Обговорення думок, погодження та заперечення



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Обговорення думок, погодження та заперечення



Listen to conversations while reading. Find out who are the speakers, what are their roles and targets.

A: Well, if you ask me, there’s too much trouble with getting information via Internet. Spam and viruses are everywhere!

B: Oh, I’m not sure if I agree with you. It’s not too bad. You can filter out spam with special software. And there are a lot of excellent antivirus programs nowadays.

C: I think you’re partly right, but still I spend too much time and money on things like that. As for me I’d like our state toughened up anti-hackers laws.

A: You know, that’s exactly what I think. We need stronger laws and stronger responsibility.

B: Don’t make me laugh! Internet is a worldwide web. How our government can force foreign hackers to be more peaceful and law-abiding?

C: Don’t you think that we have quite enough of our own hackers. Anyway, you know as they say: “A good beginning is a half the battle.”

У наведеному діалозі подані зразки стандартних фраз під час розмови, що передують згоді та запереченню. Ще декілька прикладів:

Згода:

I couldn’t agree more.

That’s a good point.

That’s just what I was thinking.

Незгода:

That’s quite true, but…

Well, you have a point there, but…

Maybe, but…

Якщо ви близько знайомі зі співрозмовником, можливі інші вислови, особливо коли це стосується заперечень:

Are you kidding? (No kidding!)

Come off it!

I know that’s not true.

Exercise. Discuss with your classmates some moot questions. Try to express as many points of view as possible. Here is a list of possible items:

Hardware could be damage by computer viruses.

Computers will destroy human civilization.

Humans are not alone in Universe.

Attending of classes is a waste of time.

Cloning must be banned.

Вправи для самостійної роботи

Exercise 1. Translate the text from pages 125-126 into Ukrainian (Russian).

Exercise 2. Change sentences using Gerund. Add preposition if need be.

Example: When I received a message, I prepared an answer at once. = After receiving a message I prepared an answer at once.

1) I remember that I have red this paper.

2) While he was writing a new program, he made a few mistakes.

3) After he tried a lot of passwords, he finally found the right one.

4) You can improve your skills in grammar if you make more exercises.

5) After entering the room he said hello and shook hands.

Exercise 3. Translate into English using the word ‘most’.

1) Стаття в останньому номері журналу дуже цікава.

2) Це надзвичайно цікава стаття.

3) Це найцікавіша стаття останнього номера журналу.

4) Більша частина статей в цьому номері журналу написана учасниками конференції.

5) Більшість з нас думає так (think so).

Lesson 6

ВИВЧЕННЯ ТЕРМІНОЛОГІЇ ЗА ТЕМОЮ МОДУЛЯ

Exercise 1. Answer the questions:

What types of transistors do you know? How different are they?

Why metal-oxide transistors are used in contemporary memory microchips?

What are the names of control elements in field-effect transistors?

Why field-effect transistors are more economical in comparison with bipolar transistors?

Is there any limit to miniaturization of microchip?

Exercise 2. Work in pairs or in small groups. First student will propose some nouns concerning the topic “transistors and integrated circuits”. His/her partner has to give adjectives fitted them.

Example: transistor - bipolar, point-contact, junction, field-effect, metal-oxide, unipolar, miniature, compact, thermo-stable, powerful, effective, etc.

Граматичні відомості

Герундій або інфінітив – що обрати?

 

Функції інфінітива і герундія часто близькі і навіть збігаються:

 

It began to rain. = It began raining.

I started to work. = I started working.

 

Після деяких дієслів звичайно використовують чи герундій чи інфінітив. Наприклад, за дієсловом to plan (планувати) слідує інфінітив:

 

I plan to pass the test.

 

За деякими дієсловами спочатку слідує іменник чи займенник, а потім інфінітив:

 

I told him to join us.

 

За такими дієсловами, як to avoid (запобігати) звичайно слідує не інфінітив, а герундій:

 

He avoided looking at me.

В табл. 12 наведені деякі дієслова, що часто використовуються, а також дієслівні форми, що рекомендуються після них.

Таблиця 12

Дієслова, які використовуються з інфінітивом і герундієм

Verb + infinitive Verb + pro(noun) + infinitive Verb + gerund Verb + infinitive/ gerund
agree (to) appear ask decide hope intend mean need offer plan promise pretend refuse seem want would like advice (someone to) allow ask expect force invite need order permit require remind tell want warn would like avoid consider delay discuss enjoy finish go* have* quit mention mind keep postpone stop*** suggest begin can’t stand continue hate like love prefer start     forget** regret** remember** try**

 

*Вислови, в яких використовуються ці дієслова з наступним герундієм часто є ідіомами, наприклад, to go fishing – рибалити;

**Значення висловів під час використання цих дієслів з інфінітивом і герундієм дещо різняться:

forget + inf. – забути про обов’язки, + gerund – про минуле;

regret + inf. – жалкувати про сказане, + gerund – про минуле;

remember + inf. – пам’ятати про обов’язок, + gerund – про минуле;

try + inf. – пробувати, + gerund – випробовувати.

