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Read the words and mind their pronunciation
reconnaissance [rɪˈkɒnɪs(ə)ns], Saturn [ˈsætən], Uranus [jʊˈreɪnəs], Neptune [ˈnɛptjuːn],
Earth [ɜːθ], Mars [mɑːz], Venus [ˈviːnəs], Mercury [ˈmɜːkjʊrɪ], habitable [ˈhæbɪtəb(ə)l],
species [ˈspiːʃiːz], Copernicus [koʊˈpɜːrnɪkəs], Galileo Galilei [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]
Do you know the order of the planets in the Solar System? If not, the following mnemonic rule might help you to remember it: «MyVeryEducatedMotherJustServed UsNachos»
Learn the following words and phrases
cradle (n) - колыбель
eternally (adv) - постоянно
reconnaissance (n) – разведка, расследование
habitable (adj) – пригодный для жилья
essential (adj) – необходимый, непременный
extraterrestrial (adj) - внеземной, находящийся за пределами Земли
to suit (v) – подходить, соответствовать, быть пригодным
rather than - скорее чем; не столько ... сколько
prominent (adj) – выдающийся
to result in/from (v) – приводить к, иметь результатом/ являться результатом
to figure out (v) – вычислять, понимать, постигать
to manage to do (v) – суметь сделать что-либо
to overweigh (v) – перевесить, оказывать большее значение
profound (adj) – основательный, глубокий
replenish (v) – пополнять
to commit oneself to (v) – посвящать себя чему-либо
Why Should We Explore Space?
Space exploration is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space. While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, the physical exploration of space is conducted both by unmanned robotic probes and human spaceflight. Spaceflight is also used in commercial activities like space tourism and satellite telecommunications, reconnaissance and other earth observation satellites. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Many space missions are more suited to telerobotic rather than crewed operation, due to lower cost and risk factor. Outer planets such as Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are too distant to reach with current crewed spaceflight technology, so scientistssuggest that telerobotic probes (landers and rovers) should be the only way to explore them.
There are many reasons for space exploration. The most important reasons are advanced scientific research, national prestige, unity of different nations, development of military and strategic advantages and the interest of humans to learn more about outer space. It is essential that space exploration should give people an opportunity to discover new, habitable worlds, which could allow our species to survive beyond the lifespan of this planet. Space colonization would be the permanent autonomous human settlements outside Earth on extraterrestrial objects such as Moon or Mars.
Space research has a long history and is based on the works of prominent scientists from all over the world. Galileo and Copernicus were the first who wanted to reach out for the stars. But only in the XX century thanks to the revolutionary works of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky people realized that interplanetary travel could be a possibility. Without ever launching a single rocket himself, Tsiolkovsky was the first to figure out all the basic equations for rocketry. His ideas were followed by a number of very important works in the field of astronautics, which in its turn resulted in creation of powerful spacecraft, capable of moving into and out of gravitational fields and even staying in the orbit for a long time.
One of the most ambitious and successful project of this kind is the International Space Station (ISS) which has been in continuous use for 15 years. Its first component was launched into orbit in 1998. But before the ISS could serve as a home beyond Earth, it had to be built. ISS components were launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets as well as American space shuttles. There were many interconnected parts from so many countries that it was impossible to predict how they would interact. It was also very important that all of these elements should fit together and work exactly as planned. The engineers managed to fulfil their task. The station works as if it was a unique complex assembly and serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members carry out experiments in biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology, and other fields. The station is designed for testing space craft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars.
You might ask, why do people spend so much time, investments and effort on space research when there are so many problems on Earth that haven’t been solved yet. It is because all the possible benefits outweigh the costs that governments and companies spend on this industry. Future space exploration could have a profound effect on humanity. A better understanding of our place in the universe could change long standing beliefs. Space mining could help replenish Earth resources or provide new minerals. Colonization of other worlds might even save humanity itself. So, in the end, we should commit ourselves to it, because it can benefit us, as individuals and as species, in unexpected ways.
Grammar: do ex-s 8, 9, 10 p.238-239, and then look through the text once again and define the functions of the underlined words and phrases
Ex. 1 Read the following statements about space exploration (based on the text above). Say whether they are true (T), false (F) or the information is not given (Not Mentioned – NM)
1. Space exploration means investigation of interplanetary or interstellar space, its properties, biology and the bodies that exist within it.
