in … minutes.

 

5. Неопределенные местоимения § 5.6, 5.8

5.1. Какие неопределенные местоимения и их производные используются в английском языке? Сделайте таблицу.

5.2. Как они переводятся на русский язык в зависимости от вида предложения, в котором они употребляются?

5.3. Может ли местоимение any употребляться в утверждении?

5.4. Что вы знаете о неопределенном местоимении «one»?

5.5. Сколько отрицаний может быть в английском предложении?

 

Exercise 8. Выберите соответствующее местоимение для заполнения пропуска.

1. I have … friends in Moscow. (something, somebody, some, any, anybody) 2. Have you got … problems with the foreign language? (no, any, some, something, anything)

3. He will do … for you! (every, any, everything, somewhere)

4. She doesn’t want to see … tonight. (nobody, nothing, somebody, anybody)

5. Please, do … to help her. (nobody, no, anything, something)

6. Does … help this girl with mathematics? (any, nobody, somebody, anybody)

7. … may smoke here. (nobody, something, nothing, any)

8. If you have … against me, speak out! (anything, some, any, something)

9. Could I have … to eat? (anything, something, anywhere, everywhere)

 

6. Местоимение “it” § 5.2.

6.1. Какие существительные замещает местоимение it ?

6.2. В какой функции местоимение it не переводится?

 

Exercise 9. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию местоимения it.

 

1. It’s cold and I’m tired. 2. It doesn’t matter. 3. I looked at the window. It was closed. 4. It is here that we meet every Sunday. 5. Don’t you see? It’s me. 6. It’s no use crying. 7. It was dark to read. 8. It’s wonderful outside. 9. Can you explain it to me once more, please? 10 It was he who did it. 11. Here is your pen. Take it. 12. It is reported that the plane has landed.

7. Простые времена в активном залоге § 8.2.

7.1. Какие действия выражают Present / Past / Future Simple?

7.2. Какие наречия часто уточняют эти времена? Выучите их.

7.3. Как образуется глагол в Present / Past / Future Simple? Запишите формы глаголов, обозначив основную форму глагола буквой V.

7.4. Какие вспомогательные глаголы используются в вопросительной и отрицательной форме в Present / Past / Future Simple? Выпишите их.

 

Exercise 10. Употребите глагол в Present Simple.

1. I (to go) to the university by bus yesterday. 2. It (to take) me 15 minutes to get there. 3. … you (to play) tennis tomorrow? 4. … you (to cook) well? 5. We (to have) English twice a week next term. 6. They … not (to eat) meat, they are vegetarians. 7. Ann … not (to use) the dictionary while translating. 8. They (to study) five days a week last year.

 

Exercise 11. Задайте специальный вопрос в Present Simple. § 8.2.1, 12.2.

1) When…? → The dean comes at half past nine.

2) What…? → The girl asks us a lot of questions.

3) How often…? → We always air our classroom twice a day.

4) Who…? → They tell us about their studies.

5) What book…? → I read an English book every day.

6) What kind of…? →My father drives a new car.

7) How…? → He speaks English very well.

8) Where…? → My sister goes to her office on week-days.

9) How many…? → We have three classes on Monday.

 

Exercise 12. Задайте специальный вопрос в Past Simple к подчеркнутому члену предложения. § 8.2.3, 12.2.

1. We had breakfast at the student canteen. 2. He wanted to go to Moscow during the holidays. 3. Our English class began at 10 o’clock. 4. Last night I got a letter from my parents. 5. My sister read some English books. 6. My friend passed all the exams successfully. 7. They discussed important problems at the seminar. 8. We were late for classes yesterday. 9. She made a good report at the seminar.

 

8. Настоящее длительное время в активном залоге § 8.3.1.

8.1. По какой «общей формуле» образуется глагол в длительном времени? Выпишите «формулу» в тетрадь.

8.2. Как образуется настоящее длительное время? Запишите «формулу».

