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Four Basic Operations of Arithmetic



There are four basic operations of arithmetic. They are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. An equation like 3 + 5 = 8 represents an operation of addition. Here you add three and five and get eight as a result. 3 and 5 are addends (or summands) and 8 is the sum. There is also a plus (+) sign and a sign of equality (=). They are mathematical symbols.

An equation like 7 – 2 = 5 represents an operation of subtraction. Here seven is the minuend and two is the subtrahend. As a result of the operation you get five. It is the difference. We may say that subtraction is the inverse operation of addition since 7 – 2 = 5 and 5 + 2 = 7.

In multiplication there is a number that must be multiplied. It is the multiplicand. There is also a multiplier. It is the number by which we multiply. We get the product as a result. When two or more numbers are multiplied, each of them is called a factor.

In the operation of division, there is a number that is divided and it is called the dividend; the number by which we divide is called the divisor. We get the quotient as a result. However, suppose you are dividing 10 by 3. In this case you will get a part of the dividend left over. This part is called the remainder. In our case, the remainder will be one. Since multiplication and division are inverse operations, you may check division by using multiplication.

 

1. Choose the right statement.

a) Plus, minus, equality sign and remainder are mathematical symbols.

b) You may check subtraction by using addition.

c) If you divide the dividend by the divisor you’ll get the product.

 

2. Match the definitions with their explanations.

 

1) The process of taking a number or amount from larger number or amount. 2) The process of finding out how many times one number is contained in another. 3) A method of calculating in which you add a number to itself a particular number of times. 4) The process of calculating the total of numbers or amounts. a) Addition   b) Subtraction   c) Multiplication   d) Division  

 


3.2. Филологический факультет

 

Indo-European Languages

By Indo-European languages is meant the family of languages with the greatest number of speakers, spoken in most of Europe and areas of European settlement and in southwestern and southern Asia.

They are descended (произошли) from a single unrecorded language believed to have been spoken more than 5000 years ago in the steppe regions north of the Black Sea and to have split into a number of dialects by 3000 BC. Carried by migrating tribes (племена) to Europe and Asia, these developed over time into separate languages. The main branches are Anatolian, IndoIranian, Greek, Italic, Romanic, Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Armenian, Celtic, Albanian, and the extinct Tocharian languages.

The study of Indo-European began in 1786 with Sir William Jones’s proposal that Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, Germanic, and Celtic were all derived from a “common source.” In the 19th century linguists added other languages to the Indo-European family, and scholars such as Franz Bopp, Jacob Grimm, Rasmus Rask established a system of sound correspondences and founded the science of comparative linguistics. Since then Proto-Indo-European language has been partially reconstructed via identification of roots common to its descendants and analysis of shared grammatical patterns.

 

1. True, false or no information?

a) Indo-European language family has more than 10 branches of languages and the greatest number of speakers.

b) There are only living languages belonging to Indo-European family.

c) They are descended from Proto-Indo-European language that was spoken by 3000 BC in the steppe regions north of the Black Sea.

d) Scholars such as Franz Bopp, Jacob Grimm, Rasmus Rask were first linguists who began to study Indo-European languages.

e) The objects of analysis in comparative linguistics are corresponding sounds, common roots of words and shared grammatical patterns.

f) Indo-European languages are spoken only in Europe and Asia.

 

2. Find the terms in the text that mean:

a) a system of communication by written or spoken words, which is used by the people of a particular country or area.

b) a form of a language which is spoken in a particular part of a country and contains some different words, grammar and pronunciation.

c) a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.

Факультет физической культуры

 

3.3.1.American Sports

 

In the U.S. of today, football is the most popular spectator sport. What makes football in the U.S. so different from its European cousins, rugby and soccer, is not just the size, speed, and strength of its players. Rather, it is the most “scientific” of all outdoor team sports. Specific rules state what each player in each position may and may not do, and when. There are hundreds of possible “plays” for teams on offence and defence. Because of this, football has been called “an open-air chess game disguised as warfare”. Those who don’t understand the countless rules and the many possibilities for plays miss most of the game. They are like people who, watching a chess game for the first time, conclude that the purpose is to knock out as many pieces as possible.

