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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Учебное пособие для Бакалавриата
Стр 1 из 9Следующая ⇒
Учебное пособие для Бакалавриата
ABOUT MYSELF AND MY FAMILY
Ex.1 Pronunciation practice. Practise saying the following words and expressions:
shake hands greet friends custom bow introduce.
pat on the back greeting hug
Do you know how the people in different countries greet each other?
There are many different greetings customs around the world. Here are some.
People usually shake hands when they meet for the first time. When two women first meet, they sometimes give one kiss on the cheek. (They actually “kiss the air”). Women also greet both male and female friends with a kiss. Chilean men give their friends warm abrazos (hugs) or sometimes kiss women on the cheek.
The everyday greeting for friends is a handshake for both men and women. Men sometimes pat each other on the back.
Men bow slightly and shake hands to greet each other. Women do not usually shake hands. To address someone with his or her full name, the family name comes first, then the first name.
THE UNITED STATES
People shake hands when they arefirst introduced. Friends and family members often hugor kiss on the cheek when they see each other. In these situations, men often kiss women but not other men.
Note: When two business people meet especially when formally introduced, they usually shake hands. Otherwise British people do not shake hands as a rule. Instead they smile and say a greeting, e.g. “Good morning”.
If you want to address somebody whose name you don’t remember, you must say just, “Excuse me” ( which is the best way of attracting attention ) or “What was your name, please?” or “Could you kindly repeat your name?”
Ex. 2 Language Focus. Countries and Nationalities.
a) Study the words and provide the missing forms:
b)According to Text 1, in which country or countries are the following true?
Model:People shake hands every time they meet.
The Americans shake hands./ People shake hands in the USA.
1. Women do not shake hands.
2. Women kiss at the first meeting.
3. Men hug or pat each other.
4. Women kiss male friends.
5. The family name comes first.
6. Men bow slightly and shake hands.
Ex. 3 Pairwork.
a)Work in pairs and decide how these people greet each other in your country. Which greetings are typical in your country?
Model:two male friends
In Russia two male friends shake hands.
1. a male and female friend
2. two strangers
3. two female friends
b)Can you name a country for each greeting?
A handshake is typical for the United States.
-a kiss on the cheek
-a pat on the back
Ex. 4Read the conversations and practice them with your partner, using your names.
1. A: Hello, I’m Elisabeth Smith.
B: Hi! My name is Alexander Petrov. But please call me Sasha.
A: Nice to meet you, Sasha. You can call me Liz.
B: OK. And what’s your last name again?
2. A: Hi! I’m Joseph Block. Please call me Joe.
B: OK, Joe. And what’s your last name again?
A: It’s Block.
Ex. 5 a)Put this conversation into the correct order.
Elain: Please call me Elain.
Paul: Morning Jenny. How are you?
Jenny: Yes, it is. Let me introduce you….Excuse me, Mrs. Redford. May I introduce you to Paul Carrol?
Jenny: Good morning , Paul.
Jenny: Pleased to meet you, Mrs. Redford.
Jenny: Fine thanks, and you?
Paul: And please call me Paul.
Elaine: How do you do?
Paul: Fine. Is that Mrs. Redford over there?
b)Practice greetings and introducing yourselves to your partners.
Ex. 20 Speaking.
a)Choose one member of your group and describe him or her using the words below.
height age looks hair
short young handsome straight black
fairly short middle aged good-looking curly red
medium height elderly pretty short blond
pretty tall bald
a mustache and a beard
b)Describe any member of your family using the words above. Use your family photos for this exercise.
Ex. 21 Speaking.Read the phrases and complete the sentences with your own information.
Model: I like people who are sociable
someone who is funny
it when people are reliable
it when someone is easygoing
it when a person is punctual
I don’t like people who leave things all over the place
I can’t stand it when people blow smoke into my face
1. I like it when someone….
2. I don’t like a person who is……
3. I like people who……
4. I can’t stand it when …..
5. It bothers me when someone…
6. My best friend is someone who…..
Ex. 22 Grammar Focus 2. The Present Simple.
a) The Present Simple Tense(простое настоящее время):
1. Выражает факт или регулярно повторяющееся действие:
He comes from Switzerland.
She works in a bank.
2. Будущее действие (по расписанию или графику).
The exam beginsat 2 o’clock on Monday.
1. К большинству глаголов в третьем лице единственного числа добавляется окончание –s: wear → wears, speak → speaks, live → lives, но к глаголам go и do добавляется окончание –es: go → goes, do → does.
2. Если глагол имеет окончание –s, -sh, or –ch, add –es: finish → finishes, watch → watches.
3. Если глагол оканчивается на звонкий согласный + -y, то –y изменяется на –ies: fly → flies, study → studies.
Если глагол оканчивается на гласный + -y, –yне меняется: play → plays.