8.3. Какие действия выражает Present Continuous?

8.4. Как образуется вопросительная и отрицательная форма в Present Continuous?

Exercise 13. Образуйте и сравните формы Present Simple and Present

Continuous. § 8.2.1, 8.3.1.

Present Continuous Present Simple
I (read) now. I (read) every day.
He (sleep) now. He (sleep) well every night.
My mother (not work) now. My mother (not work) at an office.
They (not eat) now. They (eat) at school every morning.
… your brother (drive) now? … he (drive) to his office?
… you (watch) TV now? … you (watch) TV in the evening?

 

1. I usually … (go) to the University by bus, but now I … (walk). 2. My friend always … (attend) lectures and seminars. Some students … (miss) classes sometimes. Today Alex and Peter … (stay) away. 3. – What …you … (read) now? – I … (read) a book by V. Pelevin. In fact, I … (read) a lot.

4. It … (snow) quite often in the Urals. Look outside! It … (snow) again!

5. I never … (lose) the keys. But you … always … (lose) them!

 

9. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий § 2.

9.1. Как изменяется прилагательное в английском языке?

Сравните с русским языком.

9.2. Какие есть способы образования степеней сравнения прилагательных? Выпишите соответствующие суффиксы и вспомогательные слова.

9.3. Какие исключения из общего правила необходимо запомнить?

Выпишите их в тетрадь.

9.4. Какие сравнительные обороты вы знаете?

 

Exercise 14. Найдите и исправьте ошибки.

1. I’m busier than my little sister. 2. London is more old than New York.

3. Do you know the shortest way to the station? 4. Be activer at your lesson, please. 5. She is the most pretty girl I’ve ever known. 6. The boy is as taller as his father. 7. Baseball is the popularest summer sport in America.

8. Yesterday he started to feel more bad. 9. Mary’s answer is correcter than yours. 10. Can you come more early next time?

 

Exercise 15. Переведите на русский язык. § 2.

1. The smaller a car is, the easier it is to park. 2. She is much more serious than her brother. 3. The play was so boring that I fell asleep. 4. He wasn’t as friendly as he usually is. 5. The more complicated the problem, the harder it is to find a solution. 6. My English is getting better and better. 7. She is the most beautiful girl in our group. 8. It’s not so bad! 9. The worse the weather, the more dangerous it is to drive on the roads.

10. Предлог § 6.

10.1. Какими предлогами обозначается место предмета в пространстве?

10.2. Какие предлоги направления вы знаете?

10.3. Приведите примеры многозначности некоторых предлогов.

 

Exercise 16. Вставьте, где необходимо, предлоги “at”, ”on” , “in”.

1. Kate doesn’t normally work ___ weekends, but she had to work ____ last Saturday.

2. We’re leaving ___ the morning, but we’ll be back ___ three weeks.

3. Did she send you a card ___ your birthday?

4. ___ what time does the meeting start ___ Monday?

5. They went on holiday to Spain ___ Easter and then again ___ the summer.

6. The bridge was built ___ the 16th century.

7. Do you enjoy driving ____ night?

8. I’m taking my driving test ___ 4.30 ___ July 3rd .

9. He was born ____ 1900 and died ___ 1972.

10. I’m going to a conference in Egypt ___ a week.

11. Can you meet me ___ 2 o’clock next Saturday afternoon?

 

11. Конструкции с существительными §§1.2, 1.3, 1.4.

11.1. Как выражается значение родительного падежа у одушевленных и неодушевленных существительных?

11.2. На какой вопрос отвечает словосочетание с притяжательным падежом?

11.3. Как оформляются в притяжательном падеже существительные в единственном и множественном числе?

11.4. Какова последовательность перевода словосочетания с притяжательным падежом?

 

Exercise 17. Соедините существительные, используя ’s или the ... of ... или конструкцию существительное+существительное.