Baseball is now in second place among the sports people most like to watch. Baseball and football have the reputation of being “typically American” team sports. This is ironic because the two most popular participant sports in the world today which are indeed American in origin – basketball and volleyball. The first basketball game was played in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1891. It was invented as a game that would fill the empty period between the football season (autumn) and the baseball season (spring and summer). Volleyball was also first played in Massachusetts, in Holyoke, in 1895.

 

1. Guess what kind of sport is talked about.

a) It may be compared with the game of chess.

b) It is the most popular kind of sports after football.

c) They began to play it to fill the gap in a sport year.

d) It (as well as basketball) was invented in America.

 

2. Choose the headings to the paragraphs (1-3).

a) American team sports.

b) The US sport number one.

c) Originally American sports.

 

3. Find the words in the text that mean:

a) a person who watches at a show, game, or other event (paragraph 1)

b) the rate at which someone or something is able to move or operate (par. 1)

c) a group of players forming one side in a competitive game or sport (par. 1)

d) resistance (or protection) against danger, attack, or harm (par. 1)

e) a person who takes part in something (par. 2)

Disabled Sport

 

Disabled sports (also adaptive sports or Para sports) are sports played by people with a disability. Many of them are based on existing sports but are modified to meet the needs of people with a disability. Disabled people compete in athletics, swimming, shooting, power lifting, skiing, biathlon and cross-country skiing. However, not all disabled sports are adapted; several sports that have been specifically created for persons with a disability have no equivalent in able-bodied sports, for example ice sledge hockey and wheelchair dance sport.

Disability exists in four categories: physical, mental, permanent and temporary. Organized sport for athletes with a disability is generally divided into three broad disability groups: the deaf, people with physical disabilities, and people with intellectual disabilities. Each group has a distinct history, organization, competition program, and approach to sport.

Organized sport for people with physical disabilities developed out of rehabilitation programs. Following the Second World War, in response to the needs of large numbers of injured ex-service members and civilians, sport was introduced as a key part of rehabilitation. Sport for rehabilitation grew into recreational sport and then into competitive sport. The pioneer of this approach was Sir Ludwig Guttmann of the Stoke Mandeville Hospital in England. In 1948, while the Olympic Games were being held in London, he organized a sports competition for wheelchair athletes at Stoke Mandeville. This was the origin of modern Paralympics Games. Currently Paralympics sport is governed by the International Paralympics Committee.

 

1. Choose the paragraph where the answers to the following questions are.

a) What are disabled or adaptive sports?

b) Are sports for people with a disability and able-bodied sports the same?

c) What are three broad disability groups?

d) What did sport for people with physical disabilities originate from?

e) Who was the founder of organized sport for people with a disability?

 

2. Say if the statement is true, false or there is no information.

a) Disability exists in three categories.

b) The first international competition in deaf sport started in Paris in 1924.

c) Rehabilitation programs after the Second World War first turned into recreational sport and then into Paralympics Games.

 

3. Choose the words connecting with sports:

athletics, competition, history, swimming, service, shooting, key, body, power lifting, skiing, biathlon, pioneer, cross-country skiing, sledge hockey, origin, wheelchair dance sport, rehabilitation, example.

3.3.3.Travel Tips

Cities like London, Paris, and Venice are very popular places for sightseeing. The pyramids in Egypt and the Great Wall of China are important tourist attractions. They receive thousands of visitors each year. However, tourists today are always looking for new destinations. It is now possible to visit Antarctica, to take holidays under the sea, and even to go on holiday in space.

Lots of companies offer organized tours with tour leaders. These are often to places famous for their art and history, like Italy and Egypt. Or what about an adventure holiday – trekking or scuba-diving? Wildlife holidays, with activities from bird watching to whale-watching, are popular but can be expensive. Or you could choose independent travel. A lot of young people go backpacking around the world after they finish their education.

You need to decide which part of the travel industry you want to work in. If you like people, you could work for an airline, looking after passengers in the air or on the ground. Or you could work in a hotel, where you would meet and talk to guests every day. If you like the business side more, think about working for a tour operator (the people who organize holidays) or a travel agent (the people who sell them to customers). If you want to travel, you can become a tour leader.

 

1. Choose the paragraph with the following information.

a) You may apply for different travel jobs if you are in travel industry.

b) There are many places of interest in the world you may visit.

c) Travel agencies provide people with various kinds of tours.