2. Space research is carried out by astronauts during their missions.
3. Space travel without science is tourism.
4. Outer planets like Venus and Jupiter could be reached with current crewed space flight technology.
5. Tsiolkovsky was the first to launch a rocket into space.
6. The ISS is an international endeavor (попытка, стремление) of global collaboration, with more than 220 astronauts from 17 countries visiting the ISS since 2000.
7. The ISS was designed for testing space craft systems and equipment for missions to the Moon and Mars.
8. The possible benefits from exploring space outweigh the risks and money spent on this industry.
Ex. 2 Answer the questions:
1. How is the space exploration carried out?
2. Why are many space missions suited to telerobotic?
3. What are the most important reasons for space exploration?
4. What do you know about Konstantin Tsiolkovsky?
5. Why is the ISS one of the most ambitious and successful projects?
6. What was the ISS designed for?
7. How could future space exploration benefit people?
Ex 3. Practice chain questions. Ask a group-mate a question about information provided in Text 12. The student who has answered the question asks another student a question, who answers it and so on.
Ex. Question: What does the term “space exploration” refer to? Answer: It refers to…
Ex. 4 Find terms/words in Text 12A corresponding to the following definitions:
1. a person who studies the physical world (n)
2. man-manned device put in orbit round a planet (n)
3. travel into or through an area in order to learn about it (v)
4. to do a task as required (v)
5. a test done in order to learn smth. (v)
6. the area beyond the earth around the planet and stars (n)
7. to understand or solve smth. (v)
8. the branch of science that deals with rockets and rocket propulsion (n)
9. necessary, most important (adj)
10. favourable time, occasion (n)
11. lasting for a long time or forever (adj)
12. profit, gain (n)
13. sort, type (n) ( pl unchanged)
Ex. 5 Fill in the gaps in the text below with the words from the box in their correct form:
(1) ______ have already (2) ______ (3) ______ (4) ______ the surface of Mars, and (5) ______ (6) ______ to see if they can (7) ______ any signs of life. So far, they (8) ______ any, but the (9) ______ of rocks from Mars that they (10) ______ by the (11) ______ of water and wind. In other words, life (12) ______ in the past.
Ex. 6 Learn some more words related to space exploration
The Universe and Space Exploration
An orbit - the path an object in space takes while it moves. Generally, objects in space such as planets and comets take elliptical orbits around larger objects, such as a star.
An asteroid - a combination of rocks and iron that is too small to form a planet. There are many asteroidsthat orbit the sun between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars.
A comet- a small body of gas and ice orbiting around the solar system. We can see the tail of the cometbecause it is the sun heating and melting the ice. The most famous comet is Halley's Comet which is visible from Earth every 75-76 years.
A star - made up of clouds of gas and dust. Many people love to go outside at night and count the stars, but there are so many that it is impossible for one person to count them all.
A constellation- a group of bright stars that form shapes or 'pictures' in the sky. The Southern Crossis a constellation in the Southern hemisphere that points towards the South Pole.The Big Dipperis a constellation in the Northern hemisphere that is in the shape of a ladle or a large spoon.
The sun- the star in the middle of our solar system. The eight planetsin our solar system all orbit around the sun. The closest planet to the sun is Mercuryand then comesVenus. The planet that we live on is called Earth. It is the third closest planet to the sun in our solar system.Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. It is a small red planet, named after the roman god of war. Jupiter is the largest of all the planets in the solar system. The next planet is Saturn which has thin rings around it. Uranusand Neptune are the next two planets after Saturn. Pluto used to be considered a planet, but now is called a dwarf planet because it is so small. Its orbit is further away from the sun than any of the other planets.
A solar eclipse- moment when the moon's orbit comes between the earth and the sun and it looks like the sun is blacked out. We can only see the edge of the sun around the moon. A lunar eclipseis when the earth prevents sunlight from reaching the moon. Because the moon orbits the Earth and the Earth orbits the sun we can only see parts of the moon at a time. This cycle happens every month. A new moonis when we can not see any of it. This shows the beginning of the cycle. Half way through the month we can see the full moon. A full moon makes the sky bright at night because it reflects the light of the sun.
The galaxywe live in is called the Milky Way. It is made up of billions of stars.
A telescope- an instrument which has reflective lenses that allows us to see the objects in the sky closer and clearer. It magnifies objects that normally cannot be seen unaided. Some telescopesare very powerful and can be used to see thousands of light years away. There are many large powerful telescopes in the north of Chile.