Have → has.
b)One sentence in a pair has a mistake. Choose the correct sentence.
1. a. Where do they live?
b. Where they live?
2. a. She goes to home by taxi.
b. She goes home by taxi.
3. a. Mr. and Mrs. Smith go walking in summer.
b. Mr. and Mrs. Smith goes walking in summer.
4. a. I don’t understand the question.
b. I no understand the question.
5. a. She goes at weekends swimming.
b. She goes swimming at weekends.
6. a. What you do on Sunday mornings?
b. What do you do on Sunday mornings?
7. a. Do you play tennis sometimes?
b. You play tennis sometimes?
8. a. I like very much football.
b. I like football very much.
9. a. He doesn’t know the answer.
b. He don’t know the answer.
10.a. I’m like staying in bed longer on weekends.
b. I like staying in bed longer on weekends.
Ex. 23Read the text about differences between boys and girls and complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in the box.
Are Girls Better Students Than Boys?
exist like score reach explain punish believe
Most people think that girls are better students than boys. In England, girls ……higher marks in tests in most subjects and at most ages. A similar situation …. in the USA and many other countries.
However, two American teachers, William Draves and Julie Coates, …..that it is not the boys who are the problem, but the school. Their book, “Nine shift: Work, life, and education in the 21 st century…… that in fact boys are better prepared for the future. Boys are more interested in computers and the internet. They…… taking risks, and thinking about ways of making money and teamwork – things that are important for success at work.
The problem is that schools……boys for this behavior because they are bad at listening and following instructions.
Ex. 24Make the sentences negative.
Model: Boys study more than girls at school. – Boys do not study more than girls at school.
1. The average boy scores higher marks in tests.
2. The researchers say that boys do badly at school because they are less intelligent.
3. Most schools give prizes to boys for their behaviour.
4. Some boys always listen well to their teachers.
5. William Draves thinks boys are the problems.
Ex. 25Write some questions to the text and ask your partner to answer them.
Ex. 28 Scan the article below and answer these questions.
1. Who is Kevin Mitnick?
2. Why is he famous?
3. What kind of child and teenager was he?
Pre-reading task:Read international words and translate them: school, institute, businessman, literature, profession, student, lecture, seminar, tennis, disciplined, jazz, music, radio.
Let me introducemyself. My name is Vladimir Pavlov. I was born in Yekaterinburg. I am the only child in the family.
At the age of seven I started school. I liked to go to school and studied very well. Аt school I studied many different subjects. Every teacher asked for equal attention to his subject and it was not an easy work to do. I know that all the subjects are important, but still I was always indifferent to exact sciences.
Since childhood I have been fond of reading and good at literature, history and languages. It is not easy to decide what profession to choose.
Many people continue careers of their parents or grandparents but it is not the case for me. My mother is a doctor. My father is a businessman. I decided to enter the Law Academy and now I am a first year student of the Institute of Justice.
During the week I am very busy getting ready for lectures and seminars, so I like to have a rest on weekends. I am not an early riser and I didn’t get up before 9 or even 10 o’clock . I enjoy staying in bed, when I don’t have to hurry anywhere.
I do sports. Tastes differ, and different people do jogging, swimming, diving….. But I adoreplaying tennis. Everyone should do all to stay healthy and choose the sport he is interested in. If one does sports he learns how to lose, and it is not easy. Sport not only helps people to become strong and to develop physically but also makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activity.
I love music as well. We can hear music everywhere: in the streets, in the shops, on TV, over the radio, in the cars, in the parks, everywhere. I think it really doesn’t matter what kind of music you prefer: rock, pop, classical, jazz…. I enjoy listening music because it reflects my moods and emotions. Very often when I am blue, I play my favorite songs and feel much better.
Formulas of disagreement
1. You are wrong. – Вы не правы.
2. You are mistaken. – Вы ошибаетесь.
3. Far from it. – Отнюдь нет. Ничуть.
4. Nothing of the kind. – Далеко не так.
1. I suppose… - Я полагаю, …
2. I think… - Я думаю (считаю, полагаю), …
3. As far as I know… - Насколько я знаю, …
4. As far as I remember… - Насколько я помню, …
b) Agree or disagree with the following statements about Pavlov using formulas of agreement and disagreement, and introductory phrases.
Model: Pavlov started school at the age of 6.
That is not so. As far as I remember, he started school at the age of seven.
1. Pavlov continued his parents’ career.
2. He is very busy during the week.
3. He is an early riser.
4. Pavlov adores sports.
5. Sport makes people more organized.
6. He loves jazz.
Ex. 34Answer the following questions about yourself:
1. What’s your name?
2. How old are you?
3. When and where were you born?
4. What are your parents by profession?
5. Is your family large or small?
6. How many are you in the family?
7. Where do your parents work?
8. Have you got any brothers or sisters? How old are they? What do they do?
9. What were your favorite subjects at school?
10. Why did you decide to enter the Law Academy?
Most of the people have hobbies. Some of them collect stamps, dolls, postcards, cars and what not. Others have a passion for music, painting, dancing and so on. A hobby can help you become a harmoniously developed person, be always in high spirits, and enrich you inner world.
