Here are some ideas you might include in this writing task.

Space exploration is essential: e.g. I firmly believe space exploration is essential because it can help us to understand the origin of life and how the universe works. Life may also exist on other planets and in the future human beings might have to live on another planets…

Ex.8. Choose one of the topics, search for the information needed and prepare your project. You may work in small groups of two or three.


Student Research Projects

Students can deal with research projects at many different levels of sophistication, the following list presents only some potential research topics.

They cover a wide range of topics; obviously, science is the focus, but there are also links to other subjects including family studies, nutrition, environmental studies and geography.

The list of topics has the potential to be endless. The list was developed using "the availability of resources" as one of the key criteria. It should be viewed simply as a starting point for ideas related to student research.


Suggested Topics

1. How does the climate of Mars compare to that of Earth?

2. What technologies should be implemented to allow the growing crops on Mars?

3. Review several space-related films and identify "errors" in how life in space is depicted.

4. Is there microbial life in the surface layers of Mars?

5. The Moon will play an important role in the future space travel. Research to find out what the plans are for the future Moon expeditions.

6. How will travel to, and working on the Moon assist in the plans for space travel to Mars?

7. Is there any true Paleobiological evidence of life on Mars?

8. How can research related to farming on Mars be applied to practices here on Earth?

9. What is the relationship between science fiction and space travel reality?

10. Sputnik went up in 1957. Then, the United States became more active in the space program. What countries are now in the "space race" and what are their major areas of focus?

11. You have an idea for space exploration. Research how you could find out if it is practical.

12. Should human space travel be replaced with robots?

13. Compare the exploration of space to the exploration of a new area in the history of the Earth - the Americas, Africa, or the expedition to the top of Mount Everest.

14. Should the exploration of space be controlled/financed by countries or should the process be privatized?

15. Research Newton's laws of motion and design a demonstration of Newton's first or third law. The demonstration must be applicable to space travel. A possible extension might involve students' study of the relationships among force, mass and acceleration [Newton's 2nd law] and the design of an experiment to test the variables.

16. Although many young people would like to be astronauts, it is statistically more difficult than becoming a major league athlete. However, there are many alternative occupations related to the space program that will demand scientific and technological expertise. Research one area of interest related to space and/or space agriculture, and outline the educational path it would take to work in this area.

17. On Earth we may have to deal with sunburn as a consequence of working outdoors in summer. Research the effect of radiation on astronauts and, in particular, on astronauts who may be spacewalking during the construction of the International Space Station.

18. Research the effect of radiation on the development of plant life for space travel.

19. Research one of the following aspects of life support in space - food, water, waste disposal, atmosphere control, or fire protection.

20. Is it possible to use solar rays in space to make a space "sailing ship" move through space, thus creating an energy efficient space craft?

21. Research the earth's magnetosphere - how it works, its components, the benefits for us on earth, how it is detected from a spacecraft.

22. Research how food will be produced within closed life-support systems as a means of enhancing self-sufficiency and crew health during long space missions.

23. Tomatoes are the focus for this study; research to determine the role of other potential food sources that have been studied for long-term space travel. Outline the advantages and disadvantages of each. Rank order a list of potential foods for long-term space travels.

24. Research the topic of "space medicine".

25. Design a habitat for living on Mars for 6 astronauts for a period of six months; the habitat would include bedrooms, bathrooms, exercise area, kitchen, laboratory and medical station.

26. Design a kitchen appliance that could be used on the surface of Mars.

27. Research the nutrition issues facing astronauts when travelling to and from Mars.

28. Design a greenhouse for implementation on the surface of Mars. Consider Mars' weather conditions – temperature level and moisture availability, chemistry, radiation and gravity.

29. Investigate the climate and physiography of Devon Island to determine the rationale for choosing this site for the CSA Mars simulation studies.

30. Research the time-line from now until a trip to Mars takes place. Identify one major obstacle to overcome in the time-line and suggest solutions to eliminate the obstacle.

31. Research areas of the Earth that might be used for simulations of the Mars environment. Prioritize your choices and provide a rationale for the ranking.

32. Identify an environmental problem on Earth that may be solved by the application of space-based research on Earth; correlate the potential findings from space to the Earth-based environmental problem.


Part III (Grammar)

Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.

