Ex. 9 Grammar Focus 10. Degrees of Comparison.

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Ex. 9 Grammar Focus 10. Degrees of Comparison.


  Adjective Comparative Superlative
Односложные прилагательные. Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на гласную и согласную буквы, удваивают согласную букву. old safe big hot older safer bigger hotter the oldest the safest the biggest the hottest
Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -y noisy dirty noisier dirtier the noisiest the dirtiest
Прилагательные с двумя или более слогами boring beautiful more boring more beautiful the mostboring the most beautiful
Исключения good bad far better worse further the best the worst the furthest



Мы используем than после прилагательных в сравнительной степени (older than… more expensive than…):

- Athens is older than Rome.

Мы говорим… than me/than him/than her/than us/than them:

- I can run faster than him. Or I can run faster than he can.

More/less than…

- The film was very short – less than an hour.

As … as…

- He is as old as me.

Not as … as …:

- Rome is not as old as Athens.

Not as much as …/not as many as …

- I don’t know as many people as you.

b)Change adjectives according to the model.

Model:small - smaller – the smallest

important – more important – the most important

1. large, cold, big, long, deep, pure, new, few, huge.

2. independent, famous, beautiful, charming, serious.

3. many, good, bad, little.


c)Answer the questions according to the model.

Model:Which is longer: a mile or a kilometer? A mile is. A mile is longer than a kilometer.

1. Which is longer: an hour or a minute?

2. Which is higher: a mountain or a hill?

3. Which is bigger: a ship or a bus?

4. Which is more difficult: to go on foot or to go by train?

5. Which is more convenient: to ride a horse or to go by Cadillac?


Ex. 10Ask you group mates the following questions and write down the answers and report to the class.

Model:Which do you like better: travelling by car or on foot?

I like travelling on car better.

1. Which do you like better: fish or meat?

2. What do you like better: summer or winter?

3. Which do you like better: tea or coffee?

4. Which seasons do you like best of all?

5. Which of the fruits do you like best?


Ex. 11Open the brackets to use adjectives in a proper degree.

Model: Olga is (young) than Maria.

Olga is younger than Maria.

1. February is (cold) than March.

2. Lake Baikal is (deep) than this lake.

3. Peter is (tall) than Boris.

4. The Volga is (long) than the Ob.

5. Russia is (large) than Great Britain.

6. The Russian language is (difficult) than the English language.


Ex. 12 Speaking.Answer the questions.

1. Which country is bigger, France or England (Spain or Italy, Sweden or Denmark, Holland or Finland)?

2. Which sea is deeper, the Black Sea or the Azov Sea?

3. Which city is older, Moscow, St. Petersburg (London or Washington)?

4. Which is the best time for a holiday? Which is the worst?

5. Which month is shorter, June or July?

6. Which is the hottest season of the year, and which is the coldest?


Ex. 13Find sentences with the adjectives in the superlative degree in the text about Russia, read and translate them. Give the nominative and the comparative degrees.


Ex.14 Grammar Focus 11. The Passive Voice (Revision)

The Present Simple form:Am/is/are + -ed (past participle).

Positive Negative Question
English is spoken all over the world. Coffee isn’t grown in England. Where is rice grown?


Use the verb in the correct form of the Passive Voice to complete the sentences.

Model:Russia (to wash) by three oceans.

Russia is washed by three oceans.

1. The territory of Russia (to divide into) 11 climatic zones.

2. Asia (to separate from) Europe by the Ural Mountains.

3. Many people (to engage in) agriculture.

4. Many regions of Siberia and Far East (to be situated) in permafrost zone.

5. More than one hundred languages (to speak) in the country.

6. Russian (to write) in the Cyrillic script.

7. Natural resources (to concentrate) in Siberia and the Far East.

8. Most of the defense industrial base (to inherit) from the Soviet Union.

Text 3

Did You Know?

• Russia is on two continents – Europe and Asia. But only 20% of Russia is in Europe.

