Интонация незаконченных частей высказывания



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Интонация незаконченных частей высказывания



Незаконченные части высказывания, в частности, перечисления, развернутые обстоятельства места и времени, стоящие в начале предложения, обычно произносятся с низким восходящим кинетическим тоном, так как основное значение, которое выражает этот тон – незаконченность, незавершенность.

e.g. There is a ˈthree- star hoˏtel, a ˏtheatre, ˈtwo ˏcinemas and some `shops in this town. In ˈfront of the ˏhouse there is a ˈbig `garden.

Интонационные упражнения

 

I. Прочтите следующие предложения по интонационной разметке.

 

a) 1. There is a ˏtable and a ˋsofa in my room.

2. ˈBetsy speaks ˏEnglish and ˋFrench.

3. There are ˏjeans and ˋsweaters at the deˌpartment.

4. There is some ˏcheese and ˋchocolate on the ˌtable.

5. ˈBen plays ˏtennis and ˋfootball.

6. ˈPolly needs ˏhoney and ˋfruit for her ˌcake.

7. ˈMary likes ˏroses and ˋtulips.

 

b) 1. We ˈstudy ˏEnglish, ˏGerman, ˏFrench and ˋLatin at the Uniˌversity.

2. ˈKate has a ˏdog, a ˏparrot, a ˏrabbit and a little ˋkitten.

3. I’m ˈfree on ˏMonday, ˏTuesday, ˏWednesday and ˋFriday.

4. There is a comˏputer, a TˏV-set, a CˏD player and a ˋbookcase in Mike’s

ˌroom.

5. ˈBob is very ˋsporty. He ˈplays ˏhockey, ˏfootball, ˏtennis, ˏsquash and

ˋbaseball.

6. ˈMonica can ˈspeak ˏEnglish, ˏPolish, a ˈlittle bit Iˏtalian and ˈeven

Japaˋnese.

7. You can ˈbuy ˏbread, ˏmilk, ˏcheese, ˏbutter, ˏmeat and ˈmany ˈother

ˋthings in that ˌsupermarket.

 

c) 1. There is a ˈbig round ˏtable, ˈfour ˏchairs, a ˈlarge TˏV-set and a ˈPersian

ˋcarpet in my ˌdining-room.

2. ˈMike has a ˈlittle ˏtorch, a ˈbox of ˏmatches, ˈtwo used ˏtickets, some

ˏchocolates, a ˈcouple of ˏnails and a ˋstring in his ˌpockets.

3. There is a ˈhuge ˏdictionary, some ˏbooks, a ˈfew ˏexercise-books and a

ˋpen on the ˌdesk.

4. ˈBetsy usually ˈmakes some ˈvegetable ˏsalads, ˈfish ˏsandwiches, ˈroasted

ˏmeat and a deˈlicious ˋapple-pie for her ˌguests.

5. There is a ˈbig ancient ˏclock, ˈtwo ˏcandlesticks, some ˏphotographs and

a Chiˈnese ˋvase on the ˌmantelpiece.

6. There is a ˈhuge mug of ˏcoffee, a ˈbig bar of ˏchocolate and some ˋnuts

for ˌHarry. He is ˈvery ˋ tired .

7.ˈPeter usually has a ˈdark ˏsuit, a ˈwhite ˏshirt, a ˏtie and a ˈpair of ˈblack

ˋshoes ˌon at his ˌworking place.

8.There are ˈtwo cartons of ˏmilk, a ˈdozen ˏeggs, a ˈsmall piece of

ˏcheese and some ˋapples in the ˌfridge.

 

d) 1. ˈEvery ˈSunday afterˏnoon they ˈgo and ˈsee their ˋgranny.

2. Inˈ front of the ˏhouse there is a ˈbig ˋlawn.

3. In the ˈmiddle of the ˏdining-room there is a ˈbig round ˋtable.

4. On the ˈground ˏfloor there is a ˏliving- room, a ˏdining-room and a

ˋstudy.

5. ˈEvery other ˏday we ˈplay ˋtennis.

6. Near the hoˏtel there is a ˈhuge ˋsupermarket.

7. On ˈSaturday ˏevenings ˈNick and ˈMary usually ˈgo to the ˋcinema.

8. In theˈ centre of the ˏcity there are ˈtwo ˈfamous ˋmonuments.

9. ˈEarly in the ˏmorning ˈKate likes to ˈdrink ˈstrong ˋcoffee.