An astronaut- a person who leaves Earth and goes into space. Many of them work in the international space station and do scientific experiments. Astronauts need to wear space suitsbecause it is very cold in space and they do not have oxygen to breath.
A spacecraft (plural – spacecraft)- any type of vehicle used for travelling in space. There are many different types of spacecrafts. A space shuttle is a spacecraft used for repeated use in between earth and a space station and contains astronauts.
A rocket- the type of plane that astronauts used to use to fly into space. Now they are used to leave satellites in orbit around the Earth. It has a special cylindrical shape so that it can go very fast for a long distance.
A space probe- a type of space craft that does not have a person inside. Space probes can be sent to far away distances for long periods of time to gather information about different areas in space.
A lunar module- a small craft used for travelling between the moon and the larger space craft orbiting the moon. When the first men walked on the moon they came out of the lunar module. The first man to walk on the moon said "One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
UFOs - unidentified flying objects
Ex. 7 Guess the words associated with the topic and circle the correct answer.
1. A ___ group of bright stars that form shapes or pictures in the sky.
2. A ___ is a small body of gas and ice orbiting around the Solar system. Sometimes it appears to have a tail from the Sun heating and melting the ice.
b. space probe
3. An ___ is a combination of rocks and iron that is too small to form a planet. There are many between the orbit of Jupiter and Mars.
4. The Sun is a ___ in the middle of our Solar System.
5. ___ is the planet that is closest to the Sun.
6. The largest planet of our Solar System is ___.
7. The planet that doesn’t have rings around is ___
8. ___ is when the Moon’s orbit comes between the Earth and the Sun and it looks like the Sun is blacked out. We can only see the edge of the Sun around the Moon.
a. Solar eclipse
b. Lunar eclipse
c. Black night
d. Solar storm
9. The galaxy that we live in is called the ___.
b. Astro System
c. Milky Way
d. Slimy Way
10. An ___ is a person who leaves the Earth and goes into space.
11. A ___ is sent to very far for a long period of time to gather information about different areas in space.
a. space station
b. space shuttle
c. space probe
d. space bar
12. A ___ is an instrument that allows us to see distant objects in the sky closer and clearer.
a. magnifying glass
13. The constellation in the Southern Hemisphere that points towards the South Pole is the ___.
a. Big Dipper
b. Skinny Finger
c. Southern Point
d. Southern Cross
14. The ___ is a constellation in the Northern Hemisphere that is in the shape of a ladle or a large spoon.
a. Big Dipper
b. Southern Cross
c. Kitchen Spoon
d. Great Scoop
15. The most famous comet is _____. It is visible from the Earth every 75-76 years.
16. A ___ is made up of billions of stars.
c. Solar System
d. Hollywood movie
17. Rockets are used to leave ____ in orbit around the Earth.
d. space suits
18. A ___ was a small craft used for travelling between the Moon and a larger spacecraft orbiting the Moon.
b. full moon
c. lunar module
d. lunar eclipse
19. The first words of the astronaut who stood on the Moon for the first time were: ___.
a. “I am glad I can stretch my legs now; that lunar module is cramped”
b. “There is much dust here, they need sweep a bit more often”
c. “One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind”
d. “Can you turn the lights down? They are still a bit too bright”
20. UFO means ___.
a. Unique Friends Only
b. Uniform Fighting Officer
c. Unidentified Flying Object
d. Unusual Floating Obstacle
Ex. 8 Combine the two parts from the table to make one sentence:
Ex. 9 Highlight all the benefits of space exploration mentioned in Text 12. Start to fill in the table, giving reasons for and against space research. Add some more after watching the movie and listening to audio files
Ex. 10 Match the numbers given below with the information in the pictures
· 6 (x2)
Ex. 11 Solve the crossword
Space Exploration Crossword Puzzle
l. An is someone who travels in space.
3. is our closest neighboring planet.
4. A is a hug ball of burning gas, held together by its own gravity.
5. is used to describe anything of or relating to the Moon.
7. The orbits the Earth once every 28 days.
9. power helps power the International Space Station (ISS).
ll. Our galaxy is called the .
l5. is the eighth planet from the Sun.
l9. The International orbits the Earth l6 times a day.
20. is our home planet.
2l. is the second planet from the Sun.