An interesting activity, which gives you pleasure and joy, may become your second occupation. A successfully chosen hobby helps you to distract your thoughts from work, everyday cares and duties. Moreover, a hobby gives you the sense of fullness of life.
The forms of a hobby may vary. It's quite natural, especially for citizens of towns and cities, to enjoy contacts with nature. The most fascinating hobby may be walking, gardening, fishing, and hunting. Collecting things is also a widespread hobby. The objects of collecting may be rare books, postcards, stamps and so on. It should be noted that collecting is not an idleand useless pastime, as many persons think, but it is a very useful and fascinating activity.
Some people prefer active entertainmentand enjoyment and not passive one. They like different kinds of sports such as skiing, swimming, playing volleyball. Reading is the activity that gives people knowledge and teaches them to live.
People in other countries may have hobbies which may seem exotic to us, for example scuba diving, bungee jumping, snorkeling and bird watching.
Hobby is of great importance to the life of people. It brings you happiness and intense satisfaction.
Ex. 35 Language Focus. Link words, likes/dislikes + -ing
Read the text and try to connect two or three short sentences to make one longer sentence. Use link words:but, so, though, because.
James Bond is an officer in the Secret Intelligence Service. He is very famous. He is a super-spy. He is rather eccentric. He likes to attract people's attention. He dislikes it when people ask him many questions. He prefers to drink coffee. Bond enjoys using firearms. The tasks given to him are very difficult. He likes his job.
Ex. 36Circle T (true) or F (false).
1. James Bond likes drinking tea. T F
2. He hates using firearms. T F
3. He likes his job. T F
4. He is not an eccentric person. T F
5. He enjoys talking to people. T F
Ex. 37Read the dialogues. Learn by heart two of them and practice with your partner. Think of your own dialogues.
1. - Let's stay at home for the weekend.
- If we go to the country, we'll get up early. I hate getting up early.
- So do I. But I don't mind spending weekend in the country.
2. - I love wearing trendy clothes.
- So do 1. But they're too expensive.
- I agree with you. But I don't mind wearing my cousins' clothes.
3. - I don't like having breakfast alone.
- Don't you? I do. I like reading magazines at breakfast.
4. - What are your pet hates?
- I hate it when somebody takes my things without asking. What I can't stand is watching soap operas and listening to loud music.
- Neither can I. I like soft music.
5. - My brother enjoys watching football matches.
- Does he? My brother doesn’t.
6. - Famous people are often a little eccentric. They like wearing bright clothes.
- I think they want to attract attention.
- So do I.
7. - Why is his behavior so eccentric?
- I think he wants to make us talk about him.
- Do you? 1 don't think so. I think he is a strange person.
8. - I don't mind following safety tips.
- Neither do I.
Ex. 38Look at the list of the activities. Say what you like or dislike doing.
I like reading books
a) going to museums
c) surfing the internet
d) having a picnic
e) playing video games
g) eating out
h) visiting other countries
Pre-reading task: Read the text and get ready to say how your family traditions are different from those in the text.
Family is central to the life of all people, I believe. It is the most precious thing for me, because this is where I find love and understanding, and support.
Our family is quite large by modern standards. It consists of four people - my parents, my younger sister and me. My parents are quite young, about 40, and my sister is two years younger than me. My father is a computer programmer. He spends most of his timeat work, so the time when he is home in the evening is something special for my sister and me. He always has something interesting to tell us, we share our problems and secrets with him, and he often gives very good advice. My mother is a children's doctor, and she has more time to spare than my father. There's often a lot to do about the house, but we are always willing to help with the chores, and everything is done quickly and efficiently. The only thing that mother likes to do herself is cooking, though even here we help by peeling potatoes, cutting vegetables, and so on.
Most of all I like our late dinners or early suppers, when we all gather round the table, and the light of the kitchen lamp creates a relaxed and cozy atmosphere. We talk, and joke, and have fun, because we are all friends. Of course, sometimes we have our problems, but they are easily solved by joint efforts.
Sundays are also very nice, if the weather is fine, we go skiing in the park in winter, or to our 'dacha' in summer. In fact, it's just a small cottage on a small plot of land, but v/e like it a lot, and like to work in the garden, planting, digging, gathering strawberries and tomatoes.
That’s about all. I am happy to have such a loving and supportive family, and when I have a family of my own, I will try to make it work on the same lines.
Ex. 39 Grammar Focus 5. A verb + -ing
Complete the sentences with a verb + ing. Mind the spelling.
