А Brief History of Psychology

The history of psychology goes back to ancient times when people began to ask questions about human nature and tried to explain human behavior. The early Greek and Roman philosophers wondered what the mind was and where it was located. Aristotle (384-322 В.C.) introduced the concept of the mind as а tabula rasa (blank slate) that was empty until it was “written upon” bу experience.

Nineteen centuries later the British philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) adopted this term to express his agreement with this view of the human mind. An opposing view was held bу the French philosopher Rene Descartes (15961650), who believed that we аге born with certain ideas and abilities. Descartes also maintained that the mind and the body are separated but have а great deal of influence over each other. These theories expressed opinions rather than the results of scientific investigations.

Psychology as а science is little more than 100 years old. Psychological issues are controversial mostly because of basic differences in the way different psychologists see the nature of human beings. That’s why there is а number of different schools – groups of psychologists who share different theoretical outlooks. As these schools successfully develop and then often decline, the history of psychology is being written.


1. Find, in which paragraphs of the text there are answers to these questions.

a) Was it possible for psychology to form as a science 200 years ago?

b) Who contributed to the development of psychology?

c) Why do psychologists come into conflict?


2. Choose the problems psychologists think of.

a) they ask questions about human nature and try to explain human behavior;

b) they wonder what the mind is and where it is located;

c) they are interested why we аге born with certain ideas and abilities;

d) they investigate the human language;

e) they study why psychological schools develop and then decline.


3. Give the definitions to these explanations.

a) a person’s ability to think and reason; the intellect (paragraph 1, 2)

b) the way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially toward others (1)

c) possession of the qualities required to do something; necessary skill, competence, or power (par. 2)

d) an important topic or problem for debate or discussion (par. 3)

e) the scientific point of view (par 3).

Информатики и экономики


1. We sell mobile phones and accessories, and we only operate online. We’re a B2C business. That means “business to customer”, so we don’t sell to other businesses – that’s B2B. We’re obviously not C2C either, which is individual people selling to each other online.

2. Yes, it’s becoming very popular and successful. It’s world-wide shopping, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It’s so convenient – people can browse through online catalogues, compare prices easily, and there’s less paperwork, so it’s cheaper for the retailer. We can pass these savings onto the consumer.

3. Well, the best sites, or e-tail stores, have an electronic storefront giving categories that are easy to understand. You can read reviews about the products, go to chat rooms to talk about them, and when you've made your choice, simply click your mouse and add it to your electronic shopping cart.

4. The retailer needs to build consumer confidence. You need a website that is easy to navigate and it must download quickly. You need customer support services, things like FAQs (frequently asked questions), information about the order, and guarantees about delivery. A secure server for transactions using credit cards and a privacy policy are also very important.

5. I think everyone will shop online soon. All e-tail stores will use virtual reality to sell their goods – it’s going to generate billions of euros.

1. Match the questions (a-e) with the correct paragraphs (1-5).

a) How does e-commerce work?

b) What’s the future for e-commerce?

c) Do customers like shopping online?

d) What kind of business do you run?

e) What do e-tail stores need to succeed?

2. Choose the features of the best e-tail stores.

a) have slow downloads

b) have an electronic shop window

c) have somewhere to put to your goods

d) inform the customer about the order

e) need a lot of paperwork

f) have a place for people to talk

g) give product reviews

h) use a safe Web server for payment

i) cannot say when goods will arrive

j) let people ask questions

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