 

2. Complete the sentences with the underlined words in the text.

a) _____________ buy products or services.

b) _____________ stay in hotels.

c) _____________ travel in planes, trains, buses, or boats.

d) _____________ take groups of people on organized holidays.

e) _____________ visit particular places or buildings.

f) _____________ travel to places on holiday.

 

3. True, false or no information?

a) Modern tourists are bored with usual places of interest.

b) Backpacking is a kind of tour mostly for elder people.

c) If you want to go on a space travel you should climb the Great Wall of China first.

d) Receptionists are the people who deal with the guests – check them in and out, take reservations, make sure that everyone is getting the service they need. e) Nowadays Egypt and China are the countries visited most often.

3.4. Факультет педагогики и методики начального образования

Schools in Britain

About 9 million children between the ages of 5 and 16 attend Britain’s 30,500 state schools. Education is free in all of them. Some 600,000 pupils go to 2,500 private schools, often called “independent sector” where the parents have to pay for their children.

Boys and girls are taught together in most primary schools. More than 80 per cent of pupils in state secondary schools in England and Wales and over 60 per cent in Northern Ireland attend mixed schools. In Scotland nearly all schools are mixed. Most independent schools for younger children are also mixed while the majority of private secondary schools are single-sex.

State schools are almost all day schools holding classes from Mondays to Fridays. The school year in England and Wales normally begins in early September and continues into the following July. In Scotland it runs generally from mid-August to the end of June. The year is divided into three terms of around 13 weeks each.

Regulations in England and Wales require all state schools to send to parents a written annual report on their child’s progress. The report must contain: details about the child's progress in subjects studied; details of the results of National Curriculum assessments and of public examinations taken by the child; comparative information about the results of other pupils of the same age in school.

 

1. Choose the paragraph (1, 2, 3, 4) dealing with the following information.

a) Parents have to pay money for their children’s studies at independent schools.

b) Parents can compare their child's results with other children’s progress.

 

2. Answer the question: What types of schools are most numerous in the UnitedKingdom?

a) Mixed schools both state and independent ones.

b) Independent schools taking fees for educating children.

c) Primary Schools teaching children from 5 to 11.

d) Secondary schools taking children after 11.

 

3. Choose the adequate summary of the text.

a) The text is devoted to the academic year in mixed schools in the UK.

b) The text deals with school regulations in the UK, types of schools and the academic year.

c) The text throws light upon parents’ rights and their participating in school activities.

d) The text describes mixed, private and independent schools.

Факультет педагогики и психологии детства

 

3.5.1. Intelligence

What makes one person more intelligent than another? What makes one person а genius, like the brilliant Albert Einstein, and another person а fool? Are people born intelligent or stupid, or is intelligence the result of where and how you live? These are very old questions and the answers to them are still not clear.

We know, however, that just being born with а good mind is not enough. In some ways, the mind is like а leg or an arm muscle. It needs exercise. Mental exercise is particularly important for young children. Many child psychologists think that parents should play with their children more often and give them problems to think about. The children are then more likely to grow up bright and intelligent. If, on the other hand, children are left alone а great deal with nothing to do, they are more likely to become dull and unintelligent.

Parents should also be careful what they say to young children. According to some psychologists, if parents are always telling а child that he or she is а fool or an idiot, then child is more likely to keep doing silly and foolish things. So it is probably better for parents to say very positive things to their children, such as “That was а very clever thing you did” or “You are such а smart child”.

 

1. Find the paragraph with the answers to the following questions.

a) Should parents praise their children from the point of view of some psychologists?

b) Are people born intelligent or stupid?

c) Should parents help their children solve problems?

d) Do people become intelligent with the help of good parents and teachers?

 

2. Change the underlined words to make the sentences true.

a) Einstein was an unintelligent person.

b) The more you rest your mind, the more intelligent you should become.

c) Parents should never play with their children.

d) Children who are often left alone are more likely to be bright

e) It is bad for parents to tell children that they are clever.

f) Parents should say very negative things to their children.

 

3. Match the right and the left columns.

1) Mental exercise is important a) not enough.

2) Parents should give children b) for young children.

3) To be born with а good mind is c) problems to think about.