Model: to take – taking
to stop – stopping
to travel – travelling
to lie – lying
Chat, wash up (2), put, leave, help, go shopping (2), read, sing
Ex. 40Look at the word snake. How many different jobs can you find?
Ex. 41Complete the following quotes with one of the verbs in the box. Match each quote with a job in Ex. 40.
have make run spend take
a) “I _____ a living by telling people how to invest their money.”
b) “I didn’t have to _____ any exams to get this job. It’s noisy, smelly and very badly paid.”
c) “Sometimes I have to _____ very difficult decisions about whether or not to operate.”
d) “I _____ all my time on the telephone. Sometimes I can _____ over three hundred phone calls a day.”
e) “I can’t _____ a day off during the weekend: Saturdays and Sundays are our busiest days.”
f) “The most important objective when you _____ a business is to _____ a profit. Nothing else matters.”
g) “You can _____ a lot of money if you have a hit single. Unfortunately, straight after our first hit we split up.”
Ex. 42Work together as a class. Write up the names of all the jobs that you, your parents and your grandparents have done.
Ex. 43Discuss the following questions.
a) In which job can you earn the most money?
b) In which job do you get the most days of paid holidays?
c) Which job do you have to study longest for?
d) In which job do you get the most training?
e) Which job is the most stressful?
f) Which job is the most useful to society?
Ex. 44Answer the questions of the questionnaire:
HOW AMBITIOUS ARE YOU?
1. In ten years do you hope to
a) be married with a family?
b) have an interesting but not very well-paid job?
c) have a well-paid job that isn’t very interesting?
2. In twenty years’ time do you hope to
a) have enough money to pay your bills?
b) have quite a lot of money?
c) have a lot of money?
3. Here is a list of ten jobs. Which would you like to do? Put 1 next to your favourite, 2 next to your next favorite, etc
4. Is improving your standard of living important to you? Yes/No
5. Do you think people who have money should help people who don’t have money? Yes/No
6. How old do you want to be when you have children?
a) 18 – 22
b) 23 – 26
c) 27 – 30
d) over 30
7. When you are playing a game, do you always want to win? Yes/No
8. Can you tell a white lie? Yes/No
9. Do you think that rich people are happier and more interesting than other people? Yes/No
10. Do you work hard because you want to be successful? Yes/No
11. If you have a job to do, do you do it immediately, or do you wait until the last moment? Yes/No
12. Would you like to have more money than your parents? Yes/No
13. Do you agree with the philosophy “Every man for himself”? Yes/No
14. Do you like hard work? Yes/No
15. Which of the following is most important to you?
Love happiness money health
1. a 0 b5 c10
2. a 0 b5 c10
3. 0 nurse/artist first
2 builder/policeman or policewoman/teacher/journalist first
5 engineer/actor or actress/pop star first
10 politician/accountant first
4. Yes 10 No 0
5. Yes 0 No 10
6. a 0 b2 c5 d10
7. Yes 10 No 0
8. Yes 10 No 0
9. Yes 10 No 0
10. Yes 10 No 0
11. Immediately 10 Last moment 0
12. Yes 10 No 0
13. Yes 10 No 0
14. Yes 10 No 0
15. Love 0 Happiness 5 Money 10 Health 0
0 – 50 You aren’t very ambitious! You are happy with a quiet life.
50 -100 You’re quite ambitious, but you don’t want to work hard!
Over 100 You’re very ambitious! Good luck, and try to be nice to people…
Ex. 45 Speaking.Give your opinion and reasons on one of the questions using phrases for giving opinions:
In my opinion, ...
To my mind, ...
As far as I am concerned, ...
From my point of view, ...
I would say that ...
It seems to me that ...
I have the feeling that
It goes without saying that ...
1. What is a happy family in your opinion? Why?
2. Is it good or bad to be the only child in the family? Why?
3. Do you think that children should follow their parents’ advice in any situation? Why?
4. Has the standard of living changed in Russia? Give some examples.
5. Household duties (cleaning, washing up…) are relaxing and give us pleasure. Do you agree?
6. There are only advantages of being famous. Do you agree?
Ex. 46 Writing. Write a short biography of a famous person according to the model.
A.F. Kony, the famous Russian lawyer, an outstanding judicial orator, a great admirer of Russian literature, was born on the 10th of February, 1844 in St. Petersburg. His father was an outstanding dramatic critic, and his mother was an actress and a writer.
In 1865 he graduated from Law faculty of the Moscow University. From the first years of his work he saw the injustice of the judicial system. Occupying different posts he studied the history of the criminal proceeding in Russia and in Europe and published some works on these problems. Under his chairmanship, the Petersburg court was the first to pronounce a non-guilty verdict in the case of Vera Zasulich. After the 1917 takeover Kony took an active part in the cultural and educational work. He died in September 1927.