10. In the ˈcentre of theˏ mantelpiece there is a ˈbig ˈSwiss ˋclock.

11. ˈNext to the ˏclock there is a ˈphotograph of ˈJack’s ˋfamily.

 

 

II. Прочтите, следуя интонационной разметке, данные вопросительные высказывания.

а) общие вопросы

1. ˈ Is she O´K?

2. ˈAre you a ˊmanager?

3. ˈAre they in Jaˏpan now?

4. ˈIs it ˏyour dictionary?

5. ˈIs it ˊJane’s photograph?

6. ˈIs this hoˈtel ˏgood?

7. ˈHave you ˈgot a com´puter?

8. ˈIs it a de´licious pie?

9. ˈDo you ˈlike ˊpop music?

10. ˈIs there any ˈcheese in the ˊfridge?

11. ˈDo you ˈstudy ˊFrench?

12. ˈDoes Peter ˈlike his ˏjob?

13. ˈHas Betsy ˈgot her ˈown ´car?

14. ˈDoes he ˈplay ˈfootball ˊevery day?

15. ˈDo your ˈchildren ˈhelp you about theˏ house?

16. ˈDo they ˈhave any ˈfree ˏtime?

 

б) специальные вопросы

1. ˈHow ˋare they?

2. ˈHow is your ˋfather?

3. ˈWho is that ˋgirl?

4. ˈWhose ˋpen is this? ˈWhere is ˋmine?

5. ˈWhose ˋcar is this?

6. ˈHow do you ˋcook it?

7. ˈWhat ˈbooks does she ˋlike?

8. ˈWho has ˈgot any ˈbooks about ˋSpain?

9. ˈWhy do you always ˈstay at that hoˋtel?

10.ˈWhen is ˈSam’s ˋbirthday?

11.ˈWhere does ˈMonica ˋcome from?

12.ˈWho can ˈspeak ˋGerman?

13.ˈWhy do they ˈlive in the ˋcountry?

14.ˈWhen does the ˈtrain to ˋLondon ˌleave?

15.ˈWhy is this comˈputer so ˋcheap?

 

в) альтернативные вопросы

1. ˈDoes she ˈstudy ˊEnglish | or ˋGerman?

2. ˈHas Kate ˈgot a ˏdog | or a ˋcat?

3. ˈIs your ˈmother a ˊmanager | or a ˋshop-assistant in that ˌsupermarket?

4. ˈAre these ˈpictures ˏhis | or ˋhers?

5. Does ˈJack’s wife ˈwork in a ho´tel | or in a ˋsupermarket?

6. ˈHave you ˈgot a day-ˈoff on ˊTuesday | or ˋWednesday?

7. ˈIs Grace’s ˈdaughter ˊ5 | or ˋ6?

8. ˈAre they at ˊwork | or at ˋhome now?

9. ˈCan you ˈplay ˏbaseball | or ˋfootball?

10.Is ˈGlasgow in ˊEngland | or ˋScotland?

11.ˈAre there ˊthree | or ˋfour ˌcinemas in your ˌtown?

12.ˈIs he ˏsingle | or ˋmarried?

13.ˈIs there a ˈmug of ˊtea | or a ˈcup of ˋcoffee on the ˌtable?

14.ˈDo you ˈlike ˊpop music | or ˈhard ˋrock?

15.ˈDo you ˈlike ˏblack coffee | or ˋwhite coffee?

 

г) разделительные вопросы

1. It’s ˋcold toˌday, | ˋisn’t it?

2. They are at the ˋparty, │́aren’t they?

3. She is ˋbeautiful, ǀ ˋisn’t she?

4. He ˈcan’t be an ˋactor, ∣ ́can he?

5. You ˈlike this ˋfilm , | ˋdon’t you?

6. This ˈdress is very ˋfashionable , | ˏisn’t it?

7. She is a ˈgood ˋcook, | ˊisn’t she? I ˈdon’t ˋknow.

8. There is a ˈgood ˋrestaurant over ˌthere, | ˊisn’t there? ˈNo iˋdea.

9. You haven’t ˈgot any iˋdea , | ˊhave you?

10.There’s some ˈinteresting ˋnews in the ˌpaper, | ˋisn’t there? I ˋthink so, but I’m not ˋsure.