• Russia has a population of 147 million people.

•Almost four times as many people live in cities as in villages. The 12 biggest cities have a population of over 1 million people each.

• Russian people are not always a Slavic type. They do not all have blue eyes and fair hair. Russian people may look like Spaniards, Greeks, Jews, Turks, Koreans or Mongolians.

• Russian people are part of a big community of more than 100 nations and ethnic groups. There are Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Chuvash, Bashkir, Belarusians and Mordovins, and others.

• Everyone in Russia speaks Russian as the official language. Local languages are very important too. Children study them at school.

• There are five main religions in Russia. Orthodox Christians, Catholics, Muslims, Jews, and Buddhists live side by side all over the country.


Ex. 15Say whether the statements are true or false. If they are false, correct the sentence:

1. The population of Russia is 140 million people.

2. There are 90 nations and ethnic groups in Russia.

3. Russian is the official language of the Russian Federation.

4. There are more than five main religions in Russia.

5. Children do not study local languages at school.


Ex. 16Prove that:

1. The Russian federation is the largest country of the world.

2. Russia is connected with the Atlantic Ocean.

3. Our country is washed by three oceans.

4. There is a natural border between Europe and Asia.

5. There are various types of climate.


Ex. 17Find additional information in Internet and make short reports about Russia and its people.

Ex. 18Answer the questions to make up a story about any English-speaking country (the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand).

1. What other names are given to the country?

2. Where is the country situated?

3. What languages are spoken in the country?

4. How many states or territories or provinces are included into the country?

5. What seas and oceans is the country washed by?

6. What natural resources can be found in the country?

7. What industries are developed in the country?

8. What agrarian products are produced in the country?

Section III


Sample Informal Letter

1) 506 Country Lane North Baysville, CA 53286 2) July 16, 2007

3)Dear Susan,

4) It feels like such a long time since the last time I saw you. I know it's only been several weeks since I saw you. So far my summer has been great!

I spend my all my weekends at the beach. I am getting a nice tan and you can no longer say I am paler than you. I have been playing lots of volleyball, surfing and building a nice collection of sea shells. Just this past weekend I took second place in a sandcastle building contest!

On the weekdays I work. I drive an ice cream truck around and sell ice cream to the kids. It is so cool. It is a combination of the two things I love most, ice cream and kids. The pay isn't too great but I love the job so much.

I hope the summer's been going well for you too. There's only a month and a half left in summer vacation and after that it's back to school. Would you like to meet up some time to before school starts?

5)Your friend, 6)Signature

7) P.S. John Austin says hi.


In the friendly letter format, your address, date, the closing, signature, and printed name are all indented to the right half of the page. Also the first line of each paragraph is indented.

1. Your Address: (Not needed if the letter is printed on paper with a letterhead already on it.): All that is needed is your street address on the first line and the city, state and zip on the second line.

2. Date: Put the date on which the letter was written in the format Month Day Year i.e. August 30, 2003. Skip a line between the date and the salutation.

3. Salutation: Usually starts out with Dear so and so, or Hi so and so. Note: There is a comma after the end of the salutation (you can use an exclamation point also if there is a need for some emphasis).

4. Body: The body is where you write the content of the letter; the paragraphs should be single spaced with a skipped line between each paragraph. Skip 2 lines between the end of the body and the closing.

5. Closing: Let the reader know that you are finished with your letter; usually ends with Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Thank you, and so on. Note that there is a comma after the end of the closing and only the first word in the closing is capitalized.

6. Signature: Your signature will go in this section, usually signed in black or blue ink with a pen. Skip a line after your signature and the P.S.

7. P.S.: If you want to add anything additional to the letter you write a P.S. (post script) and the message after that. You can also add a P.P.S after that and a P.P.P.S. after that and so on.


Ex. 19 Writing.Write a letter to your friend. Describe the city you live in. Ask your friend to write you about his native city or town. Exchange your letters with your group mates.



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