HIGHER EDUCATION IN RUSSIA
Higher Education in Russia
Pre-reading task:Scan the text and answer the questions:
1. What is higher education guaranteed and ensured by?
2. What is the higher school admission based on?
3. What are the levels of higher education?
4. What are the requirements for getting the first study degree?
5. What do the programs of higher education include?
6. What fields is the Bachelor’s degree awarded in?
Citizens of Russia have the right to education which is guaranteed by the Constitution and ensured by the broad development of compulsory secondary education, vocational, specialized secondary and higher education, extramural, correspondence and evening courses, also by the provisions of state scholarships, grants and privileges of students.
Higher education is provided by public and non-public (non-state) accredited higher educational institutions/tertiary such as universities, academies and institutes covering a wide range of fields of study.
Higher school entrance is based on the results of the Uniform State Exam usually on three subjects, passed at schools. These subjects are: mathematics, history, the Russian language and the Russian literature.
According to the two level educational system, we have:
· basic higher education-4 years of full time university level study, leading to the Bakalavr’s degree (equivalent to the Bachelor’s degree in the UK and western countries);
· postgraduate higher education- 2 years. After two years of studying post-graduates are entitled to receive the Magistr’s degree (this is equivalent to the Master’s degree in the UK or European countries). After getting the Master’s degree students can continue to study towards the doctoral degree: Kandidat Nauk degree (the first level, equivalent to Ph. D) and Doctor Nauk degree (the second highest level, equivalent to Doctor of Sciences).
These programs include professional and special courses in science, the humanities and social-economic disciplines, professional training, completion of a research paper / project and passing state final exams (degree exams).
Having obtained the Bachelor’s (Bakalavr’s) degree, students may apply for the Master’s degree programmes which are competitive, or continue their studies in the framework of the Specialist’s Diploma programmes.
The Bachelor’s degree is awarded in all fields, except medicine. Diploma project is prepared under the guidance of a scientific supervisor. Students must carry out a year of research (including practice), prepare and defend a thesis which constitute an original contribution and sit for final examinations.
Ex. 9Match the English and Russian words and word-combinations.
Ex.10Match the words to definitions.
Ex. 11Give your opinion on the following topics:
1. a) What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of new two-level education system?
b) Is applying to university easy or stressful in your country?
2. In England university admission is based on the results of the A-level exams (an examination in a particular subject taken in schools in England and Wales usually at the age of 18), but there are a number of steps which many pupils go through in the two years before university. Here are some of the main ones. How many of them are also necessary in your country?
a. Visit the careers office at school.
b. Discuss their choice of universities with their teachers.
c. Send off for brochures from various universities, which describe the university and its courses.
d. Visit the university they are interested in (go to ‘open days’).
e. Apply to the University by filling in a form listing five choices.
f. Take school exams: the results are used to predict A-level results, and are recorded on university applications.
The Ural State Law Academy.
Pre-reading task:Scan the text and say :
- when the Academy was founded;
- how many institutes and faculties it has;
-what specialists it trains
The Ural State Law Academy is a higher educational institution. It includes law oriented institutes, a college, several faculties and other public graduate educational institutions.
The Academy’s main campus is located in the centre of Yekaterinburg. Founded as the law faculty of the Irkutsk State University in 1931, it is one of the largest law schools in the Russian Federation and is commonly ranked among Russia’s most prestigious universities. The USLA has high school admission requirements for its prospective students.
Till 1976 there was only one faculty at the Sverdlovsk Institute of Law - the law faculty. At present, the Academy has four institutes at the day department: the Institute of Procuracy (Prosecutor’s Office), the Institute of Justice, the Institute of Business and Law and the Institute of State and International Law.
There are also part-time and correspondence departments. The Academy is housed in three study buildings / premises with libraries and reading halls where the students can get ready for lectures, tutorials and seminars.
The Teaching Staff.
The Academy possesses a high intellectual potential: over 60 full professors (Doctors of Sciences), more than 180 assistant professors, and many experienced lecturers work at the Academy.
The teaching staff is over 530 people. The Academy is headed by Rector and 3 Vice Rectors (Pro-Rectors). The study methodical and research work is guided by dean’s offices and by different chairs.
The Academy trains judges, prosecutors, advocates / counsels, jurisconsults, investigators and other lawyers. After completing the education our graduates work in different law enforcement organs: at courts, procuracy, Bar, notary offices and also at state and government bodies of different levels and in legal service of the national economy system.
The future work of our graduates is not easy, so they have to learn hard to be ready for that work and study many different subjects which are important for it: criminal law, civil law, criminology and others. The students also learn some humane, theoretical, optional and additional subjects, such as Theory of State and Law, Philosophy, Logics etc.