11.ˈBobby has ˈgot a new ˋcar, | ˊhasn’t he?

12.ˈParis is a ˋbeautiful ˌcity, | ˋisn’t it?

13.ˈTerry doesn’t ˈmake any misˈtakes in his ˋtests, | ˋdoes he?

14.ˈMary can ˈplay ˈtennis very ˋwell, | ˋcan’t she? ˋYes, she ˈalways ˋwins.

15.ˈJacky likes ˈchocolate very ˋmuch, | ˋdoesn’t she?

16.ˈPeter isn’t ˋmarried, | ˊis he? He ˋisn’t. He is ˈtoo ˋyoung.

17.ˈAnn cooks deˈlicious ˋapple pies, | ˋdoesn’t she? Oh, ˋyes, she is ˋgood at it.

 

 

III. Прочтите вопросительные предложения, используя изученные интонационные модели.

 

1. Does Ann live in Moscow? 2. How are the children? 3. Are you with me? 4. The hotel is in this street, isn’t it? 5. What time does the plane leave? 6. Can I come in? 7. Let’s have some music, shall we? 8. He can’t really help it, can he? 9. Who’s there in the car? 10. Is the swimming pool on the ground floor or on the first floor? 11. How many foreign languages can she speak? 12. Is the weather dry or wet here in winter? 13. Is it Jane’s or Monica’s doll? 14. Have you got any favourite book? 15. The children look really happy, don’t they? Oh, yes, they like their presents very much. 16. Sara has got her own restaurant, hasn’t she? No idea. 17. Is their son a journalist or an engineer? 18. How old is your Granny? 19. Do you speak French? 20. Japan is an interesting country, isn’t it? 21. Do you do sports in the afternoon or in the evening? 22. Whose dictionary is there on the desk? 23. Does your friend like his ice-cream with fruits or chocolate? 24. Why are you so sad? Is something wrong? 25. This music is very beautiful, isn’t it?

 

ПРАВИЛА ЧТЕНИЯ

 

Правила чтения согласных букв и буквосочетаний

Буква, буквосочетание Звук Положение в слове или условие произнесения Примеры Исключения
sh [∫] В любом положении she, wash, fashion    
c [∫] Перед неударной i плюс гласная social, special, racial  
ch [∫] В словах французского происхождения machine, champagne, chandelier  
ss [∫] Перед неударными io, ia mission, Russia, permission, admission  
t [∫] Перед неударной буквой i плюс гласная essential, invention, devotion  
s [ʒ] Между гласными перед ion, ure decision, vision, division, measure, pleasure  
ch [t∫] В любом положении chess, change, chicken, peaches  
tch [t∫] В конце слова catch, match, watch  
t [t∫] В безударном положении ture picture, mixture, sculpture, structure  
dg [dʒ] Перед e в конце слога edge, bridge, judge, sledge  
g (gg) [dʒ] Перед e, i, y large, gym, gist, suggest, gypsy [g] get, give, begin, girl, target

Правила чтения гласных букв и буквосочетаний

Буква, буквосочетание Звук Положение в слове или условие произнесения Примеры Исключения
oo [u:] В закрытом слоге и в конце слова moon, fool, soon [ʊ] good, stood, wood [л] blood
oo [ʊ] Перед k book, look, cook  
u [u:] После звуков [tò], [dʒ], [r], [l], [s] June, rule, chute  
ui, ue [u:] После звуков [tò], [dʒ], [r], [l], [s] fruit, juice, true, blue  
ew [ju:] В открытом слоге new, few  
ure [jʊə] В четвертом типе чтения cure, pure  
oa [əʊ] В закрытом слоге boat, coat, road  
o [əʊ] Перед ld, st old, cold, post, most  
ou [aʊ] В закрытом или условно-открытом слоге round, sound, count, house  
ow [aʊ]   down, town, now  
ow [əʊ]   snow, show, slow  

Упражнения

 

I. Прочитайте слова, соблюдая правила чтения букв и буквосочетаний, соответствующих согласным звукам [ʃ], [ʒ].

Shop, vision, shower, English, division, shy, show, she, decision, revision, wish, dish, fish, cash, garage, shopping, fashion, treasure, publisher, British, pleasure, measure, Polish, punish, nation, relation, precision, inflation, devotion, mission, provision, collision, Russian, pension, tension, occasion, social, racial, conclusion, special, session, intrusion, passion, ration, fusion, dictionary, emotion, inclusion.