Models: job / Sally – Sally’s job; door / car – the door of the car; TV / set – a TV set

 

1. motorbike / Andrew;

2. shoe / shop;

3. milk / cat;

4. the price, the computer;

5. bedroom / children;

6. problem / nobody;

7. sports / car;

8. name / the girl who came to dinner

last;

9. rising cost / petrol;

10. traffic / London;

11. alarm / clock;

12. clothes / ladies;

13. son / Mary and Ken;

14. end / film;

15. vacation / two weeks;

16. house / my mother-in-law.

II. Communication   1. Представьтесь и расскажите о себе, используя задание 2 на стр.12. 2. Расскажите о своем рабочем дне. В качестве источника информации используйте текст “My Working Day” и задание 5.2 на стр. 9.   Активный словарь

I come from – я родом из… correspondence department – заочное отделение twice a year – дважды в год day-off – выходной to arrive at – приезжать, приходить duty –обязанность, долг have to – должен to mark – проверять to prepare for – готовиться к though [ðou] – хотя on my way home – по дороге домой to do some shopping – делать покупки

to wait for – ждать just talk – просто разговариваем to fail exams – завалить экзамены to work hard at – упорно трудиться to search for – искать

necessary ['nesəs(ə)rɪ] – необходимый

to write a report – писать доклад a course [kɔ:s] paper – курсовая

работа

a library ['laɪbr(ə)rɪ] – библиотека

do one’s best – стараться to combine [kəm'baɪn] – сочетать still – все равно to look forward ['fɔːwəd] to – с

нетерпением ждать a job – работать useful – полезный to get experience – получать опыт


 

My Working Day

Let me introduce myself. I am … and I am … years old. I come from Berezniki but now I live and work in Perm. I am a teacher, I work at school. I am also a student of a correspondence department. I study at Perm Pedagogical University. I have examination sessions twice a year.

I always go to my work on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday. I don’t go to school on Saturday and Sunday. These are my days-off. I usually arrive at work at eight o’clock though my working day begins at 8.30. I usually have four classes a day and many other duties. You know, teachers have to work not only with children but with their parents, write plans and other documents, discuss educational problems with their colleagues. I also spend a lot of time marking exercise books and preparing for the next lesson.

I leave school at about 4 o’clock in the afternoon. On my way home I do some shopping and walk a little. At home I cook dinner and wait for my parents. When they come from work, we have dinner together. Then we sit in the living room, drink tea, watch TV or just talk.

As I’m a student and don’t want to fail my exams I work hard at my lessons. I do them in the evening. I read a lot, search for the necessary information in the Internet, write reports or a course paper. Sometimes at the weekends I go to the library. I really do my best.

I must say that it isn’t easy to combine work and learning. But still I always look forward to my next working day because I like my job and my study. I think I’m getting a lot of useful experience.

III. Reading

 

1. Прочитайте текст “Our University” и выполните задания к нему.

Активный словарь

to attend lectures [ə'tend 'lektʃəz] – посещать лекции seminar – семинар

'credit-test – зачёт course [kɔ:s] of studies – курс обучения curriculum [kə'rikjuləm] – программа to 'enter the University – поступить в университет facilities [fə'silitiz] (мн.ч.) – оборудование, аппаратура, удобства to be engaged [in'geiʤd] in – заниматься чем-л.

ex'ternal student – студент-заочник first-year student – студент первого курса full-time student – студент дневного отделения field [fi:ld] of knowledge – область знаний

Foreign language ['forin 'læŋgwiʤ] – иностранный язык to graduate ['grædjueit] from the University – закончить университет to last – длиться, продолжаться to miss classes – пропускать занятия to pro'vide (with) – предоставлять, обеспечивать чем-л.

postgraduate ["pəust'grædjuit] (student) – аспирант senior ['si:njə] student – студент старших курсов scientific ["saiən'tɪfɪk] work – научная работа state grant – стипендия subject – учебный предмет to sub'mit a graduation paper – представить выпускную работу to take / to pass an examination (in) – сдавать / сдать экзамен (по) teaching practice ['præktis] – педагогическая практика term – семестр

 

1.1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Our University

 

Perm State Humanitarian Pedagogical University is the oldest higher school of this type in the Urals. It was founded in 1921 and the number of students was small. During the next years our University grew greatly. Nowadays a great number of students enter every year its thirteen faculties: the Faculty of Mathematics, of Philology, of Physical Culture, of Primary Schooling, of Psychology and Pedagogy of Childhood, of Natural Sciences, of History, of Information Technology and Economics and others.