***stop + gerund – припинити щось робити; stop + infinitive – зупинитись, аби щось зробити.

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the Infinitive or Gerund form of the verb in parenthesis.

1) Students played the make-believe game at the last lesson. Peter pretended (be) an expert in electronics, and the rest pretended (be) beginners asking the questions.

2) Our classmates plan (go, fish) this weekend.

3) Peter would like (attend) next student conference in Kharkiv.

4) She can’t stand (sit) at the desk all day.

5) Why don’t you stop (read) this? I don’t believe a word of it.

6) Let’s stop (drink) something. I’m thirsty.

7) John has bought a new computer. He appears (have) a lot of money.

Exercise 2. Employ the words from the Chart 9 in sentences of your own. Use Gerund or Infinitive.

Exercise 3. Translate sentences paying attention to the differences in meaning of Gerund and Infinitive forms.

1) My phone is out of order. It needs repairing.

2) I can’t read the disk. The drive needs cleaning.

3) I failed the test. I need to take more exercises.

4) Can anyone help me move this piano? I can’t do it myself.

5) Be serious! I can’t help laughing!

6) He remembered meeting her at a party once.

7) Did you remember to lock the back door?

8) I hope Nick remembers to buy something to eat and drink.

9) They do try to communicate with us, and they expect us to understand.

10) “My cactus is dying.” – “Have you tried putting it in a sunnier room?”

Комунікативна практика

Поради з використанням звороту “had better…”

У мовленні для порад дуже широко використовується сполучення had better (скорочена форма ‘d better).

I think you'd betterask Peter first. – Вважаю, що ти мав би спочатку спитати у Петра.

You had better not tell him. – Краще б ти йому це не казав.

Інколи у мовленні better ставлять на перше місце, у цьому випадку had зникає, але загальний зміст фрази не змінюється:

Better just check they are okay. – Слід спочатку переконатись, що з ними все гаразд.

Порада може даватися і собі:

I'd better go and get ready. – Мені краще піти та підготуватись.

Майте на увазі, що у певних ситуаціях “поради” можуть сприйматися як прямі погрози:

You'd better keep your mouth shut about this. – Раджу тобі тримати язика за зубами.

Вправи для самостійної роботи

Exercise 1. Translate the following text into Ukrainian (Russian).

During the late 1960s a new electronic technique, the integrated circuit, began to replace the transistor in complex electronic equipment. Although roughly the same size as a transistor, an integrated circuit performs the function of 15 to 20 transistors. A natural development from the integrated circuit in the 1970s has been the production of medium-, large-, and very large-scale integrated circuits (MSI, LSI, and VLSI), which have permitted the building of a compact computer, or minicomputer, containing disk storage units and the communication-control systems on the same frame.

The so-called microprocessor, which came into use in the mid-1970s, is a refinement of the LSI. As a result of further miniaturization, a single microprocessor can incorporate the functions of a number of printed-circuit boards and deliver the performance of the central processing unit of a much larger computer in a hand-held, battery-powered microcomputer.

Most integrated circuits are small pieces, or “chips,” of silicon, perhaps 2 to 4 sq mm (0.08 to 0.15 sq in) long, in which transistors are fabricated. Photolithography enables the designer to create tens of thousands of transistors on a single chip by proper placement of the many n-type and p-type regions. These are interconnected with very small conducting paths during fabrication to produce complex special-purpose circuits. Such integrated circuits are called monolithic because they are fabricated on a single crystal of silicon. Chips require much less space and power and are cheaper to manufacture than an equivalent circuit built by employing individual transistors.

Building a chip typically requires several hundred manufacturing steps that take weeks to complete. Each step must be executed perfectly if the chip is to work. The conditions are demanding. For example, because a speck of dust can ruin a chip, the manufacturing has to be done in a “clean room” containing less than one submicron particle of dust per cubic foot of air (in contrast, the average living room has between 100,000 and one million particles per cubic foot of air). Much of the equipment needed for making chips embodies the highest of high technology, with the result that chip factories—which cost between $1 billion and $2 billion for a state-of-the-art facility—are among the costliest of manufacturing plants.

Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences into English using Gerund.

Менделєєв зробив великий внесок в науку (to make fundamental contribution), відкривши закон періодичності (the Law of Periodicity).

Я хочу розпочати з демонстрації декількох таблиць.

Нам пощастило досягнути успіху завдяки вдосконаленню (to improve) апаратури.

Дозвольте мені закінчити, продемонструвавши вам низку слайдів, на яких наведені згадані зразки.

Exercise 3. Complete sentences using either the Infinitive or the Gerund. In some cases both forms are possible.

 

1) You should avoid…

2) We invited …

3) They like…

4) I could continue…

5) He has begun…

6) He started…

7) Thank you for…

Lesson 7



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