 

 

II. Прочитайте слова, соблюдая правила чтения буквосочетаний, соответствующих согласным звукам [ʧ], [dʒ].

Cheese, chicken, job, college, cheap, teacher, enjoy, engineer, French, child, picture, jumper, sculpture, Japan, jeans, lunch, journalist, sandwich, page, bridge, watch, chocolate, orange, large, chess, children, manage, gym, match, journey, church, June.

 

 

III. Прочитайте слова, соблюдая правила чтения букв и буквосочетаний, соответствующих звукам [ʊ], [u:], [ju:], [jʊə].

 

Book, spoon, student, pure, cook, food, computer, cure, cooker, June, music, purely, took, juice, pupil, during, pull, whose, duty, fury, full, move, use, Europe, put, fruit, new, Euro, look, rule, few, European.

 

 

IV. Прочитайте слова, соблюдая правила чтения букв и буквосочетаний, соответствующих дифтонгам [ʊə], [əʊ], [aʊ].

 

Poor, go, house, sure, home, loud, jury, hotel, round, moor, old, down, tour, boat, cloud, tourist, soul, town, plural, low, sound, rural, show, shower.

 

 

V. Прочитайте слова. Объясните, по каким правилам они читаются.

Shudder, stupid, profession, mood, cloud, television, rigid, British, lunch, fruit, plural, jumper, pleasure, shock, cure, powder, orange, hotel, cool, sandwich, rule, bush, admission, Europe, photograph, confusion, jeans, change, snow, round, solution, duty, loaf, during, shine, surge, room, you, manager, computer, nation, look, measure, whose, cash, radio, power, tube, stage, much, down, bridge, catch, musician, teacher, Cuba, tour, machine, rural, gym, tune, culture, grow, June, passion, furniture, video.

 

 

Словарь

 


afternoon n [ˌɑ׃ftə'nu׃n] – время после полудня

armchair n ['ɑ׃mʧeə] – кресло

bathroom n ['bɑ׃θrʊm] – ванная комната

beautiful adj ['bјu׃tıfl] – прекрасный, красивый

bedroom n ['bedrʊm] – спальня

book n [bʊk] – книга

breakfast n ['brekfəst] – завтрак

cheap adj [ʧi׃p] – дешевый

cheese n [ʧi׃z] – сыр

child n [ʧaıld] – ребенок

chocolate n ['ʧɒklət] – шоколад

college n ['kɒlıdʒ] – колледж

computer n [kəm'pјu׃tə] – компьютер

cook v [kʊk] – готовить, варить

cooker n ['kʊkə] – плита, печь

delicious adj [dı'lıʃəs] – вкусный

dictionary n ['dıkʃənrı] – словарь

dining room n ['daınıŋ rʊm] – столовая

dinner n ['dınə] – обед

do v [du׃] – делать, выполнять

drink v [drıŋk] – пить

food n [fu׃d] – пища, продукты питания

French adj [frenʧ] – французский

get up v [ˌget 'ʌp] – вставать, подниматься

go v [gəʊ] – идти, ходить

go out [ˌgəʊ 'aʊt] – выходить

go shopping [ˌgəʊ 'ʃɒpıŋ] – ходить за покупками

go to bed [ˌgəʊ tə 'bed] – ложиться спать

good adj [gʊd] – хороший

group n [gru׃p] – группа

hello [hə'ləʊ] – привет!

homework n ['həʊmwз׃k] – домашняя работа

hotel n [həʊ'tel] – отель, гостиница

house n [haʊs] – дом

how [haʊ] – как

how many [ˌhaʊ 'menı] – сколько

how much [ˌhaʊ 'mʌt∫] – сколько

Japan n [dʒə'pæn] – Япония

job n [dʒɒb] – работа

journalist n ['dʒз׃nəlıst] – журналист

 