The student body of all the departments taken together numbers more than 14 thousand people. Our students are to take tests and exams on each subject included into the curriculum. As the academic year is divided into two semesters, terminal test and exams are held in January and in June. At the end of the whole course of studies the students take degree examinations. Those who have inclination for research may enter the post-graduate courses. The time table of lectures, tutorials and seminars is regulated by a study schedule.
Ex. 12Answer the questions:
1. What can you say about the structure of the Academy?
2. What do you know about the teaching staff/faaculty of the Academy?
3. What are the types of subjects the students study?
4. How many semesters is the academic year divided into and when are tests and exams held?
5. Where do our graduates work after completing their education?
Ex.13 Say whether it is true or false:
1.There are only ten higher schools/tertiaries in Ekaterinburg.
2.The Law Academy was founded in 1940 as a law faculty.
3.The teaching staff/faculty numbers more than 500 people.
4.The Academy trains different law specialities such as judges, counsels, jurisconsults and other lawyers.
5.The students study many different legal subjects.
6.At the end of the course of study the students take terminal tests and exams.
7.The student body of all the departments taken together numbers more than 14000 people.
Ex. 14 Complete the sentences with the words and phrases from the list below:
a) qualification e) rector, vice-rectors
b) faculties f) individuality
c) colleges g) law-enforcement organs
1. There are several … at our Academy.
2. Cambridge University consists of 24 different…
3. Specialist’s … will determine the scientific and technical progress of the country.
4. Colleges give a specialized training and at the Academy / University the … is wider.
5. The Academy is headed by…
6. Each institute has its own character and …
7. The graduates from the Institute of Procuracy are required to work in …
Ex. 15Match the beginning of the sentence with the ending.
1. At present a distance education system
2. Higher law education trains students
3. If the results of the exams are good
4. Higher education in our country
5. Students from different regions
6. Each group has a tutor
7. Study, methodical and research work
a) who practically guides the students through the whole course of studies
b) students get grants
c) to the work in law enforcement organ such as procuracy and courts
d) is introduced in our country
e) is accessible and free of charge for some students
f) study at the full-time, correspondence and evening departments
g) is guided by dean’s offices and by different departments.
Ex. 16 Complete the sentences with a suitable word:
runs is guided goes are located is headed
is possesses has is situated moved into
1. The foundation of our Academy … back to April 1931.
2. In 1934 the Institute of Law … Sverdlovsk.
3. The USLA … in Ekaterinburg.
4. The Academy … 4 Institutes at the day department.
5. Besides the full-time department, there … also the part-time department and the correspondence department.
6. The Academy … a high intellectual potential.
7. The Academy … by Rector and Vice-Rectors.
8. The study, methodical and research work … by the dean’s offices and different departments.
Pre-reading task:Answer the following questions:
1. Where can one get higher education in Great Britain?
2. Would you like to study at any college in Britain? Why?
Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Great Britain. “Oxbridge” is the term which is used to refer to them collectively.
Nowadays they continue to attract many of the best brains. Both universities grew gradually, as federations of independent colleges most of which were founded in the 14, 15 and 16 centuries. In both universities new colleges have been established, for example, Green College, Oxford (1979) and Robinson College, Cambridge (1977).
The colleges of Oxford and Cambridge are essentially residential institutions and they mainly use a tutorial method. The students work under direction of a tutor who directs a group of 10-15 students. Each student is to write essays and papers on the subject he/she is studying and submitthem to the tutor regularly for correction and discussion.
Sport is a part of student’s life at Oxbridge. English students are especially keen on football and boat races. Social life is highly developed at English colleges. The students edit college newspapers, take part in various amateur theatricals and enjoy discussions in their debating clubs.
The universities have over a hundred societies and clubs, enough for every interest one could imagine.
Ex.18 Answer the questions using the information from the text.
1. What does “Oxbridge” stand for?
2. Are the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge residential institutions?
3. What does a “tutorial method” mean?
4. What can you say about sport and social life at English colleges?
Ex. 19 Visit websites www.4icu.org or www.wikipedia.org to find more information about British universities.
Ex.20 Speaking. Pair work.Work with a partner or in groups of 3-4. Roleplay or discuss the following situations:
1. A Russian and an English student are exchanging information on the variety of higher educational institutions in their countries.
2. Two students of the Academy are discussing their life. One of them is enthusiastic about everything, the other is dissatisfied grumbler and finds fault with every little thing.