24. The Earth takes 365 days to the Sun.
26. is the power of certain forces of nature to do work.
30. NASA’s Human and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise helps bring space technology down to Earth.
32. Astronauts on the ISS like in space.
33. The is the center of our solar system.
34. Each Shuttle mission has a specially trained of astronauts.
37. is near weightlessness, almost zero gravity.
39. To __is to study and observe something to learn more about it.
4l. The __is everything that exists anywhere on Earth or in space.
42. The Space Shuttle lifts off from the pad.
2. Our contains the Sun and all the planets that orbit the Sun.
3. is the planet closest to the Sun.
4. , the sixth planet from the Sun, is known for its rings.
6. NASA wants to have more astronauts living and in space.
8. A is a region where people live near an uncharted or unexplored area where there are no people.
l0. There are nine _____ in our solar system.
l2. To is to search or travel to discover new things.
l3. is the planet that is farthest from the Sun.
l4. The Space transports astronauts and cargo into space.
l6. is science as it is put to use in the work of everyday life.
l7. Scientists send on the ISS to test the effects of microgravity.
l8. refers to any type of vehicle that travels in space.
22. is everything beyond the Earth’s atmosphere, where the Sun, stars and other planets are.
23. is the largest of the planets.
25. The Space Station is NASA’s laboratory in space.
27. Stars and solar systems grouped together form a .
28. is the seventh planet from the Sun.
29. A Russian astronaut is called a .
3l. A is a place where scientists can work and do experiments.
35. HEDS stands for the Human Exploration and of Space.
36. , known as space rocks, are found especially between the orbit of Mars and Jupiter
38. are designed to do things that are too dangerous for astronauts to do.
40. means belonging to the group that includes all people.
Before you read
A) Discuss these questions with a partner.
a. Are you interested in space travel? Do you have any desire to travel to another planet? Why of why not?
b. Do you think space exploration is important? What can scientists learn from studying other planets?
c. Do you think there is life anywhere else in the universe? Explain your answer.
B) Skim the article. Circle the correct answer.
a. What is the article mainly about?
i. the benefits of space research
ii. new research about the planet Mars
iii. the possibility of life on Mars
b. What is the aim of the article?
i. to get the reader exited about the new research
ii. to dissuade the reader from going to Mars
iii. to teach the reader how to measure gravity on Mars
c. What is the tone of the article?
C) Learn the meanings of the following words and phrases before you read the article.
mission – полёт
iron out – улаживать, справляться с трудностями
gravity - гравитация
collaborator – соратник
automated – автоматизированный
shelter – укрытие
boost – ускорять
composition – состав
If you’re lucky, you might someday walk on the surface of Mars. For some scientists, the question is no longer WHETHER people will ever get to Mars. It’s a question of WHEN people will travel there. The most cautious of the bunch say it may take many decades to overcome the obstacles standing in the way of such an expedition. Others are more optimistic. “I’d like to think that missions will be going there as early as 15 years from now”, says Paul Wooster. He’s director of the Mars Gravity Biosatellite Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
Whether or not you want to go to Mars yourself, the Red Planet is exciting. Two radio-controlled robots, or rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, are now exploring the planet. The rovers are sending back amazing images and information about places that scientists had never before studied in such detail.
Before any of us can vacation on Mars, though, there are still plenty of complications to iron out. Some of the biggest questions have to do with the human body. We are fine-tuned to deal with conditions here on Earth. No one knows how our bodies might react to living on another planet. Gravity, in particular, is a big concern. Because Mars is smaller and less massive than Earth, its gravity is weaker then Earth’s. A person weighing 100 pounds on Earth would weigh just 38 pounds on Mars. What’s more, astronauts would experience zero gravity during the year or more of travel time going to and from Mars.
When astronauts spend time in zero gravity, their muscles and bones break down. It’s as if they had been lying motionless in bed for a long time. If astronauts don’t do weigh-bearing exercises while they’re in orbit aboard the space shuttle or space station, it can be difficult for them to walk when they get back. The longer astronauts spend in space, the longer it takes them to recover. A mission to Mars would last at least two and a half years, including travel time. That’s much longer than anyone has previously spent in outer space.
Mice in Space
To find out how mammals might get along on Mars, Wooster is planning to send 15 mice into outer space. Each mouse will have its own cage. For five weeks, the spacecraft will spin just enough for the mice to experience the gravitational pull found on Mars.