 

journey n ['dʒз׃nı] – поездка, путешествие

kitchen n ['kıʧən] – кухня

language n ['læŋgwıdʒ] – язык

living room n ['lıvıŋ rʊm] – общая комната, гостиная

lunch n [lʌnʧ] – ленч, второй завтрак

manager n ['mænıdʒә] – управляющий

music n ['mјu׃zık] – музыка

new adj [nјu׃] – новый

old adj [әʊld] – старый

photograph n ['fәʊtәgrɑ׃f] – фотография

picture n ['pıkʧә] – картина, картинка

post office n ['pәʊst ˌɒfıs] – почта

radio n ['reıdıәʊ] – радио

read v [ri׃d] – читать

room n [ru׃m] – комната

sandwich n ['sænwıdʒ] – сандвич

school n [sku׃l] – школа

shop n [ʃɒp] – магазин

shop-assistant n ['ʃɒp əˌsıstənt] – продавец

shower n ['ʃaʊə] – душ

sofa n ['səʊfə] – диван

Spanish adj ['spænıʃ] – испанский

student n ['stju׃dnt] – студент

study v ['stʌdı] – изучать, учиться

supermarket n ['su׃pəmɑ׃kıt] – супермаркет

teach v [ti׃ʧ] – учить, преподавать

teacher n ['ti׃ʧə] – учитель

telephone n ['telıfəʊn] – телефон

television n ['telıˌvıʒn] – телевидение

 

 

university n [ˌju׃nı'vз׃sıtı] – университет

video recorder n ['vıdıəʊ rıˌkɔ׃də] – видеомагнитофон

wall n [wɔ׃l] – стена

watch TV [ˈwɒʧ ti׃ˈvi׃] – смотреть телевизор

who [hu׃] – кто

whose [hu׃z] – чей

 

 

Monday ['mʌndeı] – понедельник

Tuesday ['tju׃zdeı] – вторник

Wednesday ['wenzdeı] – среда

Thursday ['θз׃zdeı] – четверг

Friday ['fraıdeı] – пятница

Saturday ['sætədeı] – суббота

Sunday ['sʌndeı] – воскресенье


 

ГРАММАТИКА

 

Конструкция there is/ are

Конструкция there is/are используется для указания на наличие или отсутствие какого-либо лица или предмета в определенном месте.

Английскому предложению с конструкцией there is/are соответствует русское предложение, которое обычно начинается с обстоятельства места. Конструкция there is/areпереводится словами есть, имеется, находится, лежит, или не переводится вовсе.

e.g. There is a book on the table. – На столе книга.

Если в предложении с there is/are имеется несколько однородных членов, то глагол to be обычно согласуется с существительным, непосредственно следующим за ним.

e.g. There is a pen, two pencils and four books in the bag.

После оборота there is/are исчисляемое существительное в единственном числе употребляется с неопределенным артиклем, а неисчисляемое существительное – с местоимением some.

e.g. There is a table in the room. There is some coffee in the cup.

После оборота there are исчисляемые существительные во множественном числе употребляются без артикля или с местоимением some в утвердительных и местоимением anyв вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях.

e.g. There are parks in the city. There are some schools in the street.

Are there any books on the table?

Краткие ответы на вопросы состоят из слов Yesили No и оборота there is/are.

e.g. Is there a shop in the street? – Yes, there is.

Are there any children in the room? – No, there aren’t.

Формальное подлежащее there, как правило, неударно и редуцируется при произнесении.

[ðə] – редуцированная форма

e.g. There is a `radio in the ˌroom. There 'aren’t any `restaurants there.

'Are there any ˏ girls in the house?

 

Предлоги места

In – в

e.g. There is an armchair in the room. – В комнате есть кресло.

On – на

e.g. The picture is on the wall. – Картина – на стене.

At, by – у, около

e.g. The table is at the window. – Стол – у окна.

Under – под

e.g. My bag is under the chair. – Моя сумка – под стулом.

Opposite – напротив

e.g. There is a shop opposite the bank. – Напротив банка – магазин.

Behind – позади, за

e.g. There is a garden behind the house. – За домом – сад.

Above – над

e.g. Jim’s flat is above the bank. – Квартира Джима – над банком.

In front of – перед

e.g. There is an armchair in front of the TV. – Перед телевизором – кресло.

 



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