Speech-Language Therapy

A speech disorder refers to a problem with the actual production of sounds, whereas a language disorder refers to a difficulty in understanding or putting words together to communicate ideas. Speech disorders include articulation disorders, fluency disorders,voice disorders andfeeding disorders.Language disorders can be either receptive or expressive.

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), often informally known as speech therapists, are professionals educated in the study of human communication, its development, and its disorders. They hold at least a master’s degree and state certification/licensure in the field. SLPs assess the problems and find the best way to treat them.

In speech-language therapy, an SLP will work with a child one-on-one, in a small group, or directly in a classroom to overcome difficulties involved with a specific disorder. Therapists use a variety of strategies, including language intervention activities,articulation therapy,oral-motor/feeding and swallowing therapy.

Speech-language experts agree that parental involvement is crucial to the success of a child’s progress in speech or language therapy. Parents are an extremely important part of their child’s therapy program and help determine whether it is a success. Kids who complete the program quickest and with the longest-lasting results are those whose parents have been involved. The process of overcoming a speech or language disorder can take some time and effort, so it’s important that all family members be patient and understanding with the child.

 

1. Match the titles with the paragraphs (1-4).

a) Remediation (Correction)

b) Speech Disorders and Language Disorders

c) Helping Your Child

d) Specialists in Speech-Language Therapy

 

2) Find the words in the text that mean:

a) the act or process of speaking or expressing in words (paragraph 1)

b) to evaluate or estimate the nature, ability, or importance of smth (par. 2 )

c) to allow food or drink to pass down the throat (par.3)

d) to have or include (something) as a necessary or integral part (par. 4)

 

3. True, false or no information?

a) Speech disorders occur when a person is unable to produce speech sounds correctly or fluently, or has problems with their voice or resonance.

b) Language disorders occur when a person has trouble understanding others (receptive language), or sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings (expressive language).

3.6. Биологический факультет

Botany

Botany is a branch of biology that involves the scientific study of plant life. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines concerned with the study of plants, algae and fungi, including structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, chemical properties and evolutionary relationships between taxonomic groups. Today botanists study over 550,000 species of living organisms.

The study of plants is vital as they are a fundamental part of life on Earth, which generates oxygen, food, fibers, fuel and medicine that allow humans and other life forms to exist. Through photosynthesis, plants absorb carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that in large amounts can affect global climate. Additionally, plants allow us to produce food to feed an expanding population, produce medicine and materials, understand environmental changes more clearly.

Virtually all foods eaten come from plants, either directly from staple foods and other fruit and vegetables, or indirectly through livestock or other animals, which rely on plants for their nutrition. Plants are the fundamental base of nearly all food chains because they use the energy from the sun and nutrients from the soil and atmosphere, converting them into aform that can be consumed and utilized by animals.

 

1. Choose the main idea of the text.

a) Botany is a branch of biology that involves the scientific study of not only plant life but also of algae and fungi.

b) Plants from staple foods, other fruit and vegetables and livestock are main food sources for people.

c) People breed more plants nowadays as the growing population of the Earth utilizes them in greater amounts than ever before.

d) Plants playtremendous role in reduction the green house effect and serve as the main source of food, fibers, fuel and medicine.

 

2) Find the words in the text that mean:

a) any of various processes by which an animal or plant produces one or more individuals similar to itself (paragraph 1)

b) relating to the natural world and the impact of human activity on its condition (par. 2)

c) the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth (par. 3)

d) basic and important in people’s everyday lives (par. 3)

e) cattle, horses, poultry, and similar animals kept for domestic use but not as pets, especially on a farm or ranch (par. 3)

3.6.2.A Country across the Channel

The British Isles, which include Great Britain, Ireland and a lot of smaller islands, are situated off the north western coast of Europe and once formed part of that continent. They became islands when they were separated from it. The separation took place thousands of years ago, after the last Ice Age. All in all there are over 5,000 islands in the system of the British Isles which lie on the continental shelf, the zone of shallow water surrounding at present the continent and resembling a shelf above the deep water of the oceans.

The Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea wash the West Coast of the country. The East Coast is washed by the North Sea. The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the English Channel and the North Sea. The English Channel, in its widest part in the west is 220 km wide, and in the narrowest, what is called the Strait of Dover, only 32 km. So, the islands have had an easy and mainly profitable contact with mainland Europe.