Over the course of the mission, Wooster and his collaborators (which include more than 100 college students around the world) will monitor the health and activity levels of the mice. Each cage will be built to collect urine samples on cloth pads underneath a mesh barrier at the bottom of the cage. Every few days, an automated system will roll up and store the urine-soaked pads. When the mission return to Earth, the scientists will look at chemical markers in the urine to measure how quickly muscles and bones break down. “This is going to be the longest partial-gravity study on mammals in space”, says Wooster, who hopes to launch the mission next year.
What happens to mice could also happen to people. The data that researches collect will help determine how much exercise and what types of activity Mars travellers might need to stay healthy and strong for the entire trip.
Travel to Mars presents other complications. Mars doesn’t have any grocery stores or fast-food restaurants. Plants don’t even grow there. And the rovers still haven’t found pools of liquid water on the planet. So, astronauts will have to bring all their food and water with them – enough to last several years.
Also, it will be impossible for people to breathe Martian air, which is 95 percent carbon dioxide. Earth’s atmosphere is 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, and about 0.035 percent carbon dioxide. Therefore, astronauts will need reliable spacesuits, pressurized vehicles, and airtight shelters to survive on Mars.
Heavily insulated clothes will also be essential. Because Mars is father from the sun than Earth, it gets extremely cold in winter, with temperatures as low as -111 degrees Celsius. And a Martian year lasts 687 Earth days, so that’s a lot of cold days.
Putting people on Mars would be a huge boost for planetary research, Wooster says. “In a couple of hours at most, an astronaut can do pretty much everything the rovers are doing currently”, he says. “And an astronaut can do it much better and more comprehensively”.
Already, Spirit and Opportunity have turned up some interesting findings about the rocks dirt and landscape of Mars. Opportunity, for instance, dug a trench with its front wheel. Analyses showed that the soil composition changes with the depth. The way the soil is packed together suggests the presence of small amounts of water in the past. On the other side of the planet, Spirit found the top layer of soil to be stickier than expected. One possibility is that liquid water that was once present in the soil combined with salts to produce the stickiness.
Finding water on Mars would be an enormous triumph. Water makes life possible here on Earth. So, finding signs of water on Mars would indicate that life might have existed there in the past and could still be there today.
Today, mobile robots are exploring Mars. In a few years, mice may experience Mars in their own way. Looking father ahead, people like you might get to walk across the Red Planet’s dusty surface one day.
· fine-tune – to make small changes in something to make it the best it can be
· mesh – material made of threads or wires that have been woven together like a net
· pressurized – refers to an aircraft in which the air pressure inside is similar to the air pressure on the ground
· airtight – not allowing air to get in or out
· pound = 453,6 grams
A) Answer these questions with the information from the article.
a. Who is Paul Wooster?
b. What are Spirit and Opportunity?
c. What are they doing?
d. What problems do scientists have to resolve so that astronauts can survive on Mars?
e. Why is Wooster sending mice into space?
f. Why would finding water on Mars be such an important discovery?
B) Decide if each statement is a fact or an opinion. Check the correct box.
A) Match each word of phrase with the correct definition.
B) Complete each sentence with the correct word or phrase from Exercise A. Be sure to use the correct form of the words.
1. There is less _________ on the Moon than on Earth.
2. We are living in a temporary _________ because our house was destroyed in the hurricane.
3. We _________ a few problems, and now the plan is working well.
4. A _________ to Mars would take about two and a half years.
5. Dr. Johnson and his _________ are developing a new device to measure the blood pressure of astronauts.
6. The new shopping center was a _________ to the economy of our city.
7. When we studied the _________ of the rock, we found it contained quartz.
8. ATM stands for _________ teller machine.
Talk it over - Discuss these questions as a class.
1. Would you like to visit Mars in the future? Why or why not?
2. In addition to the physical difficulties of living on Mars, what other problems might astronauts on the planet face?
3. Why do think Mars is a good place to study to find out whether there is the life anywhere else in the universe?
Research a Planet – Use the Internet or library to do some research about one of the planets in our solar system. Use the list below as a guide. Share your information with your classmates.
· name of the planet
· how the planet got its name
· size and diameter of the planet
· description of the planet’s rotation around the sun
· your weight on the planet
· distance from Earth and from the Sun
· the planet’s average temperature
Before you read:
A – Discuss these questions with a partner:
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