Text 5 The System of Law in Russia

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Text 5 The System of Law in Russia

Pre-reading:Skim the text to complete the following statements:

a) This text considers the...

b) It discusses... (the categories of...)

c) It tells us how... (which...)

d) Each paragraph is about...

Law is a system of rules established by the state. The main aim of law is to consolidate and safeguard the social and state system and its economic foundation.

One important distinction made in all countries is between private or civil law and public law. CIVIL LAW concerns disputes among citizens within a country, and PUBLIC LAW concerns disputes between citizens and the state, or between one state and another.

The system of law in our country consists of different categories of law.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW is a leading category of the whole system of law. Its principal source is the country's Constitution. It deals with social structure, the state system, organization of state power and the legal status of citizens.

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW is closely connected with constitutional law but it deals with the legal forms of concrete executive and administrative activity of a government and ministries.

CRIMINAL LAW defines the general principles of criminal responsibility, individual types of crimes and punishment applied tocriminals. Crimes are wrongs, which, even committed against an individual are considered to harm the well-being of society in general. Criminal law takes the form of a criminal code.

INTERNATIONAL LAW regulates relations between governments and also between private citizens of one country and those of another.

FINANCIAL LAW regulates the budget, taxation, state credit and other spheres of financial activity.

CIVIL LAW is connected with relations in the economic sphere of life, with relations involving property, its distribution and exchange. The right of property is the central institution of civil law.

The rules of EMPLOYMENT LAW include the legislation on the employment of industrial and office workers and regulate matters arising from employment relations.

Ex. 1Read the text in detail to find the answers to the "What" -questions below:

a) What is law?

b) What is the main aim of law?

c) What categories of law does the system of law in Russia consist of?

d) What is the principal source of constitutional law?

e) What category of law is closely connected with constitutional law?

f) What is the central institution of civil law?

g) What does criminal law define?

h) What form does criminal law take?

I) What is civil law connected with?

j) What rules does employment law include?

Ex.2Scan the text and match these words and phrases with their
definitions below:

civil law, criminal law, administrative law, law, financial law, the rules of employment law, constitutional law

a) is a system of rules established by the state.

b) is a leading category of the whole system of law.

c) deals with the legal forms of concrete administrative activity of government and ministries.

d) regulates the budget, taxation, state credit, ...

e) is connected with relations involving property...

f) include the legislation on the labour of industrial and office workers...

g) defines the general principles of criminal responsibility.

Ex. 3Match these words & phrases with their Russian equivalents:

a) to establish a system 1. рабочие (служащие)

b) a category (of a law) 2. принимать вид кодекса

c) the principal source of law 3. применять наказание

d) to deal with 4. основной источник права

e) the right of property 5. отрасль (права)

f) rule of law 6.право на имущество

g) industrial (office) workers 7. иметь дело с, заниматься
h) to arise from 8.общая (особенная) часть

i) individual types of crimes 9.устанавливать систем

j) to apply punishment 10.возникать и

k) to take the form of a code 11.отдельные виды преступлений

1) a general (special) part 12. норма права

Ex. 4What does "it" in line 9 refer to?

a) constitution

b) constitutional law

c) principal source

What does "its" in line 8 refer to?

a) constitutional law

b) leading category

c) system of law

What does "it" in line 11 refer to?

a) law

b) constitutional law

c) administrative law

What does "its" in line 25 refer to?

a) relations

b) property

с) sphere of life

Ex. 5Say if this is true or false:

a) In all countries there is no distinction between private and public law.

b) The main aim of law is to concern disputes among citizens and
the state.

c) Criminal law deals with all forms of responsibility.

d) The right of property is the central institution of civil law.

e) Financial law concerns social structure and organization of state power.
f) Law is a system of rules established by the state.

Ex. 6 Speaking.Make up a brief report about the main categories of law in Russia.


Part 2 Additional Exercises.


Grammar Focus. Passive Voice.

Ex.1 Make sentences negative and give the true information.

1. President Kennedy was killed in new York.

2. Coffee is grown in Scotland.

3. “Sunflowers” was painted by Renoir.

4. Walkman cassette player was developed by the Russians.

5. The Berlin Wall was knocked down in 1991.

6. The 1988 Olympic games were held in Paris.

7. Rolls-Royce cars are made in Japan.

8. English and French are spoken as official languages of Brazil.


Ex.2There are two newspaper articles which contain examples of Passive Verb forms but they are in the wrong place. Find and put them in the right place.

Drug Seize at Airport

A 40-year-old businessman from Birmingham was found last night at Heathrow airport. A substance believed to be cocaine was questioned in his suitcase. He was stopped by the customs officials before being taken to the police station.

Train Crash

The London-Edinburg express was seriously hurt yesterday morning as it was passing through York station. Four people were delayed to hospital, but no one was derailed . Trains were taken for the rest of the day.


Ex.3 Put the beginnings and the ends of the sentences together.

1. I was sent an invitation to the Alex’s party… a) …but I haven’t got a driving license.
2. I was bought a new car last week… b) …but I don’t think I’ll go.
3. I was promised a trip to Egypt… c) …because our teacher was ill.
4. We were given three days… d) …because all the students of our group are able to understand it.
5. We were not given a test yesterday… e) …to finish our report on the history of the English language.
6. The feature film in English was shown to our group… f) …because I passed all the exams successfully.

Ex. 4 Open the brackets using either Active or Passive Voice:

1. Gunpowder …. in China (to discover).

2. China … 3 times as many bicycles as the USA and Japan (to make).

3. Scotch whisky … all over the world (to export).

4. We only … 11 per cent of the Earth’s land for farming (to use).

5. Wine … in France for centuries (to make).

6. The Dutch …about 3000 million flowers a tear (to grow).


Ex. 5 Open the brackets using the Future Simple Tense (Passive Voice).

1. The museum (to open) next week.

2. One day English (to speak) everywhere.

3. Chinese (to teach) in some higher schools.

4. In some years the climate (to change).

5. The idea of turning the Asian rivers (to discuss) again though it was rejected some years ago.


Ex. 6 Make active and passive sentences.

1. Shakespeare /“Hamlet”/1601/ write.

Write about Shakespeare.

Write about “Hamlet”.

2. The first television/J.L. Baird/ 1924/build.

Write about the first television.

Write about J.L. Baird.


Ex.7 Put the verbs into the correct passive tense form.

1. Potatoes … in Europe from the South America in the 1500s (to bring).

2. Five hundred years ago, Latin … by people all over Europe (to speak).

3. “Two” and “too” … the same (to pronounce).


Ex.8 Ask past questions with Who…by..?

Model: Look at this beautiful photo (to take).

Who was it taken by?

1. Do you remember that song “Over the Rainbow”? (to sing)

2. That’s a wonderful picture. (to paint)

3. Our school is a beautiful building. (to build)



UNIT I About myself and my Family.

Section 1: Meeting People……………………………………………………..2

Section II: Biography………………………………………………………….14

Section III: Jobs ……………………………………………………………….17

UNIT 2 Higher Education in Russia and Great Britain.

Section I: Higher Education in Russia ………………………………………...23

Section II: The Ural State Law Academy……………………………………...30

Section III: Higher Education in Great Britain………………………………...32

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