In five buildings of the University there are a lot of facilities: lecture halls, computer classrooms, research laboratories, a rich library, some readingrooms, a big conference hall. The staff of professors and lecturers is great and includes many outstanding scientists who make a contribution to their fields of knowledge.

Pedagogical University provides higher education for future teachers. There are full-time students, part-time students and external students at our University. Part-time and external students combine work and learning. Many full-time students and postgraduates are provided with hostel accommodations and receive state grants. The course of studies for future Bachelors lasts 4 or 5 years; some students can study another 2 years to earn a Master's degree.

The academic year begins in September and ends in July. Each academic year has two terms and at the end of each term students take credit-tests and terminal examinations in different subjects. There are many subjects on the curriculum: Pedagogy, Psychology, Philosophy, Foreign language, History of Russia, etc. Students attend lectures and seminars. They are also engaged in scientific work and write their research papers. All students have teaching practice at a number of schools and kindergartens in Perm. At the end of the course of study students take final examinations and submit a graduation paper.

 

1.2. Определите, являются ли следующие утверждения

а) истинными; б) ложными; в) не содержатся в тексте.

Используйте фразы “It’s right”, “It’s wrong”, “There is no information”.

 

a) Perm State Humanitarian Pedagogical University is the oldest higher school in the Urals. b) There are 13 faculties at the University nowadays.

c) The Faculty of Physics, of Natural Sciences, of Information Technology and Economics are housed in the main building.

d) Our University provides higher education for future engineers.

e) Full-time students usually combine work and learning.

f) The course of studies for future Bachelors lasts six years.

g) Students take credit-tests and terminal examinations twice a year.

1.3. Запишите понятие, которое объясняется в дефиниции.

 

a) the method of teaching when students listen to a professor and write down;

b) students who combine work and learning;

c) the place where books and other literary materials are kept;

d) a sum of money to finance educational study;

e) the testing of knowledge of students without giving any definite mark;

f) a period in which a break is taken from studies for rest, travel, or recreation;

g) the method of teaching when students in small groups discuss with a professor theories and exchange information;

h) any of the divisions of the academic year at the University.

 

1.4. Ответьте на вопросы о своей учебе.

 

1. Are you a full-time student or an external student?

2. What faculty do you study at?

3. You are a first-year student, aren’t you?

4. Do you combine work and learning?

5. How long does your course of studies last?

6. What subjects do you study this term?

7. How many exams and credit-tests will you take this term?

8. Do you attend all the lectures and seminars or do you miss them sometimes?

9. Is the foreign language difficult for you?

10. Are you engaged in scientific work? What subject is your research work devoted to?

11. What are your future plans after graduating from the University?

 

2. Прочитайте текст “The Bell Schools in the UK” и выполните задания к нему.

The Bell Schools in the UK

1. In 1955 Frank Bell started a school of English for overseas students in Cambridge. This was so successful that in 1969 he opened another school in Bath and later others in Norwich and Saffron Walden. All the schools of the Bell group aim (стремиться) to combine good teaching in attractive and friendly surroundings. In 1973 the school in Bath became the Bell Educational Trust, a non-profit-making educational foundation.

2. The school accepts about one hundred students from many different countries. They all aim to improve their English. Students are accepted at all levels from the complete beginners to the advanced ones. We ask that beginners should be able to read and write the English Alphabet. The minimum age for enrolment is 17 and the average age of the students is about 22. There are three terms of about eleven weeks each; these are October to December, January to March and April to June. There are three shorter courses in summer in July, August and September.