3. A student is speaking with a friend of his/hers about the programme and the course of study he/she is taking.
4. The difference between the systems of higher education in Britain and Russia.
5. Exchange information on social life of the students in your higher school, on sport and amateur activity.
Ex. 21 Speaking. Speak on what you think may surprise a Russian student at an English University:
b) teaching methods:
c) students’ extra-curricular activities. Use the following expressions:
· In comparison with
· It goes without saying that
· An advantage of
· What attracts me most of all is
· The best thing about +Ving is that
· It is not surprising that
· It’s common knowledge that
· I can’t but mention that
AND NORTHERN IRELAND
Ex. 1 Pronunciation practice. Read and practice the pronunciation of the following words and word-combinations:
Europe, the British Isles, the Atlantic Ocean, the Irish Sea, the Thames, the Severn, vegetables, islands, Northern Ireland, surface, mountainous, descendants, manufacture, natural resources, textiles, equipment, pharmaceuticals.
a)Scan the text andanswer the following questions:
1. What is the full official name of Great Britain?
2. What parts does the UK consist of?
3. What is the territory of Great Britain?
4. How many people inhabit the UK?
b) Read the text, divide it into parts and give headings .
Great Britain is situated on the British Isles. The island of Great Britain together with the neighboring minor islands and the northeastern part of Ireland constitute the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The total area of Great Britain is 244,000 square kilometers. The west coast of the country is washed by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, the east coast is washed by the North Sea. Great Britain is separated from France by the English Channel which is 32 km. wide. The seas surroundingGreat Britain are not very deep. The surface of England and Ireland is flat, but the surface of Scotland and Wales is mountainous. In Wales, there are the Cambrian Mountains, the highest peak of which is Snowdon. It is 3,560 feet high (nearly 1,000 meters). In Scotland, the main chain of mountains is called the Grampians, its highest peak is Ben Nevis (4,400 feet high). The mountainous northern part of Scotland is called the Highlands.
The rivers of Great Britain are short. The Thames, the Severn and the Clyde are the most important. There are many beautiful lakes in Great Britain, the largest part of them is in the Lake District in northwestern England.
The climate of Great Britain is typically maritime with frequent rains and strong winds. The Gulf Stream makes the climate mild and damp.
The population of the UK is about 60 million people (estimate 2001). The country is more densely populated than most countries. About nine - tenths of the people live in cities and towns. Most of the British are descendants of many early peoples who invadedBritain. These are the Celts, Romans, Angles, Saxons, Scandinavians, and Normans. Since the late 1940’s many immigrants from Commonwealth countries have settled in the United Kingdom. Most of them came from the West Indies, Asia, and Africa.
The largest cities of Great Britain are: London, the capital, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Cardiff, and Edinburgh.
The UK is one of the world’s great manufacturing and trading nations. The country’s farms produce only about two – thirds of the food needed by the people. Vegetables are grown in all parts of the country, especially in the south. Sheep breeding and cattle breeding are also developed in Great Britain.
Except for coal, low-grade iron ore, natural gas and oil, the UK has few natural resources. The UK also produces heavy machinery for industry, farming and mining; railway equipment, household appliances, and machine tools. An increasing percentage of the UK’s manufactured goods consists of electronic equipment.
The UK is also famous for its chemical industry, pharmaceuticals, pottery industry. The UK is one of the world’s chief centers of printing and publishing.
Ex. 2Answer the following questions:
1. Where is Great Britain located ?
2. What are the two large islands called?
3. What seas and oceans surround the territory of Great Britain?
4. What can you say about the rivers of Great Britain?
5. What mountains do you know in Great Britain?
6. What influences the climate of Great Britain?
7. What natural resources is the country rich in?
8. What facts can prove that the UK is still a leading industrial nation?
Ex. 3 Test yourself:
1.The UK consists of… parts.
2. … is the most closely related with England.
c) Northern Ireland
3. The total area of the UK is … square kilometers.
4. Great Britain is separated from … by the English Channel.
b) Republic of Ireland
5. … is Northern Ireland’s capital and largest city.
6. There are two official languages in Wales: English and … .
7. William Shakespeare was born in … .
8. Almost all Prime Ministers of the UK studied in the …
a) Eton College
b) Winchester College
c) St. Paul’s School
9. … is the place where “The Beatles” began their musical career.
10. The most important rivers of Great Britain are the Thames, the Severn and the …
11. The climate of the UK is typically … .
12. The population of the UK is about … million people.
13. … is the capital of Scotland.
14. The official residence of the Sovereign which is situated in the countryside is …
a) Buckingham Palace
b) Holy rood Palace
c) Windsor Castle
Did You Know?
• Russia is on two continents – Europe and Asia. But only 20% of Russia is in Europe.
• Russia has a population of 147 million people.
•Almost four times as many people live in cities as in villages. The 12 biggest cities have a population of over 1 million people each.
• Russian people are not always a Slavic type. They do not all have blue eyes and fair hair. Russian people may look like Spaniards, Greeks, Jews, Turks, Koreans or Mongolians.
• Russian people are part of a big community of more than 100 nations and ethnic groups. There are Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Chuvash, Bashkir, Belarusians and Mordovins, and others.
• Everyone in Russia speaks Russian as the official language. Local languages are very important too. Children study them at school.
• There are five main religions in Russia. Orthodox Christians, Catholics, Muslims, Jews, and Buddhists live side by side all over the country.