The British Isles in general, but especially England, form one of the most densely populated areas in the world. Archaeologists and historians have demonstrated that the present-day inhabitants of Britain and Ireland are largely the descendants of settlers and traders from Western Europe. The growth of population in Britain reflects, to a large extent, the economic changes. The basic population distribution of the 20th century had been established by the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century.

 

1. Match the questions with the correct paragraphs.

a) What are water borders of the British Isles?

b) What influenced the growth of the British population?

c) Where is Great Britain situated?

d) How many islands are there in the system of the British Isles&

 

2. True, false or no information?

a) Thousands of years ago the British Isles were a part of the European continent.

b) The Atlantic Ocean, the Irish Sea and the North Sea wash the coasts of the British Isles.

c) The most important sea routes pass through the English Channel and the North Sea linking Europe with the Americas and other continents.

d) A series of invasions slowed down the population growth in the 19th and 20th centuries.

 

3. Find the words in the text that mean:

a) of little depth (paragraph 1)

b) of small width in relation to length (par. 2)

c) thickly crowded or closely set (par. 3)

3.9. Исторический факультет

 

The Early British History

About three thousand years B.C. many parts of Europe, including Britain, were inhabited by the Iberians. The descendants of these people are still found in the North of Spain (the Iberian Peninsula). We don’t know much about these people because they lived in Britain long before a word of history was written. We can learn something from their skeletons, their weapons and tools, and their dwellings.

From the 6th to the 3rd centuries B.C. people called Celts spread across Europe from east to west. Several tribes invaded the British Isles. The Iberians were unable to fight back the attacks of the Celts, who were armed with metal spears, swords, daggers and axes. In the war most of the Iberians were killed, others were driven into the western mountains (now Wales) or probably mixed with the invaders.

Then powerful Britons conquered most of Britain, the Picts and the Scots settled in the North of Britain and in Ireland. Their tribes were developing into kingdoms when Julius Caesar visited Britain in 55 BC. The Roman invasion began in AD 43. The Romans withdrew in 407; forty two years later the Germanic tribes of Jutes, Angles and Saxons crossed the Channel and overran all England except Cornwall and Wales. The British natives fought fiercely against the invaders and it took more than a hundred and fifty years for the invaders to conquer the country.

 

1. Make up a chronology consisting of 2 columns: (a) Date and (b) Peoples who inhabited and invaded the British Isles.

 

2. True, false or no information?

a) The Iberians lived in the prehistoric times.

b) We can’t find any traces of the Iberians in the modern world.

c) The Britons, Picts and Scots were Celtic tribes.

d) The Iberians fought against the Celts and conquered them.

e) The Roman invasion lasted about five hundred years.

f) Ireland was never invaded by either the Romans or the Anglo-Saxons.

 

3. Give the definitions to these explanations.

a) a person who comes from a particular ancestor (paragraph 1)

b) to live or occupy a territory (par. 1)

c) to enter a country by force with an army to occupy it (par. 2)

d) to overcome and take control of a place by use of military force (par. 3)

 

4. Выпишите из текста слова, относящиеся к группе “weapons”.


Музыки

Music as a Form of Art

Musicis an art form whose medium is sound. Its common elements are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm, dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The word derives from Greek word that means “art of the Muses”.

The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance), through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be divided into genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often very slight, sometimes open to personal interpretation, and occasionally controversial.

To many people in many cultures, music is an important part of their way of life. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as “the harmony of the spheres” and “it is music to my ears” point to the idea that music is pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, “There is no noise, only sound.”

 

1. Match the definitions with their explanations.

1) the quality of a sound governed by the rate of vibrations producing it; the degree of highness or lowness of a tone 2) the character or quality of a musical sound or voice as distinct from its pitch and intensity 3) a strong, regular repeated pattern of movement or sound 4) the combination of simultaneously sounded musical notes to produce a pleasing effect 5) vibrations that travel through the air and can be heard when they reach a person’s or animal’s ear   a) harmony     b) rhythm     c) sound     d) timbre     e) pitch

 

2. Choose the headings to the paragraphs (1-3)

a) Definition of music

b) Variety of music

c) Role of music in people’s life

Психологии





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