3. At the start of the course all students are given a test and an interview so that we can form the right group for learning. When the school decides on the groups they consider levels of English, nationality and the number of men and women so that each group forms a positive соherent learning unit. Each group has a group tutor. This is the teacher who is responsible for the group and who plans the course work. The teaching may be different at different levels. For example, advanced students often need more practice with written work and elementary students need more oral practice. However, the school tries to maintain a balance of four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing and students are encouraged to use English as much as possible.

4. One of the features of the school approach to teaching English is the use of questionnaires, interviews and projects. The students are taken out of the classroom to use their English and they may find themselves interviewing people in the city centre or making a video film about life in Bath.

5. Here are some of the subjects the school offers: English Literature, Making a Magazine, Business English, the Media, Making a TV Programme, Music, Typing, Ecology, History, Photography, and Technical English. The subjects may change each term but the School tries to offer as wide a range as possible. The aim of these lessons is to give students the chance to study something of interest to them in English and this encourages them to use English more.

At the end of the course each student receives a report which comments on progress, attendance and attitude.

 

2.1. Определите, являются ли следующие утверждения а) истинными; б) ложными; в) не содержатся в тексте. В первом и во втором случае выпишите предложения, подтверждающие или опровергающие информацию.

a) The school in Bath occupies a pleasant nineteenth century house with an attractive garden and a car park.

b) The academic year in Bell schools is divided into two terms.

c) The groups at this school are formed according to the students’ level of English knowledge, nationality and gender.

d) Only advanced students may be accepted to Bell schools: they should be able to speak English fluently, write correctly and read.

 

2.2. Укажите абзац, который содержит следующую информацию.

a) A peculiar method of teaching in this school is spoken communication when students leave their classrooms to have a conversation with townspeople.

b) There are a lot of subjects on the curriculum whose range changes each term.

c) There are differences in teaching the advanced students and the beginners.

 

2.3.Ответьте на вопрос: “What are the duties of a group tutor?”

 

2.4. Определите основную идею текста.

a) The school in Bath accepts about one hundred students from different countries who are classified into groups from complete beginners to very advanced.

b) The main methods of teaching at such schools are questioning, interviews and projects; they give students more oral practice.

c) The aim of the Bell group schools is to teach good English at different levels and according to the individual interests of the students.

d) It is very important to form the groups of students according to the results of entrance test.

 

3. Прочитайте текст “Oxbridge” и выполните задания к нему. Oxbridge

Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and the most prestigious universities in Great Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge. Only the education elite can go to Oxford or Cambridge. Both universities date from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

 

They are federations of semi-independent colleges, each college having its own staff, known as “Fellows”. Most colleges have their own dining hall, library and chapel (часовня) and contain enough accommodation for at least half of their students. Each college is governed by a Master. The larger ones have more than 400 members, the smallest colleges have less than 30. The Fellows teach the college students either one-to-one – or in small groups, known as “tutorials” in Oxford and “supervisions” in Cambridge. Oxbridge has the lowest student/staff ratio (соотношение) in Britain. Lectures and laboratory work are organized at university level. Before 1970 Oxbridge colleges were single-sex (mostly for men). Now they admit both men and women.

Oxford and Cambridge cling to their traditions, such as the use of Latin at degree ceremonies or the way of student life. The university has a number of societies and clubs, enough for every interest one could imagine. Sport is a common leisure (досуг) activity at Cambridge. The most popular sports are rowing and punting. Significant focus is given to the Boat Race, which is annual held between Cambridge and Oxford teams and watched by millions of viewers.

3.1. Выпишите из текста синонимичное предложение.

a) Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of a number of colleges.

b) Most students are provided with hostel accommodations.

c) Both universities were founded in the medieval period.

d) Students of Cambridge and Oxford take part in the famous Boat Race which is played every year.