Ex. 15Say whether the statements are true or false. If they are false, correct the sentence:
1. The population of Russia is 140 million people.
2. There are 90 nations and ethnic groups in Russia.
3. Russian is the official language of the Russian Federation.
4. There are more than five main religions in Russia.
5. Children do not study local languages at school.
Ex. 16Prove that:
1. The Russian federation is the largest country of the world.
2. Russia is connected with the Atlantic Ocean.
3. Our country is washed by three oceans.
4. There is a natural border between Europe and Asia.
5. There are various types of climate.
Ex. 17Find additional information in Internet and make short reports about Russia and its people.
Ex. 18Answer the questions to make up a story about any English-speaking country (the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand).
1. What other names are given to the country?
2. Where is the country situated?
3. What languages are spoken in the country?
4. How many states or territories or provinces are included into the country?
5. What seas and oceans is the country washed by?
6. What natural resources can be found in the country?
7. What industries are developed in the country?
8. What agrarian products are produced in the country?
WRITING A LETTER
Sample Informal Letter
In the friendly letter format, your address, date, the closing, signature, and printed name are all indented to the right half of the page. Also the first line of each paragraph is indented.
1. Your Address: (Not needed if the letter is printed on paper with a letterhead already on it.): All that is needed is your street address on the first line and the city, state and zip on the second line.
2. Date: Put the date on which the letter was written in the format Month Day Year i.e. August 30, 2003. Skip a line between the date and the salutation.
3. Salutation: Usually starts out with Dear so and so, or Hi so and so. Note: There is a comma after the end of the salutation (you can use an exclamation point also if there is a need for some emphasis).
4. Body: The body is where you write the content of the letter; the paragraphs should be single spaced with a skipped line between each paragraph. Skip 2 lines between the end of the body and the closing.
5. Closing: Let the reader know that you are finished with your letter; usually ends with Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Thank you, and so on. Note that there is a comma after the end of the closing and only the first word in the closing is capitalized.
6. Signature: Your signature will go in this section, usually signed in black or blue ink with a pen. Skip a line after your signature and the P.S.
7. P.S.: If you want to add anything additional to the letter you write a P.S. (post script) and the message after that. You can also add a P.P.S after that and a P.P.P.S. after that and so on.
Ex. 19 Writing.Write a letter to your friend. Describe the city you live in. Ask your friend to write you about his native city or town. Exchange your letters with your group mates.
Parliament is the supreme legislative body of the British state and can in theory pass lawsrelating to any aspect of the political, economic, legal, social, and cultural life of the United Kingdom.
The British Parliament is one of the oldest Parliaments in the world. It has existed since 1265. It consists of two chambers known as the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and the Queen as its head. Parliament and the monarch have different roles in the government of the country, and they only meet together on symbolic occasionssuch as coronation of a new monarch or the opening of Parliament.
In reality, the House of Commons is the only one of the three which is true power. It is here that new bills are introduced and debated,and if a Bill is passed,it is sentto the House of Lords to be approved,and finally to the monarch to be signed.Only then it becomes an Act of Parliament, a law.
The duration of Parliament is five years. The life of Parliament is divided into sessions.A new session of Parliament opens every year.
The main functions of Parliament are: 1) to make laws regulating the life of the community; 2) to provide moneyfor government, through taxation; 3) to examine government policy, administration and spending; 4) to debate political questions.
Ex. 2Say whether the following statements are true or false.
1. The real power belongs to the Queen, that’s why the UK is a monarchy.
2. Members of the Government are appointed by the Prime Minister.
3. In the British formulation, the sovereign reigns but doesn't rule.
4. The British Parliament has existed since 1665.
5. Parliament and the Monarch play different roles in the government.
6. New bills are introduced and then signed by the Monarch.
7. The only function of Parliament is to make laws.
Ex. 3Look through the sentences of the exercise and find the information which was not mentioned in the text.
1. A parliamentary monarchy means that the country has a monarch as its Head of State.
2. A member of Parliament who has sat in the House of Commons for the longest period is called “the Father of the Commons".
3. The duration of the British Parliament is five years.
4. A romantic and rather mysterious person “Black Rod” brings together the Queen, her Prime Minister and ministers, members of the Lords and finally members of the Commons to the ceremony of the Opening of Parliament to listen to the Monarch’s Speech from the Throne.
5. The chairman of the House of Lords is the Lord Speaker.
6. The House of Commons is presided over by the Speaker.
7. The Queen and the Royal family exert great influence on the life of the country.
8. The Lord Speaker sits on a special seat called “the Woolsack”, the symbol of welfare of the country.
Government of the UK
Read the following text and say who the country is really governed by.
The UK is a constitutional monarchy. The head of the state is the monarch, who reigns but does not govern. The country is actually ruled by a Cabinet of democratically elected officials called ministers.
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