1. What would our planet look like if a man had the power to control the weather?

2. How would the climate of Europe be affected if the Gulf-stream changed its direction?

3. What would happen if the ice of the Antarctic melted?

4. What could we do if we had atomic cars?

5. What wouldn’t people be able to do if they had no electricity?

6. What would you change about the world if you had the power to change something?

7. What would you change about your personality if you could change something?

Ex.2. Translate into Russian without a dictionary paying attention to the subjunctive mood:

1. Scientists suggested that a device to measure radiation beyond the Earth’s protective magnetic field should be placed on an interplanetary spacecraft.

2. Students are to put down this word into their notebooks lest they should forget it.

3. Understanding how the human brain works could result in making computers capable of performing a certain amount of independent work.

4. It is necessary that new materials should be created in the near future.

5. It is desirable that more powerful internal combustion engines should combine high efficiency and light weight.

6. It would have been impossible to launch space vehicles provided we had not had the necessary polymeric materials and synthetic fuels.

7. It is essential that highly sensitive reception devices should be made for the radio telescope to achieve better results in observation.

8. It is necessary that automatic stations should be launched before manned spaceships.

9. Provided the laboratory continued this experiment it would take three years to complete it.

10. It is desirable that special space robots be developed which could be sent to investigate remote areas without worrying about whether they would come back or not.

11. It is necessary that a superconductor should be cooled below -273oC.

12. If every star in the sky shone with the same degree of brightness, the distance to any star could be readily calculated.

13.It was suggested that radioisotopes should be used to measure the thickness of these metal objects.

14.The experts insisted that the substance used for industrial purposes should be chemically pure.

15.It is urgent that we debate the importance of such experiments.

16. Make exact calculations lest you should fail with your experiment.

Ex 3. Subjunctive test

1. Mr. A acted that way as if he _______ a foreigner.

a. should be

b. is

c. were

d. had been

2. It was suggested that each traveler _______ enough clothes on the trip.

a. brought

b. bring

c. had better bring

d. would bring

3. The writer _______ her job well, but she _______ so careless.

a. could do, was

b. had done, had been

c. hadn’t done, had been

d. could have done, was

4. He may even request that such an evil law __________.

a. not be passed

b. will be passed

c. mustn’t be passed

d. would be passed

5. If my car _______ out of gas, I would have arrived here.

a. shouldn’t run

b. didn’t run

c. hadn’t run

d. haven’t run

6. The Chairperson demanded the survey _______ by the end of the next week.

a. should complete

b. be completed

c. would be completed

d. was completed

7. Jack didn’t come yesterday, or you _______ him.

a. were to see him

b. would see

c. had seen

d. might have seen

8. Doris’s father insisted Doris _______ a rich man.

a. be engaged to

b. would be engaged to

c. must be engaged to

d. should engage to

9. _______ it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the farm.

a. Should

b. Were

c. Will

d. Would

10. The president of the country gave the order that the whole nation _______ to go out at night.

a. should not be allowed

b. shouldn’t allow

c. mustn’t be allowed

d. not be allowed


Passive constructions with the verbs which can be followed by prepositions:

Smb. Smth. is was sent for spoken about laughed at


Mind the place of the preposition in Russian and English:

Russian Надним часто смеются Онем часто говорят   English He is often laughedat He was much spoken about


Some of the verbs are listed below:

to send for –посылать за, to follow by -следовать за, to depend on –зависетьот, to deal with –иметь дело с, рассматривать, to refer to –ссылаться на, to rely on –полагаться на, to influence by –влиять на, to work at/on –работатьнад, to speak of/about –говорить о, to object to - возражать против, etc.

Ex. 4 Translate into Russian:

1. The invention of an internal combustion engine was followed by the appearance of a motor car as we know it today.

2. The improvement of our working conditions and life is influenced by the achievements of scientific and technological progress.

3. International cooperation, especially in the field of space and science, may be spoken of as a long-standing tradition.

4. Lead is very slightly acted upon by the oxygen of the air.

5. In mechanics the study of kinematics is followed by the study of dynamics.

6. It is quite evident that not every experiment can be relied upon.

Ex. 5 Translate into English:

1. На развитие физики значительно повлияло открытие радиоактивности.

2. На любой летательный аппарат действуют аэродинамические силы.

3. Против этих условий будут возражать другие ученые.

4. О новых разработках в области сверхпроводимости много пишут.

5. В механике за изучением кинематики следует изучение динамики.

6. За работами Циолковского последовал целый ряд очень важных работ в области космонавтики.

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