 

3.2. Определите, являются ли следующие утверждения а) истинными; б) ложными; в) не содержатся в тексте. В первом и во втором случае выпишите предложения, подтверждающие или опровергающие информацию.

 

a) Oxbridge is a collective name for the oldest and most prestigious universities in Britain.

b) Fellows are students at these universities.

c) Lectures are called tutorials and supervisions at Oxbridge.

d) The number of teachers at Oxbridge is smaller than at other universities.

e) Both men and women can be admitted to Oxford and Cambridge.

f) Some of students clubs are called “Greek letter societies”.

 

3.3. Определите основную идею текста.

a) The term “Oxbridge” is a morphological blend of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, which is used to refer to them collectively in contrast to other British universities.

b) Oxford and Cambridge universities are two intellectual eyes of Britain which have much in common in date of foundation, traditions, general organization, methods of instruction and way of student life.

c) Oxford and Cambridge universities are called collectively “Oxbridge” to describe them as the top-scoring educational institutions in the UK, often with implications of superior social or intellectual status.

SESSION TWO

Advanced Grammar

1. Проанализируйте значения времен совершенного вида и выполните задания.

 

Present Perfect a) Is Sally here? – No, she has just gone out. b) They have been friends since childhood.
Past Perfect c) She went for a holiday after she had passed the exam.
Future Perfect d) By the end of this year I will have learnt English very well.

1) Соотнесите временные формы Perfect и их значения:

а) действие произошло в прошлом, но имеет результат в настоящем;

б) действие произошло ранее другого действия в прошлом

(«предпрошедшее» время);

в) действие произойдет к определенному моменту в будущем

(«предбудущее» время);

г) действие началось в прошлом и длится до момента речи.

 

2) Найдите обстоятельства времени, которые маркируют указанные выше значения.

 

1.1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на обстоятельства времени. Образуйте форму Present Perfect.

 

1. Everyone (to hear) of a real English breakfast. 2. … you (to have) your lunch yet? 3. Here is your watch. I just (to find) it. 4. She (to travel) a lot this year. 5. … you (to see) John lately? 6. Where is your key? – I (to lose) it. 7. The police (to arrest) two men in connection with the robbery. 8. Peter failed in the exam. – He (not to work) hard this term. 9. Who is absent? – Ann. She (to be) ill for a week. 10. What time is he leaving? – He (to leave) already.

2. Сравните предложения в действительном и страдательном залоге и ответьте на вопросы.

 

Active Passive
1. She often invites friends to the party. 2. The children took a dog for a walk. 3. The teacher will ask the students about the grammar rule. 1. She is often invited to the party. 2. The children were taken for a walk. 3. The teacher will be asked (by the students) about the grammar rule.

 

1) В каких предложениях подлежащее не является производителем действия?

2) Как может быть выражен деятель в пассиве?

3) В каких временных формах представлены предложения в таблице?

4) Запишите «формулу» образования пассива в английском языке.

 

2.1. Переведите предложения на русский язык и проанализируйте способы перевода. Обратите внимание на различные видовременные формы пассива.

1. Canada is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific, its motto is “From Sea to Sea”. 2. The term “United Kingdom” has been used in the official government yearbooks since 1922. 3. This film was much spoken about. 4. Ann was being told an interesting story, when I came. 5. He will be offered this job by the company, I think. 6. Have you been explained the rules of the games? 7. You are wanted on the phone. 8. Babies are looked after with great care. 9. Listen, what music is being played? 10. The tourists were shown around the Tower of London.

 

2.2. Переведите на английский язык, используя времена группы Simple в страдательном залоге.

Мне рассказали Мне рассказывают Мне расскажут

Ее привели Ее приводят Ее приведут

Нам ответили Нам отвечают Нам ответят

Ему помогли Ему помогают Ему помогут

Нас пригласили Нас приглашают Нас пригласят Его позвали Его зовут Его позовут

 





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